作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究

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計畫名稱: 作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究
計畫主持人: 呂椿棠
共同計畫主持人: 施伯明;余錦安;葉文彬;張芳魁;陳琦玲;劉啟祥;邱明賜;翁世豪;林秀橤;吳信郁;楊素絲;吳岱融;石佩玉;楊滿霞;黃圓滿
計畫編號: 109農科-7.8.2-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 減災技術;遮雨棚;農作物;文旦;高接梨;逆境;農業氣象;水稻;減災調適;資料分析;多光譜;栽培曆;淹水;草莓;人工智慧;小果番茄;防災;氣象;茶樹;颱風;鳳梨釋迦;減災;寒害;氣象災害;梨穗;芒果;天然災害;農業氣象災害;預警;青蔥;文旦;天然災害;災害;毛豆;農業氣象災害;低溫;洋香瓜;無人飛機載具;防風網;番荔枝;柑橘;蓮霧;Mitigation disaster technology;rain shelter;Crop;pomelo;Top-grafted pear;Stress;agricultural meteorology;Rice;adaptation strategies;data analysis;Multispectral;cultivation calendar;flooding;Strawberry;Artificial Intelligence (AI);Cherry tomato;disaster pr
摘要: 農業氣象及災害資訊加值化分析及減災調適研究 作物生產與氣候關係緊密,當天氣變化超過作物生長臨界條件時,則影響作物生長發育而造成影響。近來受全球氣候變遷影響,極端氣候發生頻率增加,導致災害發生頻率有增高趨勢。為協助農民降低作物災害損失,本計畫持續提供氣象災害資訊,輔導農民熟悉並使用作物早期災害預警平台與農作物災害通報APP,並辦理防(減)災教育訓練及推廣,以降低作物災害損失。  災害影像判別技術研發 農作物受颱風等天然災害侵襲造成嚴重損害,不僅農民財產損失,政府更須投入許多人力進行勘災與補償,相當耗費人力、時間與金錢。因此,除了防災減災技術發展外,如何加速災害救助流程,協助農友儘快復耕亦相對重要。105-108年度研究已蒐集多種作物與果樹不同生長階段與實際受災下之航拍影像及地面調查資料,研發農作物受損災情影像判釋技術與獲得航拍影像災損判釋之初步分析成果。其中,水稻倒伏透過影像監督分類法進行判釋並套疊地籍圖,能快速掌握災後作物災損面積與情況,目前災損影像比對現地查核之之水稻倒伏,以損失率達20%為基準(災損救助核定門檻)進行抽樣,其影像半自動災損判釋率可達到90%以上。香蕉受災影像的判釋,目前依據影像非監督分類,透過香蕉作物的光譜特性,可將其星芒狀葉片與週圍的環境組成加以區分,災損影像與現地查核比對(以損失率達20%為基準進行抽樣),其影像半自動災損判釋率約85%。另外,高接梨(套袋)、番石榴(套袋) 與柚子(落葉/落果)的影像半自動判釋與人工影像計數比對,其判釋準確率約為60-90%。本年度計畫預計以農業生態系長期試驗區與作物專業試驗區,應用無人飛行載具蒐集水稻與易受損作物、果樹不同生長階段與實際受災下之航拍影像及地面調查資料,導入AI辨識技術以建立影像與判釋分析成果資料庫,研發農作物受損災情影像判釋技術,透過影像資料庫之規劃與建置,加速作物災損影像判釋流程,並進行航拍影像的空間圖層、詮釋資料與屬性資料的整合,以協助災後之影像判釋標準之建立,除了可應用至農業保險勘災標準之擬定外,亦可提供農政單位現地勘災時使用。 北部地區重要作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究         農業生產與天氣息息相關,當天氣變化超過作物可容忍範圍時,常影響作物生長而造成損失,而近來全球氣候劇烈變動,極端氣候發生頻率增加,導致災害發生頻度有增高趨勢。為降低災害損失,本計畫研發豔陽柑寒害防減災技術,辦理防減災教育訓練及推廣,以持續提供氣象災害資訊及輔導農民熟悉並使用已研發完成之作物早期災害預警系統,並強化轄區內新竹桶柑專區防災栽培曆內容,以降低作物災害損失。 苗栗地區重要作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究 高接梨及草莓為臺灣重要經濟作物,苗栗縣為重要產區之一。作物栽培過程受到氣候影響而面臨許多挑戰,導致產量及農民收益不穩定。本研究擬釐清氣候逆境對高接梨及草莓開花結果、果實生長及植株生育之影響,以建構致災臨界氣象條件指標、防(減)災技術及導入災後復耕技術,減少產業受災害衝擊之損失,進而降低農民損失,達到提高收益之目標。另將試驗結果及氣象觀測數據進行作物防災栽培曆的編修,藉由舉辦防災技術講習會,宣導相關防(減)災技術及防災網頁資訊之應用方式,以提升農民防(減)災知能。 中部地區梨及葡萄災害指標及減災調適推播 本計畫主要因應全球氣候變遷導致發生極端天氣頻率增加且強度提高,已建立部份重要作物防災栽培曆,可提供因應改善策略與措施。推播作物災損發生氣象資料,防範災損技術推廣,減少遭遇天然災害風險,以穩定生產與農民收益,對農村經濟與社會安定,為不可量化之效益遠在可量化效益之上。 南部地區重要作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究 本計畫擬針對臺南區重要蔬果整合及導入芒果、文旦、洋香瓜作物防避災技術及編修作物防災栽培曆,配合氣象資料應用與APP軟體推播辦理相關講習教育訓練,供災害發生前預防及災後復育之參考應用,降低災害造成損失及影響,以強化產業之競爭力。 高屏地區重要作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究 本年度目標有四:一為調查毛豆等3種作物不同生育期之臨界氣象條件及評估易遭遇的災害,建立致災條件釐定及災損估算技術。二為建置或擴增毛豆、小果番茄、蓮霧等3種作物防減災栽培曆,並辦理防減災技術講習宣導及示範觀摩會,加強農民對防減災措施應用,推動重要作物自主性防減災體系。 三為在毛豆外銷生產專區導入綜合性災害防範措施,調查評估推動的成效 ,建立毛豆防減災農業經營專區,降低專業農民的災害損失,穩定毛 豆外銷產品的原料生產,提升臺灣毛豆產品在國際市場的競爭力。其預期效益:一為建立毛豆、小果番茄、蓮霧等3種作物災害預警體系,建置致災指標,提供農民採取相對應的減災措施。減少專業農民的損失20%以上。 二為建置或擴增毛豆、小果番茄、蓮霧等3種作物防減災栽培曆,並辦理防減 災技術講習宣導及示範觀摩會2場,加強農民對防減災措施應用,推動重 要作物自主性防減災體系。三為 輔導毛豆外銷專區建立防災減災之農業經營專區500公頃以上,生產優質 安全的毛豆原料,可創造專業豆農的年產值達7億元以上,預計臺灣毛豆產品年外銷產值可達新台幣25億元以上。 宜花地區重要作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究 (1)收集不同地區梨園之氣象資料,以比較不同地區之微氣候對高接梨穗損害差異,提供預警資料參考,讓梨農可提早進行防減災與復耕措施。(2)發展實用可行之簡易可收式遮雨棚及防風網,配合青蔥防災栽培模式,降低強風、豪雨等對青蔥之折損,以保障蔥農收益並推廣農友採行,穩定青蔥產銷供應。(3)持續進行文旦防風罩技術之開發研究與驗證,並針對不同材質之防風罩進行探討,評估擴大防風罩效益之潛力與可行性。 臺東地區重要作物災害調查分析及減災調適研究 番荔枝屬果樹為臺東地區重要之經濟果樹,由於臺東地區地理位置的關係,夏秋季易受颱風(焚風)、冬季易受東北季風影響,屢有瞬間豪大雨、連續降雨、焚風及大溫差等異常氣候發生,近年又面對冬季氣溫上升(暖冬)的影響,作物產量減損,增加生產風險與成本。本研究目標為透過彙整鳳梨釋迦生育資料與氣象資料,歸納與驗證逆境發生條件,更新作物之防災技術與防災栽培曆。同時維護氣象站環境以維持觀測資料之品質,提高防災預警資訊推播之正確性,並辦理防災技術講習會,推動自主性防災,進而減少作物災損、增加農民收益,使農產業穩定發展。 茶樹災害調查、減災調適及參與式防災研究 因應極端氣候的變遷,低溫及長時間乾旱等氣候條件下,作物生長不僅受影響更可能造成災損。氣象觀測硬體設備已逐漸設置完成,但地區性作物栽培防災技術及防災預警等尚未齊備,故擬針對作物防災技術及原本已建置之作物防災資訊進行修正,以提供更精確之防災資訊與農民,進而實質降低作物受氣候影響之災損。本計畫包括1.建立茶樹重要災害減災技術1式;2.建立1處地區性茶樹防災栽培曆,以提供地區性茶農因應天然災害之田間管理參考;3.辦理茶樹防災技術講習2場次,推廣應用農作物災害預警平臺、農作物災害通報應用程式及LINE行動系統,增加使用率以降低農作物受天然災害之損害;4.維護轄區5處氣象站周邊環境,以確保氣象站資料之穩定及正確性。