具競爭力優質熱帶果樹品種之選育及栽培技術改進

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計畫名稱: 具競爭力優質熱帶果樹品種之選育及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人:
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 102農科-9.2.2-農-C3(Z)
計畫主管機構:
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所
全程計畫年: 2013
關鍵字: 番石榴;Guava;育種;Breeding;番石榴;Psidium guajava;蓮霧;Wax-apple;幼年期;Juvenile;育種年限;Breeding Period;雜交;Hybridization;印度棗;Indian Jujube;結果量;Fruiting Quantity;結果位置;Fruiting Position;番石榴;guava;印度棗;India Jujube;採後處理;Postharves Handling;預冷;Pre-cooling;番荔枝;sugar-apple;冷子番荔枝;cherimoya;鳳梨釋迦;atemoya;誘變;mutagenesis
摘要: (一)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-優質番石榴品種選育 本年度擬進行(1)5個複選優質少籽品系少籽性狀、果實品質、著果率的穩定性調查,(2)F2少籽品系450株實生後代全年度的果實品質與果實少籽穩定性調查。(3)1135株白拔、66-90等品種(系)實生苗的番石榴立枯病抗性檢定。 (二)、果樹推動小組-縮短蓮霧育種年限之開發研究 建立蓮霧雜交育種之作業流程。縮短蓮霧育種年限,提高育種效率。增加優異蓮霧雜交苗新品系之選獲率。 (三)、果樹推動小組-深紅果皮及中晚熟之優質蓮霧及印度棗育種 一、蓮霧:1.陸續建立各蓮霧種原基礎性狀,可供日後育種參考。2.調查粉紅種、大果品系、泰國紅寶石Thub Thim Chan、印尼大果種(巴掌蓮霧)等品系之特性。3.篩選表現優異枝條變異之大果品系FS-1~FS-7,將進行命名及推廣。4.建立縮短蓮霧幼年性之管理技術。5.目前陸續進行94及95年期之940205、940305、940401及950502等四品系之比較試驗,其中940205品系具有圓錐果形、果面泛光澤、深暗紅果皮色、低裂果率、糖度高(10~14。Brix)、風味佳。940205品系已於100年提出命名申請,商品名為蓮霧台農1號紫晶。 二、印度棗:印度棗育種以提高果實品質,分散果實產期,提昇市場競爭力為育種目標。利用雜交育種等方法進行品種改良,選育大果、高品質、耐白粉病及耐貯運之早熟或晚熟品種。為改良果實外觀及品質等性狀,於品種源中選取高朗3號、翠蜜、蜜棗、中葉、大蜜、金桃等優良親本進行雜交育種作業,由後裔中選拔優良品系進行評估,本土市場著重於大果、脆甜多汁及不同產期品種為選種目標,外銷市場以耐貯運特性為主要訴求。本年度複選觀察品系SⅠ8816,果實碩大,平均果重162.7g,平均糖度16˚Brix,肉質脆而多汁,其果實特性表現具經濟潛力巳提出命名申請;SⅠ8941品系肉質細脆多汁、具棗子風味,平均果重139.3g,平均糖度13.0˚Brix,擬繼續進行園藝性狀穩定性評估。 (四)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-不同留果數與著果部位對番石榴果實品質之影響 番石榴主要產區的農會或合作社所屬的產銷班農友採共同選別、共同計價的模式,將所採收的果實運送到集貨場,經選別人員以人工或機械依外觀、軟硬度、果實大小或重量進行選別,產銷班再以統一代號運銷至拍賣市場進行拍賣。由於番石榴可週年生產,不同產銷班成員所生產的果實品質參差不齊,品質不一的原因除自然天候因素影響外,不同管理方式、病蟲害、株齡、結果量及結果位置均會影響果實品質。以重量及大小為主的共選共計模式,果實品質好壞的市場拍賣價差不大,進而影響果農改善品質的意願。本計畫擬探討台農一號'帝王拔'番石榴不同留果量及著果位置的果實品質差異,進而改善分級方式及提高高品質果品的比率,增加果農收益,提供改善果實品質的誘因。 (五)、印度棗外銷貯運保鮮技術之研究 台灣印度棗的栽培技術及品質皆領先全球,是台灣目前具有外銷潛力的果樹之一,因此除了加強生產栽培研究外,更應注重採收後處理之貯運保存,以減少蔬果低溫貯運後之寒害情形與貯運後病害的發生。 1. 本研究擬發展印度棗適當的處理方法與貯運技術,以利國內低溫貯運之參考及未來空、海運外銷之拓展。 2. 建立印度棗保鮮及採後處理作業新技術,擴增未來台灣農業產業在亞太市場之利基,提升我國熱帶果樹的外銷競爭力。 (六)、耐貯運番荔枝品種選育 本年度繼續加速繁殖種間雜種Atemoya優良實生變異與雜交後代的種苗,在各地區試作,調查其園藝性狀、結果習性與風土適應性,評估出各品系的結果穩定性與果實品質、貯藏性等園藝性狀、做為未來推廣栽培之依據,期能選育出適合栽培結果穩定、品質優良、貯藏性較佳的新品種,使品種多樣化,擴大栽培地區。目前於本分所已選出優良品系86-實-12、89-7-3、86-M-10,分別具有果型大、果色美觀、夏期果不易裂果等特點,近年將進一步進行相關園藝性狀分析與貯運性調查。此外,台灣鳳梨釋迦因5月~11月成熟之夏期果裂果率極高,將近100%,所以進行產期調節只收冬期果,一年只可一收,獲益受限。故鳳山分所努力使用雜交育種,實生選育方式進行選種,期望可解決此問題,並使果農獲取外高利潤,延長外銷供果期。另進行番荔枝種子誘變處理,期望可篩選出耐貯運的優良品系。(1)、Guava Breeding In This project we will investigate the stability of seedless trait, fruit quality and fruit set of 5 superior guava seedless lines and 450 individual guava plants. We also screen guava wilt resistant lines from 1135 seedlings of 'white guava' and '66-90' line with artificial inoculation. (2)、Team of fruit trees research - Studies on shortening of wax-apple breeding period In our study, first we will set a data basics by collecting the important horticultural characters of different wax-apple varieties or lines, choosing optimal breeding parents according these characters for wax-apple hybridization treatment. The second, we will set the processes of breeding for wax-apple hybridization. The third, shortening the juvenile period of wax-apple and increase the efficiencies of breeding. The last, increase the new and excellent wax-apple varieties and lines under the breeding plans. (3)、Team of fruit trees research- Breeding of dark red skin wax-apple and midden-late mature Indian jujube(Zizyphus mauriatiana Lam.) 1.Wax-apple: Establishing the basic data for wax-apple breeding plan, that was accorded by these characters of different wax-apple varieties. Adjusting the characters for pink、big shape、Thub Thim Chan and Indonesia big shape linees. And the FS-1~FS-7 big fruit lines were selected from the mutant lines of pink variety, those were planted for farmers in the future. Establishing the model of short breeding time of wax-apple hybrid lines. And in past study, we got four new wax-apple hybrid lines of 940205、940305、940401 and 950502 during 2009, and two new hybrid lines of 96A1 and 96B4 with larger fruit shape(above 160 grams), specific fruit appearance and taste that were selected during 2010. And the other hybrid lines would be reslected in the next experimental year. The wax-apple hybrid line of 940205 was success named for Tainung No.1 Amethyst on 2011. 