因應氣候變遷之區域性環境親和型栽培制度調整及增加原生蔬菜利用

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計畫名稱: 因應氣候變遷之區域性環境親和型栽培制度調整及增加原生蔬菜利用
計畫主持人: 吳志文
共同計畫主持人: 吳新民;林上湖;戴振洋;陳琦玲;全中和;林文華;譚增偉;黃祥益;余德發;楊素絲;郭雅紋;李碩朋;周國隆;陳葦玲;詹碧連;楊志維;劉依昌;賴榮茂;陳令錫;田雲生;蔡宜峰
計畫編號: 104農科-14.3.1-子-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場場長室
全程計畫年: 2015
關鍵字: 介質;營養成分;水生植物;土壤碳匯;乾旱;設施;玉米;草生栽培;水稻;逆境;大豆;種原;原生蔬菜;極端天候;輪作;環境親和型技術;青蔥;非洲芥藍;非洲茄;農業生態系;洋蔥;黑豆;甜玉米;紅高粱;綠豆;原生蔬菜;輪作;田菁;綠肥;環境親和型耕作制度;毛豆;節能;輪作;低污染;落葵;土壤診斷;繁殖;耕作制度;土壤管理;綠肥;逆境;馬鈴薯;生物多樣性;胡麻;薏苡;氣候變遷;環境親和型;氣候變遷;輪作;環境親和型耕作模式;安全農業;環境親和型;土壤肥力;長期生態研究;Substitute;Nutritional fact;Aquatic Plant;Soil Carbon Sequestration;Drought;Greenhouse;Corn;Vegetation;Rice;stress;Soybean;Germplasm;Indigenous Vegetable;Extreme Weather;Crop Rotation;Environment friendly;Green Onion;Ethiopian kale;African eggplant;Agricu
摘要: 草生栽培對粘板岩沖積土壤碳匯和果樹調適極端天候之影響 一、建立植生種類與番石榴園土壤有機質變化調查資料1筆。 二、建立植生種類與番石榴園土壤水分變化調查資料1筆。 設施介質耕環境親和型栽培技術之開發 完成設施番茄介質耕中後生育期調查,以開發低介質量栽培全紅番茄,包括介質量、養液及水分管理等最適栽培模式之建立。 原生蔬菜非洲芥藍耐旱性評估及營養成分分析 一、蒐集非洲芥藍品種(系)或地方種10個,且篩選出2個耐旱性與食用性均佳的品種(系),供栽培推廣利用。 二、建立非洲芥藍耐旱性評估方法及生理指標1套,可供其他原生蔬菜甚至作物耐旱性選育使用。 三、建立非洲芥藍主要營養成分資料及開發食用食譜1份,增加原生蔬菜之利用性。 花蓮宜蘭地區環境親和型水旱田輪作模式之建立 A.完成第四年水旱田輪作物之農藝性狀、病蟲害及雜草發生率調查,建立花蓮地區水旱田輪作綜合防治及施肥方法。 B.完成第四年輪作之綜合防治及合理化施肥等試作,調查田間病蟲草害發生率,建立宜蘭地區環境親合型水旱田輪作體系。 宜花地區重要原生蔬菜生產技術與耐逆境評估 1.蒐集龍葵、野莧菜、番杏,小葉灰翟、苦苣、海濱野菜濱蘿蔔及葶藶種子,探討其在不良環境情況之發芽能力及芽體再生能力及生產量。 2.蒐集落葵等具食用價值之新興或水生植物,針對生育特性、耐淹水能力等進行評估並建立相關資訊,以期篩選出耐逆境之蔬菜作物。 毛豆外銷專區及恆春地區洋蔥環境親和型輪作系統經營模式建立 一、進行4種不同輪作模式比較,開發新的外銷蔬菜產品如甜玉米、菠菜、青花菜、矮性菜豆等,建立合理化的輪作經營模式,解決連作障礙,提升經營效益。 二、調查洋蔥後作之輪作作物青割玉米、綠肥大豆及田菁之生育、病蟲害相及管理成本。 嘉南地區環境親和型旱田輪作經營模式 一、 完成104年全年氣象資料及各期作土壤肥力變化、雜草及病蟲害發生、作物生育期間田間總用水量,以及作物產量與收益,並分析耕作制度之淨收益及節省灌溉水效益,依101年至104年度之旱田輪作模式之經濟效益建立嘉南地區農業生產及環境親和型之最適旱田輪作經營模式。 原生蔬菜-非洲紅茄耐逆境生產模式建立 建立非洲紅茄經濟生產栽培模式及開發果實料理方式。 應用綠肥營造環境親和型水旱田輪作模式 一、應用綠肥與水旱田輪作,建立水稻、綠肥與馬鈴薯最佳環境親和型水旱田輪作模式 土壤肥力診斷與改良應用於環境親和型水稻玉米等栽培制度管理與增產技術之研究 1.建立各區因應氣候變遷之土壤與栽培管理技術模式 2.發揮各區耕作制度達成「增加產量』及確保糧食生產互補性平均性的 目標 氣候變遷對農業生態系之影響長期觀測  1. 完成4個研究站本年度氣象資料之收集、儲存及分析。  2. 完成溪口農場與雲林分場本年度產量調查。  3. 完成溪口農場與雲林分場本年度養分收支調查。  4. 完成溪口農場與雲林分場各本年度重要病害調查。  5. 完成溪口農場與雲林分場本年度瓢蟲數量、種類與群集組成調查。  6. 完成溪口農場本年雜草族群種類與數量變化調查。  7. 完成降雨量形態(含降雨強度與頻度)與氣溫改變對產量之初步影     響評估。  8. 完成氣候變遷對作物吸收養分率之初步影響評估。  9. 完成氣候變遷對關鍵病蟲害之初步影響評估。 10. 完成氣候變遷對瓢蟲數量、種類與群集組成之初步影響評估。 11. 完成氣候變遷對雜草族群種類與數量之初步影響評估。 環境親和型原生蔬菜繁殖與評估 預計完成10種原生蔬菜之總酚類化合物、異黃酮類、花青素、植物鹼、 Vit.C含量測定,以及DPPH自由基清除力、Trolox等價抗氧化力、 FRAP還原力分析,製成表格以供原生蔬菜應用上之參考。 一、完成原生蔬菜種原繁殖與維持。 二、完成原生蔬菜營養成分分析。 三、完成原生蔬菜機能性成分測定及相關表格製作。及相關表格製作 北部地區環境親和型水稻與旱田作物輪作經營模式之建立 一、評估水稻與青割玉米、綠肥及小麥輪作之病蟲危害率、肥料利用率、土壤肥力與作物產量及品質之成本效益,作為農民栽培管理依據。 二、建立北部地區水稻與青割玉米、綠肥及小麥輪作經營模式,提高耕地利用效率,確保農地永續經營。  草生栽培對粘板岩沖積土壤碳匯和果樹調適極端天候之影響 草生栽培系統下,降低土壤擾動,增加土壤有機質含量和涵養土壤水分。 設施介質耕環境親和型栽培技術之開發 1.建立較現有介質耕節省肥料用量20-30%。 2.介質廢棄量將減少現行介質耕(栽培槽方式)栽培之30%以上。 3.建立較現有介質耕節省灌溉用量20-30%。 