印度棗果實生長發育及貯藏之研究

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論文名稱: 印度棗果實生長發育及貯藏之研究
研究生姓名: 蔡宜潔
指導教授姓名: 李堂察
出版年: 2004
學校名稱: 國立嘉義大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: 印度棗;雙S型曲線;貯藏溫度;1-Methylcyclopropene;貯藏壽命;光化學活性反應(Fv/Fm)值;Indian jujube;double sigmoid curve;storage temperature;1-Methylcyclopropene;storage life;chlorophyll photochemical activity (Fv/Fm value)
摘要: 本試驗之目的主要探討嘉義地區所栽培之 ‘新蜜棗’ 及 ‘蜜棗’ 二個栽培種印度棗果實之生長發育及其生理變化,並探討貯藏溫度和1-Methylcycloproene(1-MCP)處理對延長果實貯藏壽命之影響。試驗結果顯示, ‘新蜜棗’ 及 ‘蜜棗’ 果實發育期間其果重、體積、縱徑及橫徑均較類似於雙S型的生長曲線。果實的重量及體積均以 ‘新蜜棗’ 較大;果實的縱徑也以 ‘新蜜棗’ 較大,至採收時 ‘新蜜棗’ 果形為圓錐形; ‘蜜棗’ 果形為桃形。果實之可食用率、總可溶性固形物含量、糖酸比均隨果實發育日數增加而提高,果實硬度、葉綠素含量則隨果實發育日數增加而漸下降,果肉水分含量於發育初期即花後5週前快速增加。果實發育期間以 ‘蜜棗’ 果實有較高之呼吸速率,亦顯示在整個發育階段採收之果實,以花後13週前及花後19週後採收的果實具有較高的呼吸率。果實顏色由發育初期的暗濃綠色,逐漸轉變成 ‘新蜜棗’ 的綠色; ‘蜜棗’ 的黃綠色。 ‘新蜜棗’ 及 ‘蜜棗’ 貯藏適溫分別為2.5-5℃和5℃,貯藏壽命均可達30天以上。 ‘蜜棗’ 果實在2.5℃貯藏時即發生寒害, ‘新蜜棗’ 果實則未有任何寒害症狀發生。果實的光化學活性反應(Fv/Fm值)隨著寒害或果實老化而大幅下降。貯藏溫度對果實之總可溶性固形物含量則無顯著變化,可滴定酸含量、果實硬度則隨貯藏日數增加而下降,果實硬度方面亦顯示隨貯藏溫度的提高而硬度漸降低。印度棗果實若貯藏在低溫下,經移溫25℃後,其呼吸速率及乙烯釋放量皆有上升的現象,並隨著時間的延長有加劇之情形。 乙烯作用抑制劑1-MCP以500及1000ppb濃度處理效果最佳,能有效延長果實櫥架壽命,二個栽培種大約均可延長5-6天左右。果實可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、果實硬度均隨著處理後天數增加而下降,呼吸率及乙烯釋放量方面,以1-MCP處理之果實可有效抑制乙烯作用和果實轉色。The effect of fruit growth, development and physiology aspect of ‘Shinmejao’ and ‘Mejao’ jujube fruit were investigated in the test. In addition, were to investigate the affects of storage temperature and 1-MCP pretreatment suppress ethylene responses and extend the shelf life and quality of Indian jujube fruit.The results was shown that the ‘Shinmejao’ and ‘Mejao’ jujube fruit growth pattern appeared a double sigmoid curve based on fresh weight, fruit volume and fruit diameter. During fruit development, fresh weight, fruit volume and fruit diameter of ‘Shinmejao’ jujube fruit was bigger than ‘Mejao’. The fruit shape of ‘Shinmejao’ jujube fruit is spatulate and ‘Mejao’ jujube fruit is peach-shape that the fruit were approaching maturity. The edible percentage and total soluble solids and TSS/TA ratio of fruit increased following fruit development. Whereas fruit firmness, acidity and chlorophyll content were decreased with fruit development. The water content of flesh increased rapidly at earlier stages of 5 weeks after anthesis. During fruit development, respiration rate of ‘Mejao’ jujube fruit was higher than ‘Shinmejao’. The demonstration fruit of in the entire developmental stage, the respiration peak which recovers after the 13 weeks after anthesis in front of and the 19 weeks after anthesis appears comparatively early. The immature indian jujube fruit was dark green in skin color the gradually became green of ‘Shinmejao’ jujube fruit and yellow-green of ‘Mejao’ jujube fruit. The results was indicated that optimal storage temperature ranging from 2.5℃ to 5℃ of ‘Shinmejao’ and 5℃ of ‘Mejao’. Besides, the storage life could extend until 30 days. Therefore, ‘Mejao’ jujube fruit stored at 2.5℃ were show sign of chilling injury and ‘Shinmejao’ jujube fruit is normal and no chilling injury symptom. The chlorophyll photochemical activity (Fv/Fm value) varied with temperatures. As a rule, these conditions worsened as the temperature plummered. Storage temperature that there were no significant differences in the total soluble solids, acidity and fruit firmness decreased gradually with time and temperature to enhance after storage. When chilled Indian jujube fruit moved to 25℃ higher temperature, its respiration rate and ethylene production would increase in proportion to the severity of the damage brought about by the cold. In addition, were to investigate the affects of pretreatment application of 1-MCP on the fruit quality of Indian jujube fruit. 1-MCP pretreatment and the concentration of 500ppb and 1000ppb worked the best and the storage life could extend about 5-6 days. The total soluble solids, acidity and fruit firmness decreased gradually with time after 1-MCP pretreatment. The respiration rate and ethylene production of Indian jujube fruit subjected to 1-MCP pretreatment were higher than the control fruit. The higher the concentration of 1-MCP pretreatment at 500-1000ppb, the inhibition of the respiration and ethylene production was more pronounced. Also, the time for the peaks of climacteric respiration and ethylene production was delayed. This indicate the 1-MCP possess the ability of counteracting the action of ethylene.
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