具競爭力優質熱帶果樹品種之選育及栽培技術改進

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計畫名稱: 具競爭力優質熱帶果樹品種之選育及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人: 謝鴻業
共同計畫主持人: 徐敏記;陳筱鈞;劉彥彤;吳靜霞;黃基倬;朱堉君;陳奕君;吳庭嘉;張林仁;林延諭;方信秀;劉碧鵑;王怡玎;江淑雯;盧柏松
計畫編號: 105農科-9.4.3-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所
全程計畫年: 2016
關鍵字: 採後處理;番石榴;福利蒙柑;番石榴;植物精油;蓮霧;果實品質;貯藏;紅龍果;鳳梨釋迦;採收後處理;紅龍果;花粉;裂果;產業型包裝場;生產體系;鈣;次氯酸水;新興熱帶果樹;選種;品種改良;外銷;黃金果;鳳梨;採前處理;楊桃;疏果;育種;非農藥防治;棗;品質;番荔枝;釋迦;育種;印度棗;山竹;採後處理;postharvest hndling;GUAVA;Fremont;Guava;Essential Oil;WAXAPPLE;Fruit quality;Storage; Hylocereus sp. ;Atemoya;Postharvest handling treatment;dragon friut;Pollen;cracking (splitting);Commercial scale packinghouse;Production System;calcium;Hypochlorou
摘要: 印度棗與紅龍果外銷及貯運技術研究 研發最適採收後處理包裝模式開發,模擬測試外銷至東南亞不須檢疫重要都市(港、澳與新加坡 )與加拿大櫥架壽命探討研究。試驗適切品種外銷檢疫國家與整體貯運模組開發,達到順利外銷之目的。 1. 了解目前印度棗外銷加拿大之處理流程,改善其操作流程模組。 2. 瞭解新式天然資材:蜂膠於紅龍果應用初步結果一式,找出最佳適用濃度與方式 具台灣特色之熱帶果樹育種及栽培技術改進 本計畫以進行具台灣特色之熱帶果樹育種及栽培技術改進為目標,擬完成下列工作重點: 1.選育耐貯運、耐低溫冷藏、果色橙紅、風味佳,適宜內外銷之楊桃品種進行推廣。 2.選育大果、高品質、具自花授粉性、耐貯運之優質紅龍果新品種,期能增加農民收益。 3.蒐集國內現有的紅毛丹與黃金果優良品系,並自東南亞引入黃金果、紅毛丹、黃毛丹、榴槤蜜、星苹果、榴槤、山竹等新興熱帶果樹品種進行試種及進行實生變異株選拔;探討新興果樹栽培技術,建立無性繁殖體系;再經區域試作、進行評估與推廣栽培,使國內果樹種類及品種多樣少量化,增強果樹產業的競爭能力。 4.複選果實品質優良的少籽番石榴進行品系比較;複選少籽品系實生後代果實品質、少籽穩定性調查;完成第三年生'帝王拔'番石榴不同留果數果實品質差異調查;分析調查成熟果實成熟葉對數與品質相關性。 5.調查10個番荔枝初選優良實生品系貯運能力與各種園藝性狀;進行3個番荔枝雜交組合,總計600株實生苗。 6.陸續選拔蓮霧雜交後實生苗選拔表現特殊或優異品系。 7.針對棗果實之品質、產量及病蟲害抗性等進行品系複選。 鳳梨產業型包裝場實用保鮮技術之改良與作業系統研究 本計畫擬對現有之簡易式鳳梨集貨場處理進行改善,建立具有量化效率的產業型保鮮技術,延長鮮果的貯運販賣壽命,以海運方式擴大海外市場遠距銷售。本年度工作重點為設計產業型包裝場的保鮮處理流程,順勢導入改良保鮮技術,確保外銷鮮果之耐貯運能力;工作內容包括果實成熟度之研判與選別、果實之清潔與果梗切口之保鮮、果實品質之維護與失重之防止處理、包裝、裝箱與船運條件之設定等。 宜蘭地區蓮霧栽培技術改進之研究 藉由覆蓋、斷根等土壤水分管理及不同鈣資材處理,減少蓮霧果實裂果之發生並提升其品質,以供果農參考及作為推廣應用之依據。利用非農藥資材技術於梅雨季前進行防治,降低蓮霧受薊馬危害,減少後續結果期用藥並增進農民收益,保障消費者健康。 紅龍果採後處理及栽培技術改進 為降低紅龍果儲藏性病害發生,減少內、外銷運輸期間的損耗並減少農藥殘留,本研究擬篩選採前及採後非農藥資材及最適使用濃度,施用於紅龍果連續採收期間,以建立紅龍果採前及採後處理模式並延長果品儲架壽命。 中部地區番石榴外銷生產體系建立及育種之研究 本計畫在提昇番石榴外銷貯運技術方面,調查以修剪、留新梢量等操作控制並提昇夏果品質,並配合適當的貯運技術,建立中部地區番石榴外銷生產體系,促進番石榴產業之發展及農民之收益。針對中部番石榴產業,除運用實生或芽條變異選拔外,也運用雜交育種進行品種改良,選育新的番石榴品種,增加品種多樣化,提供消費市場新的選擇。 臺東地區特色果樹育種及栽培技術改進之研究 本計畫為加強臺東地區果樹生產技術與品質改進,針對轄區內特色果樹之育種及栽培技術進行相關試驗研究,包括番荔枝育種、番荔枝果實及花粉貯藏方法、鳳梨釋迦砧木試驗及福利蒙疏果試驗等,期能運用番荔枝育種與相關栽培技術,提升並穩定釋迦、鳳梨釋迦與福利蒙之產量與品質,以供農友利用並確保農民收益。Competitive exporting fruits: Studies on postharvest technology of dragon fruit and Indian jujube for exporting. Wrose harvesting method and storage method that were easily induced quality lose and decreasing shelf-life of fruits. In this study, we will focus on developing fruit- pitaya.Pitaya and Indian jujube are tropical fruits that are easily display chilling injury. We will also design different temperature and packing materials for pitaya storage test. Cultivation techniques and fruit quality of Indian jujube and dragon fruit in Taiwan are leading in the world. Not only improving technology of cultivating, but also paying attention of postharvest handling. In order to decrease the loss of chilling injury after low temperature storage and storage disease happened. (1) Developing sutiable treatment and storage technology: improving low temperature storage and increasing export of foreign country . (2) Establishing new postharvest technology of dragon fruit: improving the value of output of Taiwanese agricultural industries. 1. Taiwan characteristical tropical fruit breeding and cultivation techniques improved. The plan for tropical fruit breeding and cultivation techniques to improve as the goal, to be completed the following priorities: 1.breeding good storage, low temperature refrigeration, fruit color orange, good flavor, star fruit varieties suitable for export of. 2.breeding large fruit, high quality, with self-pollination resistance, high-quality red dragon fruit storage and transportation of the new varieties. 3.collect existing domestic fruit rambutan and gold fine lines, and Southeast Asia since the introduction of the golden fruit, rambutan, Rattus Dan, durian honey, star apple, durian, mangosteen and other new varieties of tropical fruit trees to try to grow and make a real Health mutant selection; explore new fruit tree cultivation techniques, the establishment of asexual reproduction system; and then the regional test for, evaluate and promote the cultivation of fruit trees so that a small number of types of domestic and species diversity, and enhance the competitiveness of fruit industries. 