原生蔬菜非洲芥藍耐旱性評估及營養成分分析 一、蒐集非洲芥藍品種(系)或地方種10個,且篩選出2個耐旱性與食用性均佳的品種(系),供栽培推廣利用,以解決日後氣候變遷,水資源利用不足所造成之糧食(蔬菜)供給問題,並增加蔬菜種源利用多樣性。 二、建立非洲芥藍耐旱性評估方法及生理指標1套,減少田間篩選成本50%,且可供其他原生蔬菜甚至作物耐旱性選育使用。 三、建立非洲芥藍主要營養成分資料及開發食用食譜1份,增加原生蔬菜之利用性。 花蓮宜蘭地區環境親和型水旱田輪作模式之建立 建立適合花蓮、宜蘭地區水旱田輪作制度之生產模式,降低農藥防治成本,提昇肥料利用效率,減少休耕農地面積及達到維護農地利用的目的,推廣農民採行輪作栽培,並增加農民收益。 宜花地區重要原生蔬菜生產技術與耐逆境評估 (一)篩選東部地區於不良環境仍可發芽生產具食用價值可推廣栽培之野生蔬菜,並建立推廣資訊,預計可以增加2公頃之生產面積。 (二)透過新興水生食用植物蘆蒿耐淹水等逆境能力及離水省工栽培等相關資訊的建立,增加東北地區濕冷條件下適合種植之新興蔬菜作物種類,並成為該地區休閒農業、商業生產適用品項且提升蔬菜作物豐富度。 (三)透過篩選出晚開花或耐低溫落葵品系,增加轄區內低溫時期耐逆境原生蔬菜種植可行性,提升有機或低農藥使用安全生產體系之執行能力與效率。 毛豆外銷專區及恆春地區洋蔥環境親和型輪作系統經營模式建立 一、 因應全球氣候變遷,建立毛豆外銷專區環境親和型輪作經營模式,解決連作問題,強化農業生態環境維護,使土地可永續利用,並開發新的蔬菜產品的外銷,依毛豆外銷專區面積2,500公頃計算,預計可創造外銷產值達3億元以上較原有生產模式增加1億2,500萬元。 二、 建立適合恆春半島之環境親和型輪作制度1種,預計可提高農民收入10%以上,減少肥料施用及病蟲害防治費用5-10%。 嘉南地區環境親和型旱田輪作經營模式 一、 對產業及生產者而言,於水源不足地區及休耕田區可轉作雜糧作物。 2.對決策單位而言,擬訂相關因應對策時有此依據可循。 3.對消費者而言,可提供高品質國產雜糧及食安無虞之國產胡麻油。   原生蔬菜-非洲紅茄耐逆境生產模式建立 一、篩選出非洲紅茄優良品系1個 , 可在環境逆境下穩定生產 二、建立非洲紅茄生產模式 , 以供農民種植 應用綠肥營造環境親和型水旱田輪作模式 一、1. 農田輪作綠肥對土壤保育及降低化學肥料用量有正面的效益,為環境親和型耕作模式之可行措施。惟如何於輪作制度中配置不同作物或品種,使綠肥輪作成本降低,綠肥肥效得以有效提供後續作物生長需求,以降低栽培成本並增加作物產量,提高輪作制度收益,是為綠肥輪作重要的議題。本計畫所探討應用綠肥建立水稻─馬鈴薯輪作制度,即希望提高輪作綠肥效益,應用輪作綠肥提供土壤肥分降低水稻及馬鈴薯化學肥料施用量10%,並進而改良嘉義地區馬鈴薯產區之土壤肥力,以達農業環境安全永續。 土壤肥力診斷與改良應用於環境親和型水稻玉米等栽培制度管理與增產技術之研究 1.辦理「耕作制度與糧食生產」研討會,盤點目前地區性耕作制度對糧食生產之貢獻度。 2.建立以土壤管理組及水資源等資訊,充分利用地下水、土壤質地及耕犁技術等土壤適性,提高水分利用效率,調適氣候變遷之衝擊。 3.發揮水旱輪作制度調整對糧食安全之貢獻。 4.建立「環境親合型長期農業生態」資料庫1式。 氣候變遷對農業生態系之影響長期觀測 本計畫預期效益: 1. 各研究項目完成一份期刊研究報告。 2. 持續維持亞熱帶農業生態系長期研究站,提供不同領域之國際合作研究平台。 3. 獲悉各研究站氣候變遷程度。 4. 藉由長期觀測,獲悉氣候變遷對各作物系統(雙期作水田、水旱輪作田、荔枝園與茶園)之作物生產力、病蟲與天敵生態、作物病害發生與雜草相變遷之效應,作為相關因應對策擬訂之依據。 環境親和型原生蔬菜繁殖與評估 一、蒐集10種原生蔬菜種原,建立栽培相關資訊,提供氣候變遷另類蔬菜應用參考。 二、完成10種原生蔬菜營養成分分析。 三、完成10種原生蔬菜安全指標成分及機能性測定及表格製作,提升原生蔬菜利用率及農民栽培之意願。 北部地區環境親和型水稻與旱田作物輪作經營模式之建立 在不影響作物產量及品質前提下,評估水稻與青割玉米、綠肥及小麥輪作之病蟲危害率、肥料利用率、土壤肥力與作物產量及品質之成本效益,期能降低肥料投入與農藥投入,增進土壤肥力,減輕對環境的衝擊,以作為農民栽培管理依據。 Effects of Vegetation on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Adaptation of Orchard to Extreme Weather in Slate Alluvial Soil The adequate soil management can increase soil carbon sequestration and soil water holding capacity. The purpose of the project is to study the impact of vegetation on soil environment in the guava in Dacun township. Investigate soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter in order to assess the adaptation of guava to extreme weather under this system. Development on Environment Friendly Technologies for Soilless Culture in Greenhouse The aim of this study is to resolve the problem of excessive  cultural substrate quantity as well as liquid fertilizer in greenhouse cultivation. It is respend to establish the recommendable amount  of cultural substrate and then decrease its effect