亞熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第5年/全程8年)

字體大小:A- A A+

單位商業會員附件下載:
計畫名稱: 亞熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第5年/全程8年)
計畫主持人: 張哲瑋
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 98農科-4.2.2-農-C2(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會農業試驗所嘉義分所園藝系
全程計畫年: 2009
關鍵字:
摘要: (一) 柑桔及鳳梨栽培技術改進之研究: 1. 山坡地椪柑果園肥培及水分管理模式之研究:根據97年試驗項目,包括早春灌溉與否、穴施及撒施等施肥方式及地表覆蓋與否等管理措施,之試驗結果,修正 98 年之試驗及調查項目,並根據 97 年採收排程之試驗結果,修正更適宜之採收間隔。 2. 果實生理障礙之研究及柳橙管理模式之評估:根據96及97年等之試驗結果,提出包括柑桔部分:椪柑、茂谷柑及柳橙果園之栽培技術改進建議。鳳梨部分則提出 '台農十七號'及 '台農十三號'之生理劣變防治技術之建議。 3. 降低天然災害對鳳梨及柑橘損失之研究由總所農經組負責:模擬天然災害後鳳梨復育之效能分析。嘉義分所則進行降低鳳梨與柑橘之天然災害損失試驗,並進行品質差異比較分析。並根據試驗及統計分析結果提出復育技術建議,並將二項作物之試驗結果,併同第二項工作項目,編撰栽培及災後復育技術手冊。 4. 鳳梨優質及安全生產系統之建立:配合熱帶水果整合生產系統之建立,改變台農17號鳳梨果實期之管理技術,以生產安全及增加果實Vit C的含量之生產技術。 5. 參加計畫審查會議及期中期末報告撰寫:依據各工作項目之執行進度,按期填寫執行成果,並如期參加計畫審查會議。 (1) 山坡地椪柑果園肥培及水分管理模式之研究: A. 獲得灌溉及覆蓋對果實產量及品質之影響,並嘗試區隔採收作業之安排。 B. 獲得和試驗項目提早或延長果實採收期之數據,期能提供生產排程之訂定參考。 (2) 重點果樹果實生理障礙之研究及安全優質柑桔生產體系之建構: A. 獲得施用藥劑對 '台農17號'及'台農13號'鳳梨生理劣變的防治效果。 B. 獲得水分管理模式對茂谷柑裂果之防治效果。 C. 獲得減少用藥果園之處理組及對照組,果實被害率並計算被害率之增減結果。 (3) 降低天然災害對鳳梨及柑橘損失之研究: A. 獲得敷蓋處理對茂谷柑產量及品質之影響評估。 B. 獲利淹水等天然災害對鳳梨產量及品質之影響評估。 (4) 鳳梨優質及安全生產系統之建立: A. 獲得栽培管理對台農17號鳳梨果實品質之影響評估。 B. 獲得提高台農17號鳳梨果實Vit C含量之改進技術。 (二) 石榴實生選種及品系之比較試驗:以四個安石榴大果優良品系(89-01,89-02,90-01 and 90-02)之六年生植株,每品系20株為供試,定植於嘉義農業試驗分所果園,行株距5m × 5m,並行微噴灌水及覆蓋塑膠布等設施。本年度主要探討: 1. 果實生長及發育之調查。 2. 果實物理及化學性之分析。 3. 控制果實數之品質及產量之調查。 4. 實生苗種植、培育及選拔。 5. 雜交苗種植及培育。 (三) 安全優質酪梨生產體系之建立:介質不同消毒時間及不同材料比例組合對於苗木生長之影響。利用耐抗炭疽病及病蒂腐病品系調查,炭疽病及蒂腐病藥劑室內篩選,以進行品種系抗病篩選。引起酪梨蒂腐及果腐病原分離及鑑定。調查危害蟲類及危害情形,天敵的防治效果,並提供防治技術供農民使用。針對台灣現有優良的酪梨商業品種,如`Hall'或`Choquette'等,研發實用化的採後貯藏處理方法,延長貯藏壽命與櫥架販賣期限。 (四) 柑桔果實外銷質量提升之研究:台灣生產的椪柑、桶柑等品質相當優良,曾外銷香港、東南亞及日本等國深受好評;我國加入世界貿易組織(WTO)後,在競爭激烈的國際貿易市場上,確保台灣水果以高品質而安全的優質形象進軍國際市場。劉富文教授在柑桔外銷貯運技術方面所作之研究可提供完整的資料參考應用,如何利用椪柑在外銷上貯運技術,並應用在明尼桔柚和福利蒙等新興柑桔品種上,以提升柑桔外銷的品質和數量,打造外銷產業。安可柑係一品質優良的晚熟種,可調節產銷供應時期,但因果皮會發生斑點,影響賣相,為解決果斑問題及增加柑桔產業之多樣性,故提此研究計畫。 (五) 柑橘品種改良與砧木試驗:雜交育種經由人工授粉,後代初選、複選與品種系比較試驗,選拔具少籽、不同產期、耐潰瘍病等高品質特性之新品種,並登記品種權。砧木試驗探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,做為栽培選用之依據,以提高生產力與品質。新興品種區域適應性試驗調查植株生育、果實品質分析及農民栽培管理反應資料,評估各新興品種在各產區的適應性差異,達品種多樣化的目標。 (六) 柑桔種原頂梢嫁接無病毒化保存及利用:為克服柑桔立枯病及毒素病,將主要品種、次要品種為優先,再增加由新引進品種中陸續選得之優良品種,以頂梢嫁接法無毒化,建立原種園。在隔離地區以隔離網室保存無病毒原原種樹及原種樹,並供應採穗園所需之原種接穗。 (七) 荔枝龍眼育種及紅毛丹、神秘果、白柿之開發利用:97年度選育新品種荔枝台農5號紅寶石,於10月通過果樹品種審議委員會審定。荔枝初選出晚熟品系2,單果重約27公克、可溶性固形物約17°Brix、果肉率可達80%。品系種比較試驗以71-3-15最優,平均單果重約27公克,可溶性固形物17.5°Brix、果肉率約72%。龍眼的產期可由南部早生品種6月中旬開始採收,最晚可延至11月25日,單果重以中部大串為最高平均可達14公克,果肉率以中部水貢為最高可達70%。紅毛丹、神秘果、白柿品種之蒐集、繁殖、選園定植及栽培管理。篩選出適合國內栽培之品系。建立紅毛丹、神秘果、白柿的植株生育及果實生長發育之基本資料。評估各地區試種生長及開花結果之情形。 (八) 酪梨品種改良:本計畫主要在於育成適合台灣地區栽培之不同成熟期,高品質,高油分之接穗品種及耐根腐病砧木品種。進而推廣給農民種。主要方法利用種苗交換或購買方式等引進目前國外商業品種及至國內農民栽種地區選種。不同品種栽種於同一園中進行開放授粉,而後收集優良植株種子播種以獲得優良實生品系。引入品種於本分所進行單株產量、粗脂肪、味道、成熟期、果實性狀等特性初步評估。將本分所初選優良接穗品種,於南部地區選殷實農民合作試作。預期可引進優良接穗品系及耐根腐病砧木並得到優良實生結果品種供農民栽培。 (九) 鳳梨育種:計畫目標:育成植株小,葉緣無刺,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。架構(重要工作項目): 1. 親本授粉:在3-4月間梨開花盛花期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。 2. 初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。 3. 品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品系進行比較試驗。4?新品系區域試驗:經比較試驗評估結果,具發展潛力的品系如C69-4-347、C78-5-127及C79-4-89等品系,在鳳梨重要產地進行區域試驗。預期效益:期能育成植抹小,葉緣無剌,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。1. Improvement of the culture technology in citrus and pineapple: (1) Relationship between water and fertilizer management and fruits quality of ponkan mandarin: Experiment was conductedin in Ponkan orchards to studies relationship between water management and fruits quality and flowering of ponkan trees, as well as survey their fruit growth and without irrigation during for pre-harvest. Expect achievements: To improve the production quality of ponkan fruits. (2) Assessment of the Liu-cheng orange management mode: Investigation decrease chemistry medicament use, lowly toxicity chemistry medicament and not chemistry medicament in citrus canker, citrus red mite, rust mite, white spotted longicorn beetle and fruit fly prevention effect. (3) Research of the physiological obstacle of the fruit: Experiment was investigate chemical prevent to physiological disorder of pineapple 'TN 17' and 'TN13' and the relation between management style of the irrigation and fruit splitting of murcott, continue the test fruit by product to process research and development. Expect achievements: 'TN 17' and 'TN13 ' pineapple prevention physiological disorder and cure. Obtain the irrigation management style to prevention of fruit splitting of murcott. 