以荷姆霍茲共振器為基礎的線上水果體積分級系統之研製

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論文名稱: 以荷姆霍茲共振器為基礎的線上水果體積分級系統之研製
研究生姓名: 范揚凰
指導教授姓名: 程安邦
出版年: 2013
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 生物機電工程學系碩士班
關鍵字: 荷姆霍茲共振器;體積分級機;奇異值分解法;Helmholtz resonator;sorting machine;Singular Value Decomposition
摘要: 本研究乃利用聲學原理中的荷姆霍茲共振器研製一套線上水果體積分級系統。本系統為乾式、非接觸式的量測系統,除可用於水果的體積量測,也適用於其他不可浸水的物體。本系統的量測原理,是利用共振器在置入外物時,腔內氣體的共振頻率會因而改變,並依此特性推算物體體積。本系統利用機械敲擊產生的衝擊響應訊號來激起共振器共振,並在時域中以奇異值分解法(Singular Value Decomposition, SVD)分析系統的共振頻率。本系統的敲擊機構是以三個固定角度差的凸輪與壓縮彈簧的撞針來製造三個固定時間差的衝擊訊號,並以奇異值分解法分析共振訊號的平均值來預測體積,以增加系統強健性。在物體輸送方面,因共振器的量測系統在非開口處必須保持氣密,故本研究以履帶建構輸送系統,讓物體在量測過程受到輸送系統的影響降至最低。在分級的部分,本研究利用直線運動的氣壓缸與滑軌、平板結合,利用氣壓缸伸長時將平板推轉進而將移動中的蔬果導入收集槽中。本系統的分級水準,對於規則形蔬果(珍珠芭樂、富士蘋果)以及不規則形蔬果(紫心地瓜、釋迦)分四級的成功率皆可達85%以上,與現有分級機械的90%成功率相近,已達實用標準。本系統的分級速度,最高為每分鐘35顆。This research is aimed at developing a fruits as well as vegetables volume sorting system, which is based on a Helmholtz resonator. This system is a dry type and non-contact measurement system. In addition, it can be used to measure the volume of water-soaking-forbidden objects. The principle of Helmholtz resonator is based on the fact that its acoustic resonant frequency is a function of cavity volume. When an alien material is inserted into the cavity, the total air volume inside the cavity decreases, resulting in the increase of its acoustic resonant frequency. An automatic striking mechanism composed of three hammers was designed to induce the acoustic impulse responses, and a Singular Values Decomposition (SVD) algorithm was applied to extract these resonant frequencies consecutively. The averaged resonant frequency was then used. An air-sealed conveyor system was fabricated to transport each fruit for measuring its resonant frequency. For grading purposes, a mechanical-electrical system with air-cylinder, wood-slider, and Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) was also designed. The averaged successful rate of sorting fruits reaches 85% for both regular-shape fruits (guava and apple) and irregular-shape fruits (yam and custard apple), very close to the requirement of 90% successful rate for a commercial grading system. The top speed of the developed system is 35 fruits/min.
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