圓筒絲瓜果實生長發育及貯藏期間果實多酚氧化酵素活性及過氧化酵素活性之研究

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論文名稱: 圓筒絲瓜果實生長發育及貯藏期間果實多酚氧化酵素活性及過氧化酵素活性之研究
研究生姓名: 張茂鴻
指導教授姓名: 柯立祥;戴順發
出版年: 2008
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 熱帶農業暨國際合作系所
關鍵字: 圓筒絲瓜;果實生長發育;多酚氧化酵素;過氧化酵素;總酚類化合物;酵素性褐化;貯藏;寒害;貯藏壽命;Luffa cylindrical Roem.;fruit growth and development;polyphenol oxidase;peroxidase;total phenolic compounds;enzymatic browning;storage;chilling injury;storage life
摘要: 本研究之主要目的在探討‘高雄2 號’(‘Kaohsiung 2’)、‘美人’(‘Merit’)及‘台農1 號’(‘Tainung No. 1’)三種栽培種圓筒絲瓜(Luffa cylindrical Roem.)果實生長發育期間之理化特性以探討絲瓜果實之採收適期,並探討不同品種絲瓜果實之多酚氧化酵素活性、過氧化酵素活性及總酚類化合物含量變化及其與果實褐化之關係,本研究更針對絲瓜果實採收後不同貯藏溫度對果實貯藏壽命及寒害之影響,以探討絲瓜果實之適當貯藏溫度。 結果顯示,‘高雄2 號’、‘美人’及‘台農1 號’絲瓜之果實生長發育期間,其果長、果寬、鮮重及體積等生長變化均呈直線生長。絲瓜果實在 授粉後3 天之後開始進入快速生長期,至授粉後9 天果實生長逐漸減緩。絲瓜果實於授粉後9-11 天,果實之果長、果寬、果重、果皮顏色、糖度、可滴定酸含量及糖酸比變化較平緩且已呈現品種之固有特性。果實之色澤變化方面,三品種絲瓜果實之果皮綠色度及黃色度均呈增加之趨勢,而果肉綠色度及黃色度呈減少之趨勢。‘高雄2 號’、‘美人’ 及‘台農1 號’絲瓜果實之多酚氧化酵素活性在授粉後5-11 天呈增加之趨勢,‘高雄2 號’絲瓜果實之果皮過氧化酵素活性以授粉後3 天為最高,‘美人’ 及‘台農1號’絲瓜之果皮過氧化酵素活性皆以授粉後11 天為最高,果肉過氧化酵素活性則隨著果實發育天數之增加而減少。三品種絲瓜在果實生長發育期間,皆以授粉後5 天之果實有較高的總酚類化合物含量,絲瓜果肉總酚類化合物含量在授粉後7-11 天有隨果實發育天數之增加而上升,其中‘台農1 號’絲瓜果實之果肉總酚類化合物含量在生長發育期間均高於高雄2號’、‘美人’絲瓜。絲瓜果實切塊處理後之果肉色澤變化方面,‘台農1 號’絲瓜果肉之亮度及白色度明顯下降且有褐化之現象,而‘高雄2 號’及‘美人’絲瓜則無褐化現象。在切塊處理後,‘台農1 號’絲瓜果肉之多酚氧化酵素活性、過氧化酵素活性及總酚類化合物含量為最高,其次為‘美人’絲瓜,最低為‘高雄2 號’絲瓜。 在5°C 貯藏期間,三品種圓筒絲瓜果實之多酚氧化酵素活性及過氧化 酵素活性均隨寒害指數之增加而上升,其中以‘台農1 號’絲瓜寒害發生時 間為最早。15°C 貯藏期間,三供試圓筒絲瓜品種均無寒害症狀,而25°C 貯藏下,三品種絲瓜之果皮多酚氧化酵素活性會隨貯藏天數及果實表面 黃化之增加而上升。比較‘高雄2 號’、‘美人’及‘台農1 號’絲瓜於5°C、15°C及25°C 貯藏下之貯藏壽命,三品種絲瓜於15°C 貯藏壽命均為最長,其中‘台農1 號’絲瓜在5°C 及25°C 貯藏下之貯藏壽命均低於‘高雄2 號’及‘美人’絲瓜。The series of studies were conducted to elucidate the changes of physico-chemical characteristics, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase(POD) activities, and total phenolic compounds during fruit growth and development in three cultivars of smooth loofah (Luffa cylindrical Roem.) fruits (cv. ‘Kaohsiung 2’, ‘Merit’ and ‘Tainung No. 1’). Moreover, the correlation between enzymatic browning, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and total phenolic compounds in three cultivars of smooth loofah fruit were investigated. It is possible to determine the optimum stage for harvest from the data. Last but not least, it was also made to find out the best storage temperature for smooth loofah fruit, effects of different storage temperatures (5, 10, and 15°C respectively) on fruit storage life, and symptom of chilling injury was investigated. The curves of length, width, fresh weight and volume in the three cultivars of smooth loofah showed a linear growth. According to length, width, fresh weight, peel color, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio in fruits, these cultivars attained their specific character within 9-11 days after anthesis. The degree of green and yellow of three cultivars of peel increased and the degree of green and yellow of fruits pulp decreased during the growth and development of the cultivars. The fruit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of ‘Kaohsiung 2’, ‘Merit’and ‘Tainung No. 1’ increased with 5-11th days after anthesis. The peel polyphenol oxidase activity of ‘Kaohsiung 2’ fruit peaked on the 3rd day after anthesis, and the peel polyphenol oxidase activity of ‘Merit’ and ‘Tainung No.1’ fruits peaked on the 11th day after anthesis. The pulp peroxidase (POD) activity of ‘Kaohsiung 2’, ‘Merit’ and ‘Tainung No. 1’decreased with the fruits’ growth and development. The content of total phenolic compounds of the three smooth loofah cultivars peaked on the 5th day after anthesis, and the total phenolic compounds in pulp increased on 7-11th days after anthesis. Besides, the total phenolic compounds were highest in ‘Tainung No. 1’ fruit pulp than ‘Kaohsiung 2’ and ‘Merit’ throughout the growth and development of the fruits. The pulp lightness and white index of ‘Tainung No. 1’ was significantly decreased, and ‘Tainung No. 1’ fruit pulp browning existed except for‘Kaohsiung 2’ and ‘Merit’ after cutting at ambient temperature. The pulp PPO activity, POD activity, and total phenolic compounds were highest for‘Tainung No. 1’ and lowest for ‘Kaohsiung 2’. The fruit PPO and POD activity of the three cultivars increased with the increase of chilling injury index, and the chilling injury occurred earliest in‘Tainung No. 1’ than ‘Kaohsiung 2’ and ‘Merit’ during 5°C storage. There were no symptoms of chilling injuries during 15°C storage of three cultivars.The peel PPO activity of the three cultivars increased with the increase of storage duration and the surface yellowing at 25°C. Results of the comparison of the storage life of three smooth loofah cultivars showed that storage life was longest at 15°C than 5 and 25°C respectively. Moreover, the storage life at 5° and 25°C were lowest in ‘Tainung No. 1’ than ‘Kaohsiung 2’.
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