套袋材質與網室栽培對‘珍珠’番石榴果實品質及貯運能力之影響暨評估溫度逆境指標之研究

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論文名稱: 套袋材質與網室栽培對‘珍珠’番石榴果實品質及貯運能力之影響暨評估溫度逆境指標之研究
研究生姓名: 王亞勤
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2012
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 番石榴;套袋;貯運能力;逆境;葉綠素螢光;guava;bagging;storage life;stress;chlorophyll fluorescence
摘要: 第一章 台灣番石榴(Psidium guajava L.)栽培在夏季常有果實生長速度快導致糖度低,風味不足等問題,此外‘珍珠’番石榴果實易軟化及不耐貯運,本試驗目的在探討提升‘珍珠’番石榴品質之方法,觀察不同套袋與栽培方式對‘珍珠’番石榴果實生長、內部組成之影響,並進一步調查果實品質及貯運能力。 套袋試驗以聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網及白色紙袋兩種材料進行,在果實達園藝成熟度後採收。結果顯示,同時間套袋處理之果實以紙袋成熟速度較慢,糖度以及維他命C含量顯著高於聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網處理者。而後調查不同套袋與栽培方式對果實生長發育之影響,紙袋套袋處理果實兩次快速生長期皆慢於聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網處理者。網室栽培會延緩果實生長速率,且果寬生長明顯低於網室外聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網處理者,但可增加果實硬度,唯病蟲害嚴重;另外,果實礦物元素含量隨果實生長逐漸下降,全可溶性糖則隨生長發育逐漸增加,而網室內、外套聚乙烯塑膠袋內襯白色舒果網處理隨果實生長,元素濃度下降、碳水化合物累積顯著快於裸果處理。本研究另以兩種套袋材質處理之果實模擬外銷貯運流程。七、八分成熟度之果實以PE袋加白色舒果網包裝,置於1℃低溫檢疫14天,5℃貯運7天,25℃貯架壽命3天。發現隨貯藏時間增加,果實硬度與葉綠素螢光參數Fv/Fm呈現下降的趨勢,而a*值上升,顯示果實出現褐化情形;果實外觀及果肉方面,外銷模擬流程結束後,果皮與維管束褐化以套白色紙袋處理者較PE袋內襯舒果網者輕微。 第二章 生長溫度是影響作物生長相當重要的一個環境因子,不論是何種溫度逆境對植物之生長發育皆會造成影響,而光合作用對溫度逆境相當敏感,因此,本試驗探討九個番石榴品種葉片在高溫與低溫逆境下葉綠素螢光Fv/Fm之變化,且進一步探討在在逆境下葉綠素螢光參數Fv/Fm之非破壞性測定與電解質滲漏率、呼吸率及乙烯釋放率之相關性,並比較離體葉片與花粉及整株植株在溫度逆境下之影響是否相近,期能建立逆境下快速篩選之生理指標方法。 結果顯示,在高溫部份,番石榴葉片在30、35、40、45、50、55℃下,葉綠素螢光參數Fv/Fm會隨處理時間增加而逐漸下降,其中又以45、50、55℃下降最為明顯。55℃1小時葉片即失去光合作用活性,而50℃則在2小時處理後,Fv/Fm可區分出不同品種之耐性。依此結果顯示,高溫下葉片葉綠素螢光Fv/Fm較高耐高溫之番石榴品種為‘夏威夷’,而Fv/Fm下降最多之不耐高溫番石榴品種為‘珍珠’。電解質滲漏率方面,兩品種隨熱處理時間增加而逐漸上升,其中‘珍珠’品種電解質滲漏率高於‘夏威夷’;而呼吸率及乙烯釋放率方面,兩品種在50℃處理24小時皆有熱傷害的情形發生,會隨熱處理時間增加而逐漸被抑制,而‘夏威夷’品種在被抑制的情形下仍能維持較高的表現。低溫方面,番石榴葉片在12、9、5、3、1、-3℃下葉綠素螢光僅‘馬來’品種會隨處理時間增加而下降,但低溫處理24小時後回溫到25℃,可區分出低溫下番石榴各品種葉片之光合作用活性。依結果顯示‘榕葉’為Fv/Fm表現耐低溫,而‘馬來’為Fv/Fm表現較不耐低溫之品種。電解質滲漏率在1℃24小時回溫到25℃處理兩品種無差異,而‘馬來’在1℃72小時處理後會明顯高於25℃之對照組。而呼吸率及乙烯釋放率方面,兩品種在1℃24小時處理後都出現低溫傷害,呼吸率在回溫時快速上升,而兩品種在室溫下乙烯生成量即有所差異。 在花粉試驗中,結果顯示40℃高溫會抑制各品種的花粉萌芽,但‘紅葉’與‘榕葉’在40℃花粉仍有萌芽能力。比較不同低溫下花粉發芽率,9℃時,多數品種花粉發芽率明顯受到抑制,僅‘榕葉’品種花粉發芽率比15℃高,顯示9℃低溫對其萌芽率並無明顯影響。 而在植株試驗中,以‘珍珠’及‘西瓜紅心’品種嫁接植株在50℃下處理12小時,兩品種葉綠素螢光差異不明顯,直到回復第7天時‘西瓜紅心’葉綠素螢光高於‘珍珠’品種,而植株外觀亦在回復第7天時兩品種呈現顯著差異,顯示葉綠素螢光參數Fv/Fm可代表植株受高溫逆境影響之程度。chapter 1 Taiwan’s high summer temperatures lead to the increased fruit growth rate, decreased fruit sugar content and poor flavor of ‘Jen-Ju’ guava (Psidium guajava L.). ‘Jen-Ju’ fruit is the major cultivar of the guava production in Taiwan, but it suffers from softened texture and short storage life during the summer season. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the effects of bagging materials and net-house cultivation on the fruit growth, quality and storage life of guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. Jen-Ju Bar). ‘Jen-Ju’ guava trees were cultured under two field conditions: open field and net housing. The fruit was bagged with PE + EPNS (expanded polystyrene net sleeve) or white paper material. Guava was harvested in the summer season. The fruit that was bagged with white paper, showed a slower growth rate and maturity, but their total soluble solids and vitamin C was higher than that bagged with PE+EPNS. The fruit bagged with white paper had two fast growth stages, which lagged behind that of fruit bagged with PE+EPNS. The fruit growth rate, especially fruit width were delayed under net-house cultivation. The fruit bagged with PE+EPNS in net-house, had smaller fruit width than those bagged with PE+EPNS out of net-house. In addition, the fruit firmness was higher in net-house. Fruit mineral element content decreased during fruit growth. On the other hand, total soluble sugar increased. The mineral element concentration of the fruit bagged with PE + EPNS (in and out of net-house) decreased faster than in fruit not bagged during growth. The storage of exported guava was simulated and the quality of fruit bagged with different material during the summer season was observed. The fruit was stored at 1℃ for 14 days, then moved to 5℃ for 7 days, and finally, warmed up to 