具競爭力優質熱帶果樹品種之選育及栽培技術改進

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計畫名稱: 具競爭力優質熱帶果樹品種之選育及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人: 謝鴻業
共同計畫主持人: 李文豪;徐敏記;劉碧鵑;楊智凱;李文立
計畫編號: 103農科-9.2.3-農-C1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所
全程計畫年: 2014
關鍵字: 冷子番荔枝;蓮霧;番石榴;結果量;印度棗;育種;蓮霧;採後處理;印度棗;預冷;番石榴;育種年限;番石榴;育種;鳳梨釋迦;番荔枝;誘變;幼年期;雜交;結果位置;楊桃;棗;番石榴;冷子番荔枝;山竹;誘變;紅毛丹;番荔枝;鳳梨釋迦;番石榴;新興熱帶果樹;品種改良;實生選種;紅龍果;育種;育種;育種年限;幼年期;雜交育種;榴槤蜜;中晚熟;蓮霧;蓮霧;雜交;結果位置;結果量;番石榴;育種;品種改良;誘變;品種改良;育種;榴槤蜜;實生選種;紅龍果;番石榴;幼年期;採後處理;蓮霧;番石榴;紅毛丹;結果位置;育種;結果量;cherimoya;Wax-apple;Guava;Fruiting Quantity;Indian Jujube;Breeding;Wax-apple;Postharves Handling;India Jujube;Pre-cooling;guava;Breeding Period;Psidium guajava;Breeding;atemoya;sugar-apple;mutagenesis;Juvenile;Hybridization;Fruiting Position;carambola;Juj
摘要: (一)、新興熱帶果樹種類開發與區域試作 為提供農民新果樹種類的栽種選擇,滿足消費者多樣化與好奇的心理,同時紓解經濟栽培果樹可能發生的盛產壓力,本計畫主要利用引種,引進國外已商業栽培的熱帶樹種或新品種,進行適應性觀察與評估,並開發其利用價值,提供農民選種果樹上的參考。結果包括:1.調查試驗所定植山竹的開花結果習性與果實品質:今年受冬季低溫不斷襲台的影響,僅2株有結果,開花期長達2個月(自2上~3下)且延後1個半月才來花,結果數估計40粒,但均遭受松鼠為害,以致無果實可供調查。2.榴槤蜜開花習性及結果率、病蟲為害情形之調查:今年榴槤蜜的開花結果相當良好,83年引進栽植者已全部結果,其中2-3、3-6等品系均超過100果/株,但受莫拉克颱風影響,植株受損與落果嚴重。另淘汰易裂果、果肉纖維多之品系,補植試區所篩選優質品系10株,進行品系比較試驗。佳冬試區有近五成結果,其中初選1、4、11、20及68等品系。另於產地台東搜集果實品質優的兩品系(黃妃及紅蜜)。六龜試區植168株已結果105株(62.5%)(六年生),結實情形頗佳,平均每株尚需進行疏果(平均留4~50果/株)。3.紅毛丹開花習性及結果:調查鳳山分所之紅毛丹品系已開花結果品系計27株,其中17株為雌株,10株為雄株;並初選黃毛丹3-1及紅毛丹8-2兩品系,另於卑南試區新植產地所蒐集到的離核品系計10株進行品系比較試驗與區域試作。4.培育新引進果樹種類與品種:本年度新植6株無花果、3株榴槤及馬米果、寶爪果各1株,觀察在台灣南部地區的適應性。5.另從東南亞國家陸續引進龍貢、寶爪果、星蘋果等果樹進行試植觀察,其中龍貢也已進入開花結果期,顯示在台灣南部地區可以開花結果,幼年期長達10年,結果部位集中於主幹。6.調查甜黃皮果實品質:其幼年期為3年,果皮色在未轉褐之前甚酸,完全轉褐之後風味甜酸兼具,糖度12<SUP>。</SUP>Brix,酸度1.61%。7.整理新興果樹歷年來的栽培文章,集結出版新興果樹栽培管理專輯1冊,頁數近150頁,共含括17項作物,提供民眾栽培管理上之參考。8.於六龜試區辦理榴槤蜜試種成果觀摩會1場。 (二)、中晚熟之優質印度棗育種 印度棗育種以提高果實品質,分散果實產期,提昇市場競爭力為育種目標。利用雜交育種等方法進行品種改良,選育大果、高品質、耐白粉病及耐貯運之早熟或晚熟品種。為改良果實外觀及品質等性狀,於品種園中選取高朗3號、翠蜜、蜜棗、中葉、大蜜、金桃等優良親本進行雜交育種作業,由後裔中選拔優良品系進行評估,本土市場著重於大果、脆甜多汁及不同產期品種為選種目標,外銷市場以耐貯運特性為主要訴求。本年度複選觀察品系SⅠ8941品系肉質細脆多汁、具棗子風味,平均果重139.3g,平均糖度13.0˚Brix,擬繼續進行園藝性狀穩定性評估。 (四)、優質番石榴品種選育 本年度擬進行(1)4個複選優質少籽品系少籽性狀、果實品質、著果率的穩定性調查,(2)F2少籽品系150株實生後代全年度的果實品質與果實少籽穩定性調查。(3)1025株白拔、66-90等品種(系)實生苗的番石榴立枯病抗性檢定。 (五)、不同留果數與著果部位對番石榴果實品質之影響 番石榴主要產區的農會或合作社所屬的產銷班農友採共同選別、共同計價的模式,將所採收的果實運送到集貨場,經選別人員以人工或機械依外觀、軟硬度、果實大小或重量進行選別,產銷班再以統一代號運銷至拍賣市場進行拍賣。由於番石榴可週年生產,不同產銷班成員所生產的果實品質參差不齊,品質不一的原因除自然天候因素影響外,不同管理方式、病蟲害、株齡、結果量及結果位置均會影響果實品質。以重量及大小為主的共選共計模式,果實品質好壞的市場拍賣價差不大,進而影響果農改善品質的意願。本計畫擬探討台農一號'帝王拔'番石榴不同留果量及著果位置的果實品質差異,進而改善分級方式及提高高品質果品的比率,增加果農收益,提供改善果實品質的誘因。 完成二年生'帝王拔'番石榴不同留果數及果實品質差異調查。   1.調查分析帝王拔番石榴不同株齡、不同結果期、不同果結果部位、不同留果數對果實品質的影響。 2.建議帝王拔栽培適宜的留果方式,提升高品質果品的比例,穩定提生高品質果品與一般果品之價差,提高農民收益。 完成3種不同留果數處理果實品質調查。 (六)、果樹推動小組-縮短蓮霧育種年限之開發研究 建立蓮霧雜交育種之作業流程。縮短蓮霧育種年限,提高育種效率。增加優異蓮霧雜交苗新品系之選獲率。100年雜交實生苗木,已於103年初花芽萌生,3年內度過幼年期。 (七)、果樹推動小組-深紅果皮之優質蓮霧育種 一、陸續調查粉紅種、大果品系、泰國紅寶石Thub Thim Chan、印尼大果種(巴掌蓮霧)等品系園藝性 狀,可供日後育種參考。二、自粉紅種變異之大果品系FS-1~FS-7,選獲FS-6,將進行命名及推廣。三、目前陸續進行台農1號紫晶蓮霧之品種授權農戶一家,另將以選獲之大果品系FS-6及印尼大果種雜交後代96b4品系進行品種權申請,具有果形大、深暗紅果皮色、低裂果率、糖度高(10~14<SUP>。</SUP>Brix)、風味佳等特性。