The study on agricultural meteorology disaster information analysis investigation and adaptation strategies. Crop production is closely related to the weather. When the weather changes beyond the conditions indicators of crops, the growth and development of crops often influence and lose it. Recently, on the occasion of the global climate has changed drastically, the frequency of extreme weather has increased, that result in the frequency of disasters has increased. In order to reduce disaster damage, the project still to provide meteorological disaster information and assisted farmers in familiarize themselves how to used the crop early warning system and crop disaster notification APP. Moreover implementation conduct training and disaster prevention education to reduce disaster damage. Develop crop disaster image interpretation technology Agriculture has been damaged by meteorological disasters. Governments spend a lot of resources and efforts on detecting, rescuing, and compensation. So, in addition to develop techniques of disaster prevention and mitigation, the rescue processes and rehabilitation are important as well. Firstly, aerial images are taken by UAV and basic crop growth records are investigated for different crops/fruits in the agricultural experimental study sites and Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) study sites under different growth stages and with/without the implications from artificial disaster treatments and from real meteorological disasters. Secondly, aerial images with high spatial resolution, multi-spectrum and 3-dimensional point clouds are produced and analyzed to develop semi-automated image interpretation technique for crop damages. Finally, UAV image database for crops with different growth periods and multi-spectrum under different degrees of damages is established. The UAV image database will be applied to assist the rescue processes on disaster investigation with the image interpretation of crop damaged. From two years' results, operational processes of UAV and initial image interpretation techniques on agricultural damages are established for different crops/fruits. For example, the accuracy of image interpretation on rice lodging and banana wind-throw are about 90% and 85%, respectively, comparing to ground approved and the baseline as 20% of damage rate on 30 samples of cadasters. In addition, the accuracy of image interpretation on bags counting and production estimation for pears, sugar apples, and guavas are about 60-80%. This year plan uses agricultural long-term ecological research(LTER) and crop professional test area, and uses unmanned aerial vehicles to collect aerial images and ground survey data of rice and vulnerable crops and fruit trees at different growth stages and under actual disasters, and introduces AI identification technology to Establish a database of image and interpretation analysis results, develop image interpretation technology for crop damage disasters, accelerate the process of crop disaster image interpretation through the planning and construction of image databases, and carry out spatial layers, interpretation data and The integration of attribute data to assist in the establishment of post-disaster image interpretation standards, besides being applicable to the formulation of agricultural insurance disaster investigation standards, it can also be used by agricultural administration units for on-site disaster investigation. Investigation and Analysis of Natural Disasters and Research on Disasters Reduction and Adaptation of the Major Crops in Northern Taiwan         Agricultural production is closely related to the weather. When the weather changes beyond the tolerable range of crops, it often affects the growth of crops and causes losses. Recently, the global climate has changed drastically, and the frequency of extreme weather has increased, resulting in an increase in the frequency of disasters. In order to reduce disaster losses, the project will develop preventing technology to mitigate cold damage of sunburst mandarin. It will also continues to provide meteorological disaster information and assist farmers to familiarize themselves with and use the developed