2. The Seedling Selection and Lines Experiment of Pomegranate: In a field trial on 6-year-old 4 pomegranate clones(89-01,89-02,90-01 and 90-02 selected by Hsian,2000)trees were planted during March 2003 at a distance of 5m ×5m in the Chia-Yi Agricultural Experiment Station orchard and then they be given the best of care of newly-planted trees. In the sixth year of cropping were studied: 1. Investigation of fruits growth and development. 2. Anlysis of fruits physico-chemical. 3. Effect of controlled fruits number on fruit yield and quality. 4. Seedlings planting,cultivation and selection. 5、Hybrids planting and cultivation . 3. Establishing the Safe and Better System for Avocado Production: Study the effect of duration of sterization, and different medium mix on the growth avocado seedling, so as to propagate vigorous phtyophthora free seedlings for varieties testing and farmer use. Select out the stem end rot and anthracnose resistant or tolerant varieties or clones continually. Isolate and identify the pathogens caused the stem end rot and fruit rot of avocado fruits. Investigate what pest species became established on the avocado in Taiwan. The natural enemies of avocado pests also need to be investigated in keeping pest population down to sub-economic levels. Proper handling and storage conditions and methods for two popular cultivars of avocado, i.e. ‘Hall' and ‘Choquette', will be studied. The studies emphasize practical ways to regulate marketing periods and to maximize the shelf life of the products. 4. Studies on fruit quality and quantity promotion of Taiwan exported oranges. Ponkan mandarin and Tankan produced in Taiwan not only have excellent quality but also have highly popularity to export to Hong Kong, South East Asia and Japan. After joining WTO, we encounter keen competition in international trade market. So, it is essential for us to make sure that all fruits are safe and good enough to compete with other competitors. In other words, best quality fruits have always been given the highest priority. It is professor F.W. Liu's research about ponkan's technologies of storage and transporation that are credited with offering completed reference information. Therefore, how to apply these technologies to Minneola and Fremont promising citrus varieties has become our priorities. It is obvious that we should make all efforts to promote orange's quality and quantity, thus, we can open the way to exported products. Encore mandarin, which can moderate harvest period is a late maturity variety with best quality. But we should take it's peel pitting into serious consideration. The purpose of this research is to solve peel pitting and increase farmer's income. 5. Cultivar improvement and rootstock trials of citrus: Citrus cultivar improvement through crossbreeding and regional trials of introduced cultivars was conducted. The objective of crossbreeding include fewer seeds, different maturity season, better quality, larger fruit size or resistant to citrus canker. Regional trial field for introduced cultivars was planted in main production areas, and investigated their growth adaptation, fruit quality and grower's responses. The project of rootstock trial investigates the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars in Taiwan for improving fruit quality and productivity. 