96B4為印尼大果種雜交後代,具有原有印尼大果種果形大、果色深紅、果皮無生理病斑等特性,將進行命名及推廣。 (八)、楊桃與紅龍果耐貯運品種選育與改良    為提升台灣楊桃果實品質,拓展楊桃的外銷事業,本試驗以選育大果、豐產、糖度高、酸度低、硬度高、低草酸含量與耐貯運、低溫冷藏楊桃為目標。試驗分別利用雜交育種、實生選拔等育種方法進行。在雜交選育種方面今年新種植‘紅龍’與‘青漧厚稔’的雜交種共88株。在實生選拔方面計培育350 株實生苗,共初選出6 株實生單株,繼續進行品系比較試驗。而‘台農3號’(紅龍)之實生後代29-2品系,已於2011年2月取得命名為‘台農4號’(金龍)的品種權,該品種具有大果、耐貯運、冬果不易褐化等優點,無論內外銷市場均能切合其需求。除此41-18、29-10等品系目前亦在產地進行區域試植觀察中。2012年亦陸續定植的雜交種88株,期能再次選育出適合內外銷的品種。     另為改進紅龍果現有栽培品種的缺點,期能選育黃皮大果無刺或少刺的黃龍果新品種及大果紅皮紅肉之優質紅龍果新品種,以改進現有栽培種果實糖度低、帶草腥味,性狀不整齊,管理不方便等缺失。本年度計芽接紅龍果雜交苗850個以上品系。另初選黃皮(與紅皮(3-4-5)、粉紅肉(98-3)等品系,有待繼續觀察其自花授粉能力,評估其推廣栽培價值。另調查紅龍果前年嫁接的品系之果實品質與進行性狀評 估,共計調查155株開花結果品系,初選2-6-2、9-9-3、3-6-1、2-11-3、7-15-3等優質品系,有待明年度再進行複選。 (九)、耐貯運番荔枝品種選育 本計畫繼續繁殖種間雜種Atemoya優良實生變異與雜交後代種苗於各地區試作,調查其園藝性狀、結果習性與風土適應性,評估各品系的結果穩定性與果實品質、貯藏性等園藝性狀、做為未來推廣栽培之依據。期望選育出適合栽培結果穩定、品質優良、貯藏性較佳的新品種,使品種多樣化,擴大栽培地區。目前本分所已選出86-實-12、89-7-3、86-M-10等優良品系,分別具有果型大、果色美觀、夏期果不易裂果等特點,近年將進一步進行園藝性狀分析與貯運性調查。此外,台灣鳳梨釋迦於5月~11月成熟之夏期果裂果率將近100%,產期調節只收成冬期果,一年一收獲益受限。鳳山分所致力使用雜交育種,實生選育方式進行選種,期望解決易裂果問題,並使果農獲取較高利潤,延長外銷供果期。另進行番荔枝種子誘變處理,目標為篩選耐貯運的優良品系,增加番荔枝長程運輸能力。 (十)、印度棗與蓮霧儲運損傷改善與包裝材料之研發 本研究擬藉由運輸模擬方式來重現實況與快速評估儲運品質,進而改善現行儲運模式與包裝材料研發改良,期能提升儲運環境之合理化調控,減少運輸過程的損傷,延長農產品儲架壽命,讓台灣優質水果可以拓展更遠程的國際市場。本年度重要工作項目有:持續農產品外銷儲運環境參數蒐集、包裝與緩衝材質測試與改良、運輸實況模擬試驗等。 (十一)、具競爭力之外銷果樹:紅龍果與印度棗外銷貯運採後處理研究 一、 水果常於採收後採收與貯放方式不良造成損壞,導致品質下降及櫥架壽命減低,因此本研究擬針對國內發展中之紅龍果進行研究。根據廖等(2010)研究指出,目前國內栽培面積為1000-1200公頃,平均每公頃產量23-27噸,產量與日俱增,且紅龍果為具有發展有機栽培與無毒栽培之高潛力作物,因此研發紅龍果採收後處理保存技術及後續外銷貯運技術,以減少農產品滯銷與開發國際市場刻不容緩,且日本檢疫需經過46.5℃飽和蒸汽處理30分鐘後殺蟲方能外銷,新加坡東南亞地區外銷則須到港後維持高品質與櫥架壽命三至五天,因此研究紅龍果採收後貯運保存及檢疫處理後運輸保鮮效果日趨重要。 不同貯藏溫度與包裝方式紅龍果保鮮研究:熱帶果樹常因長年生長於氣候較炎熱地區,因此果品承受低溫逆境能力及寒害發生率較高,故擬設計不同貯藏溫度與包裝方式進行紅龍果低溫貯放試驗,並做為未來產業之參考。 二、 台灣印度棗的栽培技術及品質皆領先全球,是台灣目前具有外銷潛力的果樹之一,因此除了加強生產栽培研究外,更應注重採收後處理之貯運保存,以減少蔬果低溫貯運後之寒害情形與貯運後病害的發生。 (1) 本研究擬發展印度棗適當的處理方法與貯運技術,以利國內低溫貯運之參考及未來空、海運外銷之拓展。 (2) 建立印度棗保鮮及採後處理作業新技術,擴增未來台灣農業產業在亞太市場之利基,提升我國熱帶果樹的外銷競爭力。(1)、New tropical fruits variety development and region test. The purpose of this study is that provided more choice for farmers to grow plants, increase customers’ choices and decrease the impact joining to WTO, so we imported excellent foreign fruit tree cultivars or new cultivars to proceed adaptability inquisition. The results are shown as following: Investigated flowering habits and fruiting rate of mango-steen: 3 plants flowering totally; juvenility is 12-15 years; average fruit mass is 50-100 g; fruiting number (83-1 line) are over 250 fruits. Investigated flowering habits, fruiting rate and pest management of chempedak: this year the flowering and fruiting results are excellent (chempedak that imported in 1994 are all fruiting); fruiting rate of  2-3 and 3-6 line reach to 100 fruits/per plant; serious abscission are caused by Morak Typhoon in August, so get rid of cracking fruit and fiber fresh, we select 10 plants from excellent line, and proceed line-comparison test. In Liukuei test area (developed for 5 years), 70% are fruiting, and ‘Golden No.1’ has short