early crop early warning system, strengthen the disaster prevention cultivation calendar of the Hsinchu tankan, and conduct training and promotion of disaster prevention education. Investigation and analysis of important crop disasters and adjustment of disaster reduction in Miaoli Grafted pears and strawberries are important economic crops in Taiwan, and Miaoli County is one of the main producing areas. Affected by the climate, the crop cultivation process faces many challenges, which may lead to unstable production and farmers' income. This study aims to clarify the effects of climate stress on flowering and fruiting, fruit growth and plant growth of grafted pears and strawberries. In this way, the disaster-critical meteorological conditions indicators and disaster prevention (mitigation) technologies are constructed and introduced into disaster recovery farming techniques. This approach can reduce the loss of the industry from disasters, thereby reducing farmers' losses and achieving the goal of increasing profits. In addition, this study will edit the test results and meteorological observation data for the crop disaster prevention cultivation calendar. Through the organization of disaster prevention technology workshops, the application of relevant disaster prevention (mitigation) technology and disaster prevention webpage information may be promoted to enhance farmers' awareness of disaster prevention (mitigation). Promptly of pear and grape disaster index and reduction adjustment in central Taiwan The plan is mainly to respond to the global climate change and increase the frequency of extreme weather and increase the intensity. Some important crop disaster prevention cultivation calendars have been established, and strategies and measures for improvement can be provided. We will disseminate meteorological data on crop damage, prevent the spread of disaster technology, reduce the risk of natural disasters, stabilize production and farmers' income, and stabilize the rural economy and society. The unquantifiable benefits are far beyond the quantifiable benefits. The study on the damage investigation and disaster reduction strategy establishment of several major crop in southern Taiwan. This study is to integrate damage reduction strategy and cultivation calendar editing for mango, pomelo and muskmelon. Climate disaster reduction and reconstruction techniques will be provided by APP push notification according to climate information analysis results. In this study we wish reduce the loss caused by climate damage and increase the competitiveness of fruit industry in southern Taiwan. Research Analysis on Mitigation Technology to Agrometeorological Disasters of Important Crops in Kaohsiung and Pingtung Areas  The objectives of crops program are 1) to investigate and assess the critical agrometeorological conditions and encounter disasters on different growth stages, in order to establish the cause judgment and estimation techniques to disaster damage; 2) to establish disaster prevention cultivation calendars for 3 main crops and conduct disaster prevention technology seminars and demonstrations to strengthen farmers' application of disaster prevention measures and promote the independence sexual disaster prevention and reduction system.3) to Introduce comprehensive disaster prevention measures in the edamame export professional area, investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of the promotion, establish an edamame prevention and mitigation agricultural management area, reduce the loss of disasters for professional farmers, stabilize the production of raw materials for edamame export products, and promote the Taiwan edamame products in the international market competitiveness.The experimental expectant benefits are 1) to establish an early warning system of 3 kind crops such as edamame, cherry tomato and wax apple, agrometeorological disasters, in order to reduce losses of professional farmers by more than 20%. 