6. The citrus germplasm conservation and utilization by shoot–tip grafting to obtain free-virus fundation stocks. The mother tree of the all citrus commercial varieties have been commonly by the systemic virus diseases caused by citrus tristeza virus , tatter leaf virus, exocortis viroid , and virus-like disease caused by likubin fastidious bacteria , and they are the major problem in citrus industry in Taiwan .The technique of shoot-tip grafting has been widely applied for obtaining foundation stocks free of viruses. By using STG method to clean up the materials and reestalished the citrus germplasm collection in screen-houses , and the virus-free Foundation block was established at CAES . The aims of the program are using STG to free virus from shoot and increase free-virus varieties, and supplied materials to foundation block for duplicated more buds and final released free-virus buds to the growers in the future. 7. Breeding of Litchi and Longan, and Developing and Using of rambutan, miracle fruit and white sapote. In this years two litchi hybrids were selected from seedlings. Superior lines which were selected in the past years were further evaluated by comparing with commercial cultivars. A new litchi variety ‘Tainung No. 5' was developed at the Chiayi Agriculture Experimental Station, ARI and passed the committee evaluation of the Agriculture and Food Agency Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, on October, 2008. It had fruit weight 27 g, total soluable solids 17 。Brix ans aril percent80 %. The harvest period was from early June to late June. One litchi promising line 71-3-15 was selected. It has fruit weight 27g, total soluable solids 17.5°Brix and aril percent 72%. The different longan's line was investigated and analyzed into that yield and peroid variety, 97 year longan's yield peroid by the south to start early in mid-June,the most late delay until on November 25. The simple fruit took the midland Da- Chuan as highest, the average fruit heavy may amount to 14 grams, the pulp percentage is highest by the midland Shui Gong may be higher than 70%。The goal of this plan is to collect and propagate various varieties of tropical and subtropical fruit trees including rambutan, miracle fruit, and white sapote, then to plant the various varieties in field for investigating the growing behavior including vegetative, floral and fruit aspects. Moreover, local test will be conducted and according to result of the growing condition and fruit yield, promising varieties which adapted to Taiwan climate will be selected and released to farmers. 8. Avocado Breeding: The aim of this plan is to obtain good different season avocado scion cultivars which is adapted to Taiwan climate and had good flavor, high crude fat, and also root rot resistant stock variety. The main method is to continue searching, introducing and selecting cultivars from foreign country and Taiwan avocado orchards and then evaluate their growth behavior, adaptability, crude fat and yield. Also in order too get hybrid seedlings, method of open pollination will be attempted The better cultivars will further be evaluated in Southern Taiwan districts. It is expected that good avocado cultivars can be introduced to Taiwan and cultivars, which will afford to meet the need of avocado industry, will be got. 9. Pineapple Breeding: Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf ,medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. Methods: 1. Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in greenhouse and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. 2. Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. 3. Superior advanced clones are further evaluated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. 4. Promising clones such as C69-4-347,C78-5-127,C79-4-89 are advanced to regional trials at pineapple producing areas. Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters .
資源連結: 前往查看