juvenility and high production. In Jiadong test area, 50% are fruiting , and select 1、4、11、20 and 68 lines. Investigated flowering habits and fruiting rate of rambutan: 27 maturity rambutan plants that collected in Fengshan Horticultural Experiment Branch, there are 17 female and 10 male plants; according to fruit skin color, there are 10 red rambutan, 4 yellow rambutan and 3 green rambutan; select yellow rambutan 3-1 line and red rambutan 8-2 line; collected 10 nucleus to separate line from origin. Proceed seedlings propagation of rambutan, mangosteen, Longast, and chempedak, expected to propagate selected cultivars rapidly and promote effectively.Developed new imported fruit tree variety: we planted 6 Figs, 3 jackfruit, 1 mame-fruit; and observed the adaptability in south of Taiwan. (2)、Breeding of midden-late mature Indian jujube. Hybridization was used in Indian jujube variety improvement.In this study we oncern about fruit quality, size, shelf life, powdery mildew resistance, early, mild or later maturily of Indian jujube. Gaolang No3, Cueimi ,Mizao, Jhongye, Dami,Jintao and Sanmu of Indian jujube stains were used as parent.For local market: customers prefer large fruit size, high TSS, crispy and juicy taste; therefore, for export market: high tolerance of storage and transportation is critical point. Results of this year are listed as follow.  We reselected SI8941 from observed lines. We found that SI8941 line has these characters: juicy, tender and full of favor , average weight is 139.3g, average TSS is 13˚Brix. ; and will keep assessing its stability of horticulture characters in the future. (4)、Guava Breeding In This project we will investigate the stability of seedless trait, fruit quality and fruit set of 4 superior guava seedless lines and 150 individual guava plants. We also screen guava wilt resistant lines from 1025 seedlings of 『white guava』 and 』66-90』 line with artificial inoculation. (5)、Effects of Fruit load and Position on The Fruit Quality of Guava   Guava farmers transport there harvested fruit to farmers associations or marketing groups to grading. Grading is according to the fruit appearance, hardness, fruit size or weight with manual or mechanical. Guava can fruiting all the year round but the unevenness about the fruit quality from different growers result in low wholesale price. This result will affect farmers’ willingness to improve their fruit quality. This project will investigate the effect of different fruiting quantity and fruiting position on ‘Emperor’ guava fruits quality. We hope this will improving grading and increase the ratio of good fruit quality and income. (6)、Team of fruit trees research - Studies on shortening of wax-apple (Syzygium samarangense Merr. et Perry) breeding period In our study, first we will set a data basics by collecting the important horticultural characters of different wax-apple varieties or lines, choosing