on agriculture environment. Different type of container included (a)tray culture(30cm height x 40cm width),(b)bag culture(100L,4plants),(c) basket culture(40-60L,4plants),and(d)microbag culture(1.5L,1plant) are tested and then evaluated each optimal management method for environmental friendly cultivation. Drought Tolerance Evaluation and Nutritional Analysis of Indigenous Vegetable Ethiopian Kale Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata L.) is a Brassiceae indigenous vegetable native to East and South Africa. It has great environmental stress tolerance especially for drought. Besides, Ethiopian kale has excellent nutrion valus that makes it as a potential indigenous vegetable copping with water resource insufficient caused by climatic change . Therefore, the present study aims to establish the evaluation method and physiological index for drought tolerance, and evaluate the drought tolerant ability of Ethiopian kale germplasm. Besides, nutrition analysis and cooking recipe development are also conducted for its further extention. Establishment of environment-friendly systems in rice and upland crop rotation in Hualien and Ilan Areas 一、 The aim of this project is to establish rotation planting models suitable for farming in Hualien and Ilan areas that are friendly to the agricultural environment, and are able to improve the value of crops and to increase the income of the farmers. The model in Hualien area is rice rotates with upland crops. The model in Ilan area is rice rotates with green onion, upland crops and green manure. Cultivation Technique Development and Evaluation of Stress Tolerance ability of Indigenous Vegetables Grown in Yilan and Hualien Districts The objective of this study is to screen and evaluate the stress tolerance of vegetable germplasm . Screening of indigenous vegetables in the eastern area for stress-resistance, and establishing the seed collecting, reproduction and management pattern for economic production are also in this study. Aquatic plants have the property of high growth potential, flooding and storm resistant, easy-to-grow and not easy to suffer from ordinary pest and disease. Some of them are edible and have the potential to be novel crops. Environment Friendly Model Establishment forVegetable Soybean Rotation in the ExportProfessional Fields and Onion Rotation in Hengchun Area The program purposes are to establish the environmental friendly rotation models for vegetable soybeans in export professional fields and onions in Henchun area. The establishment of vegetable soybean rotation model is focus on solving continuous cropping barriers and to develop new export vegetables such as sweet