2) to establish (2) to establishing disaster prevention cultivation calendars for 3 main crops, and conducting 2 seminars on disaster reduction technology seminars and demonstrations to strengthen farmers' application of disaster reduction measures and promote an autonomous disaster reduction system.3) to establish the prevention and mitigation techniques of agrometeorological disasters on the export professional fields, in order to product quality and safety of fresh pods. It can create an annual output values of up to NT$700 million dollars for soybean farmers, and an export values of up to NT$2.5 billion dollars for Taiwanese products.  Researches of disaster analysis and reduction of important crops in Yilan and Hualien area (1)This study colocted the climate information of different grafting pear orchards and compared the chilling injury damage of grafting pear shoot.(2)The purpose of this project is to research and develop cultivation technologies of green onion in simple protected facility, and to reducing the cultivated problems on green onion production affected by heavy rain and typhone. Thus, the study including of improve cultural technique to protect green onion in rain shelter and windbreak nets. Establish feasible cultivated modes of green onion in simple protected facility would kept stable price of green onion and increase farmers’ income.(3)This study used different materials of PE net to cover over the pomelo tree to reduce the serverity of fruit drop.  The study on meteorological disaster investigation and adaptation strategies for Taitung characteristically crop <em>Annona</em> species are important economical fruit in Taitung. Because of the special geographical location ,Taitung area is susceptible to typhoon (foehn) in summer and autumn and northeast monsoon in winter. In recent years, the impact of anomalous climates have reduced crop yields and increased production risks and costs. The purpose of this research is to update the crop disaster prevention technology and disaster prevention cultivation calendar by integrating meteorological data and the cultivate data on Atemoya. At the same time, the weather station environment will be maintained to maintain the quality of observation data and improve the accuracy of disaster prevention early warning information. Additionally, disaster prevention technology training course will be hold to promote autonomous disaster prevention, thereby reducing crop damage, increasing farmers' income, and enabling the stable development of the agricultural industry. Investigation of Tea Disasters and Research on Disaster Reduction, Adaptation and Participatory disaster prevention In response to extreme climate changes, chilling injury and long-term drought and other climatic conditions, crop growth is not only affected but is more likely to cause disasters. Meteorological observation hardware equipment has been gradually set up, but regional crop cultivation disaster prevention technology and disaster prevention early warning are not yet available. Therefore, it is planned to modify the crop disaster prevention technology and the originally established crop disaster prevention information to provide more accurate disaster prevention information and Farmers, in turn, substantially reduce the damage to crops from the effects of climate. The plan includes: 1. Establishing 1 important disaster prevention indicators for tea trees; 2. Establishing a regional tea tree disaster prevention cultivation calendar to provide regional tea farmers with field management references in response to natural disasters; 3. Handling tea tree disaster prevention technology workshops 2 times, promote the application of crop disaster early warning platform, crop disaster notification application and LINE action system, increase the utilization rate to reduce the damage of crops from natural disasters; 4. maintain the surrounding environment of 5 weather stations in the jurisdiction to ensure the stability of the weather station data and correctness.
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