25℃ for 3 days. When storage time increased, the fruit firmness and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm decreased but a* value significantly increased. After storage, the fruit bagged with white paper showed less fruit peel and pulp browning than those bagged with PE+EPNS. chapter 2 Temperature is one of the important environmental factors that effects growth and development of crop. Photosynthesis is very sensitive to temperature, and this study investigated the changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm of nine guava cultivars leaves exposed to temperature stresses. Then the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm and electrolyte leakage, ethylene production, and respiration were determined. Additionally, this study, compared the effects of temperature stress on the physiological responses of detached leaves, pollen germination, and the plant appearance. In high temperature stress experiments, guava leaves were treated at 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55℃ for different periods of time. The results showed that chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm tended to decrease when temperature of treatment was increased, especially to 45, 50 and 55℃. After 1 hour at 55℃, leaves completely lost photosynthesis activity. However, after a 2 hour exposure at 50℃ the rate of photosynthesis was used to identify the heat sensitive or heat tolerant cultivars. For chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm the results showed that, ‘Hawaii’ and ‘Jen-Ju’ guava were the heat tolerant and heat sensitive cultivars, respectively. Both cultivars showed an increase in electrolyte leakage when the duration of treatment was increased, and the electrolyte leakage of ‘Jen-Ju’ was higher than ‘Hawaii’. Ethylene production and respiration rate of ‘Hawaii’ were higher than ‘Jen-Ju’, but the ethylene production and respiration rate of both were inhibited when the duration of the treatment was increased. For low temperature stress(12, 9, 5, 3, 1 and -3℃), chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm decreased only in ‘ML’ guava cultivar when leaves were exposed to 1 and -3℃. Cold tolerant cultivars can be identified by examining their photosynthesis activity at low temperature stress treatment, a 24 hour treatment at 1℃ followed by rewarming at 25℃. For chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm the results showed that, ‘S’ and ‘ML’ guava cultivar were the cold tolerant and cold sensitive cultivar, respectively. There was no difference in electrolyte leakage of the two cultivars when disks were rewarmed at 25℃ after 24 hour at 1℃. Electrolyte leakage of ‘ML’ leaf disks increased when rewarmed at 25℃ after treatment at 1℃ for 72 hour, and was higher than the control. The changes in ethylene production rate and respiration rate significantly increased after leaf disks were warmed up to 25℃ which meant both cultivars were injured by treatment at 1℃ for 24 hour. However, the ethylene production rate was different in different cultivars. The effect of temperature on pollen germination was investigated. The results showed that, pollen germination was seriously inhibited at 40℃, but some of the pollen from ‘Hong-Yeh’ and ‘L’ still germinated. On the other hand, pollen germination of all the cultivars was seriously inhibited at 9℃. Only the ‘Strawberry’ cultivar was unaffected by low temperature treatment as its pollen germination at 9℃ was higher than that at 15℃. ‘Jen-Ju’ and ‘Rainbow’ grafted seedlings were treated at 50℃ for 12 hours. The results showed that chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm of ‘Rainbow’ was higher than ‘Jen-Ju’ at the seventh day of recovery. ‘Jen-Ju’ guava plant significantly withered at the seventh day of recovery. It seems that the value of chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm can represent the extent of the effect of high temperature on guava plant.
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