corns, spinaches, green cauliflowers, and bush beans. The competitiveness of Taiwanese vegetable products can be promoted in international markets. The expectant benefits are to establish the environmental friendly rotation model of vegetable soybeans in the export professional fields for responses of climate changes. The experimental results can develop new export vegetable products  that may make more than 300 million N.T. dollars of output value. About the establishment of the onion environment friendly rotation model in Henchun area, the forage maize, green manure soybean and sesbania are used as the rotation crops after onion cultivation. The growth, yield, pest and productive costs will be investigated within the growth stages. We expect that new rotation system may reduce the damages of pest and productive costs, meanwhile, the environmental impacts of farmland will be minimum. Environmental-Friendly Mode of Upland Crop Rotation in Chia -Nan Area 一、 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of upland crop rotation mode on the soil property, fertility, the density of weeds, disease, insect pest, water demand and crop yield. Six crop rotation systems contain: (A) sweet corn-sesbanias-sesame; (B) sweet corn-sesbanias-soybean; (C)mungbean-sesbanias-sweet corn; (D) soybean-sesbanias-sweet corn; (E) sorghum-sesbanias-mungbean; (F) Job's tears -sesbanias-sesame. Cultivation improvement for stress tolerance in the indigenous vegetable - African eggplant The program will evaluate several  African eggplant (sweet) lines in term of their flavor and stress resistance during  high temperature, drought and flooding . We expect that we can select at least one appropriate  African eggplant line suitable for different environments, to ensure the supply of vegetables . We also  conducted field trials with different cultivation systems . By the end of this year , we plan to establish an effective cultivation method for farmers and create recipes for consumers .  The establishment of environment compatible crop rotation model on paddy field using green manure In response to the impact of Taiwan potato production and the existing farming systems due to climate change,to apply green manure and plans a two year round environment friendly crop rotation pattern including potato. rice and green manure in order to enhance the farmland productivity of existing cropping patterns. Studies of the diagnosis and improvement of soil fertility on the yield-increasing techniques of cultivation systems under the paddy-upland crops rotation A field experiment is conducted in a field of noncalcareous sandstone and slate alluvial soil at the experimental farm of Taiwan