optimal breeding parents according these characters for wax-apple hybridization treatment. The second, we will set the processes of breeding for wax-apple hybridization. The third, shortening the juvenile period of wax-apple and increase the efficiencies of breeding. The last, increase the new and excellent wax-apple varieties and lines under the breeding plans.In past year result, the 2011 year hybrid young waxapple trees over juvenile period in three years. (7)、Team of fruit trees research- Breeding of dark red skin wax-apple(Syzygium samarangense Merr. et Perry) Establishing the basic horticultural characters for wax-apple  breeding work, that was accorded by  these characters of different wax-apple varieties. Adjusting the characters for pink、big shape、Thub Thim Chan and Indonesia big shape lines. And the FS-1~FS-7 big fruit  lines were selected from the mutant lines of pink variety, those were planted for farmers in the future. And in  past year study result, our first wax apple Tainong No.1(Amethyst)cultivar right was sold by a farmer in 2012. New wax-apple  line of FS-6 with larger shape, dark red color and new hybrid line of 96B4 from Indonesia big shape lines  which with larger fruit shape, specific fruit appearance, dark red color, less fruit surface physiological disease and special taste that both were applied for new cultivar right this year. (8)、Studies on carambola and pitaya storge and transportion-tolerate breeding and variety improvement. In order to increase the quality of  carambola,the purpose of this study is that breed weighty fruit, high production, high TSS, low acidity, long shelf life and cold storage carambola to improve fruit quality and expand export market. The culture we use in this study are cross-breeding and seedlings selection and introduced variety. The results of cross-breeding: we have developed 400 hybrid seedlings . The result of seedling selection: we have developed 350 seedlings, and selected 6 seedlings. Therefore, seedling progeny of carambola Tainong No.3 (Red Dragon)-‘29-2 line’ has obtained variety authority and be denominated ‘carambola Tainong No.4 (Golden Dragon) in February, 2009. Carambola Tainong No.4 (Golden Dragon) have the advantages of weighty fruit, transportation – resistant and few fruit browning in winter, so Tainong No.4 fit the needs both for local and export market. Besides, 41-18 and 29-10 lines are observed currently in test area. For future development, we expect to breed transportation resistant, fruit quality and low temperature quarantine resistant cultivars to increase the competitiveness in international market. We will continue breeding hybrid cultivars (Ging-gian×Tainong No.3) to select the new cultivar that fit local and export market’s need.    (9)、Selection and breeding of resistant-storage and transporation Annona species. In order to improve sugar-apple (<I>Annona</I> app.) fruit quality, the project focus on selection high quality, high yield and great storage and transportation apility lines. Fengshan branch has selected superior stains, including 86-S-12 (big fruit size), 89-7-3 (pink peel color) and 86-M-10 (few fruit-cracking in summer). In the next procedure,which to investigate these horticultural traits and capability of storage and transportation. The atemoya cracking rate was really high (near 100%) of summer (May to September). The farmer adjust production period to winter and harvest only once per year. This project would selection by hybrid seedling, and try to solve fruit-cracking problem and extends export period to promote farmer’s profit. According to screen longer shelf-life species. Mutagenesis treatment to <EM>Annona Squamosa</EM> seeds could be a useful selection technique, and has potenture to increase sugar apple long term transport capability. (10)、Study on injury and package improvement of Indian jujube and wax apple By transport vibration simulation, this study can reconstruct the reality and prompt assess the quality of storage and transportation for jujube and wax apple. Furthermore, we try to modify packaging materials, storage process and transportation model to improve control strategy of environment and reduce the damage of fruit during transportation, and to extend the storage and shelf life of agricultural products with the aim of more international market for Taiwan&apos;s high-quality fruit. The main research subjects of this year are the acquisition of transportation environment parameters, test of package combination and cushion material and simulation experiment by electromagnetic vibrator. (11)、Studies on postharvest technology of dragon fruit and Indian jujube for exporting. Wrose harvesting method and storage method that were easily induced quality lose and decreasing shelf-life of fruits. In this study, we will focus on developing fruit- pitaya, which is a developing crop (about 1200-1500hectare) in Taiwan.In order to develope postharvest technologies and exporting methods of pitaya, there are some stretergies will be investigated: Pitaya is a tropical fruit that is more easily to display chilling injury. We will also design different temperature and packing materials for pitaya storage test. The cultivation technique and fruit quality of Indian jujube in Taiwan are leading in the world. Not only improving technology of cultivating, but also paying attention of postharvest handling. In order to decrease the loss of chilling injury after low temperature storage and storage disease happened. (1) Developing sutiable treatment and storage technology: improving low temperature storage and increasing export of foreign country . (2) Establishing new postharvest technology of Indian jujube: improving the value of output of Taiwanese agricultural industries
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