夜間燈照與根砧對‘巨峰’葡萄生長及果實品質之影響

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論文名稱: 夜間燈照與根砧對‘巨峰’葡萄生長及果實品質之影響
研究生姓名: 葉文彬
指導教授姓名: 謝慶昌
出版年: 2020
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 夜間燈照;發光二極體;淹水;線蟲;嫁接親和性;貯藏品質;night lighting;light-emitting diodes;waterlogging;nematodes;graft compatibility;storage quality
摘要: 臺灣設施栽培‘巨峰’葡萄,新梢生長至著果期間利用夜間燈照技術,可將產期調節於3-5月生產,本研究目為找出夜間燈照促進葡萄新梢生育及著果之生理反應。另外,近年臺灣極端天候(強降雨)出現頻率提高且強度增加,露天栽培接近採收期為梅雨季,持續強降雨園區淹水及線蟲危害根系,導致葡萄生長勢衰弱。以‘SO4’、‘8B’、‘420A’、‘3309’、‘5C’、‘1202C’及‘蜜紅’為根砧材料,以植株生長及葉綠素螢光,作為淹水及線蟲逆境評估指標,並調查對植株生長及果實品質之影響,選出適合臺灣氣候條件之良好根砧。夜間燈照結果顯示,省電燈泡、LED燈紅光及白光著果率顯著較對照組提高10.2-12.4%,果穗重量較對照組及LED藍光高52-146.7%。LED燈紅光、白光及省電白光,增加結果枝長度顯著高於對照組,並增加2.0-2.6節。單一結果枝總葉片之總碳水化合物及磷、鈣,鎂、鐵、錳、鋅及硼等營養元素含量顯著高於對照組。 淹水21天期間‘巨峰’、‘8B’、‘420A’、‘3309’、‘5C’及‘1202C’持續生長,採取逃避策略適應淹水逆境;‘SO4’及‘蜜紅’生長量低,且淹水第17天停止生長。排水後植株回復生長受淹水及排水時間影響。淹水期間葉片黃化率以‘蜜紅’顯著高於‘SO4’、‘8B’、‘420A’及‘1202C’,所有品種均會產生不定根以適應淹水逆境,但植株葉片黃化百分率與不定根產生似乎無關聯性。淹水第21天葉片Fv/Fm低於0.69,且無植株死亡,顯示葡萄可能為耐淹水作物,以Fv/Fm作為淹水逆境篩選指標反應速度較慢。線蟲處理以‘5C’生長量顯著高於‘巨峰’、‘SO4’及‘蜜紅’。但‘蜜紅’根系未發現線蟲引起之根瘤。 ‘巨峰’葡萄嫁接於‘8B’、‘420A’、‘3309’、‘5C’及‘1202C’等根砧,由於植株生長勢強健,導致冬季修剪催芽後萌芽速度較自根慢5-7天,同時降低結果枝花序數量及木質化程度,其中嫁接‘420A’木質化程度為自根之30%。另外,結果枝第6-10芽主芽壞疽程度,‘8B’及‘3309’組合顯著高於自根植株。嫁接植株採收時穗重、粒重及果皮顏色等品質指標皆下降。以1 C貯藏28天期間,‘3309’及‘5C’之嫁接組合脫粒嚴重,‘5C’更高達56.7%,植株生長勢強脫粒性反而比較嚴重。 本研究結果顯示,除了LED藍光,夜間燈照處理促進‘巨峰’葡萄新梢生長,這類光源在燈照期間可能扮演直接誘導或觸發某些訊息傳導之角色,包含生長素調控基因,進而增加結果枝生長,另單一結果枝總葉片數多,累積較多總碳水化合物,提供開花所需能量進而提高著果。耐逆境根砧篩選指標,以植株生長量表現較Fv/Fm快速。本研究總結淹水、線蟲及品質進行評估根砧對逆境耐受性及‘巨峰’葡萄品質影響,表現排序為‘3309’>‘1202C’>‘8B’>‘420A’>‘5C’>‘SO4’>‘蜜紅’。‘巨峰’葡萄嫁接於‘8B’、‘420A’、‘3309’、‘5C’及‘1202C’根砧生長勢強建,需建立田間管理模式,並持續觀察對生長及品質之影響。In Taiwan, ‘Kyoho’ grapes was cultivated under PE-greenhouse in combination with night lighting to regulate the production from March to May. In recent years, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather (heavy rainfall) in Taiwan has been increased. Continuous heavy rainfall caused waterlogging in vineyards and root damage by nematodes which in turn led to low vine vigor and affected fruit quality. The aims of this study were to find the mechanism of increased fruit-bearing shoot growth and improved fruit set by night lighting, to investigate the effect of waterlogging, drainage recovery and nematodes on plant growth and chlorophyll fluorescence, to establish the indicators for waterlogging and nematode stress, and to select rootstocks suitable for Taiwan''s climate. Our results showed that energy efficient bulb, LED red and white light treatments have significantly higher fruit set that is 10.2-12.4% more than that of control, cluster weight from these treatments was 52-146.7% higher than the control and the LED blue light treatment. Regarding to fruit-bearing shoot increase, treatments with energy efficient bulb, LED red and white light were significantly higher than that of control, with an increase of 2.0-2.6 nodes per shoot. The total carbohydrate content and mineral elements such as P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B were