4.Guava breeding project will investigate the stability of seedless trait, fruit quality and fruit set of 4 superior guava seedless lines and 50 individual guava plants. Guava farmers transport there harvested fruit to farmers associations or marketing groups to grading. Grading is according to the fruit appearance, hardness, fruit size or weight with manual or mechanical. Guava can fruiting all the year round but the unevenness about the fruit quality from different growers result in low wholesale price. This result will affect farmers’ willingness to improve their fruit quality. This project will investigate the effect of different fruiting quantity and fruiting position on ‘Emperor’ guava fruits quality. We hope this will improving grading and increase the ratio of good fruit quality and income. 5.Survey 10 Annona primaries excellent seedling lines with a variety of horticultural traits storage capacity; Annona were three crosses, a total of 600 seedlings. 6.After the selection of wax hybrid seedlings in succession selection of special or outstanding performance lines. 7. The jujube for the fruit quality, yield and pest-resistant strains, etc. check. Improvement of postharvest technologies and establishment of efficient handling procedures for commercial scale packinghouse for export of fresh pineapples Improvement of postharvest technologies and establishment of efficient handling procedures for commercial scale packinghouse for export of fresh pineapples:This project is aimed at consolidating currently available technologies as well as developing new methods for improved handling and packing export fresh pineapples at a commercial scale packinghouse operation. An efficient and practical packinghouse operation procedure will be designed, tested, and improved. Both work efficiency and the effectiveness of preservation of the fruit quality and freshness will be considered. Crucial events include accurate harvest maturity and quality control, fruit surface cleaning, stem-end wound disinfection, weight-loss control, proper packaging, and shipping condition control etc. Study on Cultivation Improvement of Wax Apple in Yilan Area Investigating the effects of cover, root pruning and calcium materials treatments on fruit quality and cracking of wax apple Nanyang planted in Yilan area. Research in the rainy season using non-chemical treatments to decrease thrips on wax apple and to develope non-pesticide materials controlling method in field. The results will be used to improve the cultivation practices of wax apple and to increase farmers' income. Studies on postharvest and cultivation technology in pitaya The purposes of this study are reducing storage disease of pitaya during transportation and chemical remaining. Non-chemical materials control on pre-harvest and postharvest will be selected to prolong shelf life and fruit quality in pitaya. Studies on the Establishment of Exportation System and the Breeding of Guava in Central Taiwan On the improvement of storage and transportation, investigations on techniques for pruning and shoot remaining will carried out to produced summer guava fruits. It’s forward to establish a production system for exporting for the guava industry of central Taiwan. The selection from seedlings or bud mutation combined with crossing breeding are used in variety improvement of guava, the new selected or bred varieties can enhance the market diversification and consumer's selection. The study on fruit breeding and cultivated improvement for Taitung characteristically fruit The project is in order to enhance the productive technology and quality improvement of fruits, especially in breeding and cultivation technology of characteristically fruit in Taitung region. The research includes hybrid technology of superior Annona varieties, the storage technology of Annona fruits, the storage technology of Annona pollens, the rootstock of atemoya characteristic, and the effect of fremont fruit thinning etc. we hope to upgrade and stabilize the production and quality of sugar apple, atemoya and fremont fruits for farmers’ utilization and income level up.
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