修剪時期影響‘帝王拔’番石榴生育週期日數與果實品質

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作者: 黃明雅;Huang, Ming-Ya
刊名: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場研究彙報
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 2007
關鍵字: 番石榴;修剪;生育週期;開花;果實;品質;Guava;Pruning;Cropping cycle;Flowering;Fruit;Quality
摘要: 為瞭解周年修剪對帝王拔番石榴( Psidium guajava L. cv. ‘Diwang Ba’) 生育與果實生產之影響,以高雄縣大社鄉劉氏果園之3年生植株為材料,自2008年2月起至12月止進行每兩個月一次的修剪,進而比較修剪對於生育週期 (cropping cycle,包括萌梢、開花、著果、果實生育與成熟等階段)所需日數的影響,計算修剪後萌新梢之開花率與花序型態習性,並調查果重、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、果肉厚度、果肉硬度及抗壞血酸等果實品質。10月及12月修剪者,其新梢開花率為90%,然而2、4及6月修剪者僅有60 %。8-12月份修剪者,完成其生育週期所需日數為200天,遠高於2-6月修剪者之160天。8月修剪植株採收的果實品質最佳 (可溶性固形物含量12.9 %、果肉硬度13.81 Kg/cm2 、抗壞血酸含量 211.3 mg/L),而12月修剪者其果實品質最差(可溶性固形物含量9.5%、果肉硬度11.76 Kg/cm2、抗壞血酸含量128.3 mg/L)。試驗結果顯示,栽培於台灣南部之‘帝王拔’於8月修剪可獲得較佳之果實品質,惟其生育所需日數最長,於翌年2月下旬方能採收,且開花率略低。The goal of this study was to document the best time of pruning for 3-year-old field- grown guava cultivar ‘Diwang Ba’ (Psidium guajava L.) planted in Kaohsiung, Southern Taiwan. Trees were pruned every two months from February to November in 2008. The impacts of pruning on the duration required for cropping cycle included sprouting, anthesis, fruit setting, and fruit growth period were investigated. The flowering rate and floral morphology of new shoots produced after pruning was calculated. The mature fruit characteristics included the fruit weight, the total soluble solids content (TSSC), the titratable acidity concentration (TAC), flesh thickness, firmness and ascorbic acid content were determined. Results indicated that approximately 200 days are required to complete the duration of a cropping cycle when pruning was conducted from August to December, whereas it decreased to 160 days when pruning was conducted from February to June. The flowering rate of new shoots reached 90% when trees were pruned in October and December, while it decreased to 60% when the trees were pruned in February, April and June. Out of all of the treatments, the fruit harvested from trees pruned in August possessed the best quality (12.9 % of TSSC, 13.81 Kg/cm2 of firmness and 211.3 mg/L of ascorbic acid), whereas the poorest quality of fruit were obtained when trees were pruned in December (9.5 % of TSS, 11.76 Kg/cm2 of firmness and 128.3 mg/L of ascorbic acid). It was suggested that ‘Diwang Ba’ guava trees grown in southern Taiwan that are pruned in August have a better quality but also have a longer growing period and lower flowering rate.
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