significantly higher than control determined from all leaves per shoot. After 21 days of waterlogging, ‘Kyoho’, ‘8B’, ‘420A’, ‘3309’, ‘5C’ and ‘1202C’ kept growing, showing an escape strategy to adapt to waterlogging. ‘SO4’ and ‘Honey Red’ grew less and ceased growth after 17 days of waterlogging. Recovery growth of vine after drainage was affected by waterlogging and drainage period. Leaf yellowing in ‘Honey Red’ was significantly higher than that of ‘SO4’, ‘8B’, ‘420A’ and ‘1202C’ during waterlogging and all rootstocks developed adventitious roots to adapt waterlogging stress. However, leaf yellowing seemed to have no relationship with the production of adventitious roots. Leaf Fv/Fm was lower than 0.69 and no plant died at 21 days of waterlogging, suggesting that grape may be waterlogging-tolerant and showed slower stress response by using Fv/Fm as a waterlogging stress selection index. The growth of shoot after treatment with nematode was significantly higher in ‘5C’ rootstock than that of ‘Kyoho’, SO4’ and ‘Honey Red’. However, no root gall was found in the root system of ‘Honey Red’. Our results showed that ‘Kyoho’ grape grafted on ‘8B’, ‘420A’, ‘3309’, ‘5C’ and ‘1202C’ rootstocks has strong growth vigor, resulting in 5-7 days delay of bud burst after winter bud-forcing than own-rooted vines. Meanwhile, the number of inflorescences and the degree of periderm browning in the fruit-bearing shoot were reduced. The degree of periderm browning in ‘420A’ was only about 30% of own-rooted vines. In addition, necrosis in the 6th to 10th bud of the fruit-bearing shoot was significantly higher in ‘Kyoho’/‘8B’ and ‘Kyoho’/‘3309’ than own-rooted vines. Upon harvest, quality indicators such as cluster weight, berry weight and skin color decreased in grafted vines. During 28 days of storage at 1 C, berry shatter in vines grafted on ‘3309’ and ‘5C’ was severe. Berry shatter in ‘5C’ reached a ratio of 56.7%. These results indicated that berry shatter was more serious in response to stronger growth vigor. Results from this study suggested that night lighting except blue light may increase shoot length. The light source with function of increasing shoot growth may induce or trigger certain signals during the lighting period, including induction of auxin-regulated gene expression which may in turn increase shoot growth, accumulation of more total carbohydrate in the leaves per shoot, and supply of more energy for flowering to promote fruit set. On the other hand, evaluation by treatment with waterlogging or nematode and storage quality of berry revealed that the performance of rootstock is ‘3309’>‘1202C’>‘8B’>‘420A’>‘5C’>‘SO4’>‘Honey Red’. ‘Kyoho’ grape grafted on ‘8B’, ‘420A’, ‘3309’, ‘5C’ and ‘1202C’ rootstocks has strong vigor but without good quality. It is necessary to establish a field management model to continuously observe the impact of grafting on growth and quality of grapes.
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