2.Indian jujube Hybridization was used in Indian jujube variety improvement.In this study we oncern about fruit quality, size, shelf life, powdery mildew resistance, early, mild or later maturily of Indian jujube. Gaolang No3, Cueimi ,Mizao, Jhongye, Dami,Jintao and Sanmu of Indian jujube stains were used as parent.For local market: customers prefer large fruit size, high TSS, crispy and juicy taste; therefore, for export market: high tolerance of storage and transportation is critical point. Results of this year are listed as follow. (1) We reselected SI8816 from observed lines. The advantages of SI8816 are large fruit size (the average weight is 162.7g), high TSS (the average TSS is 16˚Brix), crispy and juicy taste. Because of these economic potentials, we decide to apply the denomination application of SI8816. (2)We found that SI8941 line has these characters: juicy, tender and full of favor , average weight is 139.3g, average TSS is 13˚Brix. ; and will keep assessing its stability of horticulture characters in the future. (4)、Effects of Fruiting Quantity and Position on The Fruit Quality of Guava Guava farmers transport there harvested fruit to farmers' associations or marketing groups to grading. Grading is according to the fruit appearance, hardness, fruit size or weight with manual or machines. Guava can fruiting all the year round but the unevenness in the fruit quality of different farmers result in poor wholesale price. This result will affect farmers willingness to improve their guava fruit quality. This project will investigate the effect of different fruiting quantity and fruiting position on』 Emperor』 guava fruits quality. We hope this will improving grading and increase the ratio of good fruit quality and income. (5)、Studies on postharvest handling technology of Indian jujube for export. The cultivation technique and fruit quality of Indian jujube in Taiwan are leading in the world. Not only improving technology of cultivating, but also paying attention of postharvest handling. In order to decrease the loss of chilling injury after low temperature storage and storage disease happened. 1. Developing sutiable treatment and storage technology: improving low temperature storage and increasing export of foreign country . 2. Establishing new postharvest technology of Indian jujube: improving the value of output of Taiwanese agricultural industries (6)、Selection and breeding of rot-resistant Annona species in storage and transit. This year, we will accelerate breeding interspecific hybrid Sugar-apple (Annona app.) seedling, which is excellent variation and hybrid offspring. In order to select new variety-stable fruiting, high quality, and well storage and transportation, to increase variety diversity and extend planted area, we conduct region test and investigate horticultural traits, fruiting factor and environmental adaptability. Nowadays, Fengshan branch has selected superior stains, including 86-S-12 (big fruit size), 89-7-3 (pretty fruit color) and 86-M-10 (few fruit-cracking in summer), so next step, we will investigate these horticultural traits and capability of storage and transportation. Therefore, fruit-cracking rate of summer season (May to September) is really high (near 100%), so we try to adjust production period to winter and harvest once per year. Selecting by hybrid and seedling, we hope to save fruit-cracking problem and extend export period to increase farmer’s income. According to screen longer shelf life species. Mutagenesis treatment to Annona Squamosa seeds could be a useful research opinion.
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