Agriculture Research Institute, Wufeng, Taichung, Taiwan, to evaluate the effects of adaptation of cropping systems on crop yields and soil productivity owing to climate change. In this study, there are four cropping systems including . Rice-Rice and Rice-Rice-Rice monoculture; . Rice-Corn(wheat) rotation; . Corn-Rice rotation; and Ⅳ. Corn-Corn(Wheat) monoculture and three crop residue management methods, including 1. manual removal of crop redisues; 2. incorporation of crop residues in the soil; and 3. burning of crop residues. At the same time,to acquire the bestlow input agricultural cultivating model, we must understand the influences of several different cropping in Taiwan to biodiversity, the mechanism of the ecosystem productivity and its impact to environment. Furthermore. Long term monitoring on the effect of climate change on agricultural ecosystem     The demand of human society to the systematic products and service function(such as food and clean water) of the agricultural ecosystem increases day by day, however climate change is leading to the reduced ability of offering the products and service function of many ecosystems continuously. Rational policy and control measures can usually turn back the tendency of degradation of the ecosystem, and strengthen it to contribute the human welfare. But accurately holding and taking the opportunity and way for interruption, it needs to fully realize the mechanism of function about the ecosystem and social system. In this study, investigations are conducted in four experimental places in Taiwan. The purpose of this research is to study the influences of climate change on biodiversity, productivity and its impact to environment under variant cropping system in order to legislate the most suitable agriculturerelated policies. Evaluation and propagation of environment-friendly native vegetables Native vegetables with characteristics of high nutrition, fewer pests and wide adaptability response well to climate change. Native vegetables collected and propagated in the experiment field of FTHES. Development and extension cooking methods of native vegetables which usually have high nutrition and flavor would increase farmer's income and consumers diverse choosing. Establishment of Environmental Friendly Crop Rotation System in Northern Taiwan The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of rice and upland crop rotation systems on the soil physical property, fertility, the density of weeds, disease and insect pest, and crop yield. To assess paddy rice and upland crop rotation benefit for the best culture management method to farmers.
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