亞熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第2年/全程6年)

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計畫名稱: 亞熱帶果樹品種改良與栽培技術改進及採後處理應用(第2年/全程6年)
計畫主持人: 徐信次
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 95農科-1.3.2-農-C2(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會農業試驗所嘉義分所
全程計畫年: 2006
關鍵字:
摘要: 一. 柑橘部分:經由雜交育種與新品種區域試驗選拔具少籽、不同產期、耐潰瘍病或高品質等特性之新品種,達品種多樣化的目標。另為克服柑桔立枯病及毒素病,將優良品種,以頂梢嫁接法無毒化,建立原種園。在隔離地區以隔離網室保存無病毒原原種樹及原種樹,並供應採穗園所需之原種接穗。為顧及栽培技術之增進,本計畫亦報行砧木試驗,探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,做為栽培選用之依據,以提高生產力與品質。引進之新興品種植株生育、果實品質分析及農民栽培管理反應資料調查,可評估各品種在各區的適應性差異。並在主要產區之專業農戶進行椪柑水分管理試驗,期能獲得水分管理之建議,提供農民參考。 二. 鳳梨部分:鳳梨育種以選育植株小,葉緣無剌,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。試驗方法為: 1. 親本授粉:在3~4月間鳳梨開花盛期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。 2. 初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。 3. 品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品糸進行比較試驗。 4. 新品系區域試驗:經比較試驗評估結果,具發展潛力的品系如C68-4-9、C71-8-142、C72-8-109及C75-2-25等品系,在鳳梨重要產地進行區域試驗。預期成果:可望育成植抹小,葉緣無刺,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。另外,為了提高產業之競爭力,亦進行規劃出各地區各品種的最適合生產季節,建立各品種的栽培管理模式,生產高品質果品,達到『適地適種』的目的,避免產區間相互競爭,有利於內外銷市場之拓展,增加農民收益。改善鮮食鳳梨貯運品質,防止鮮食鳳梨貯運失重或腐損,延長貯運櫥架壽命,提高產品價值以提昇外銷競爭力。建立適合鳳梨外銷處理流程之採收後處理機械。 三. 荔枝、龍眼部分:育種方面:荔枝育種工作擬選育出不同產期、高品質、豐產穩產的優良品種,提供果農栽培,以分散產期,解決因品種單一,產期過分集中,所導致的盛產壓力。選育途徑為雜交育種及自然變異選拔。重要工作項目為雜交授粉,優良單株選拔,品系比較試驗及區域試驗。雜交授粉以人為控制授粉,以克服自然授粉花期不一致之困難,進行品種間雜交,雜交組合為,71-3-55-18x玉荷包、71-3-15x玉荷包、桂味x糯米糍、糯米糍x桂味;並由混植品種園中取種子,混植園內含主要品種共15種,且另外利用不同品種嫁接同一植株的多交方式,包括以沙坑、三月紅、糯米糍、桂味、淮荔為砧木,三月紅、玉荷包、71-3-15、臺農一號、黑葉、桂味、淮荔、88-S-1為接穗等共5類的多交組合,等多種方法取種子,播種培育成實生苗,以供未來選種。實生苗選拔汰劣選優,優良單株繁殖,選出之優良品系持續於嘉義分所進行品系比較試驗,採C、R、D設計,共5重覆,並於主要荔枝產區進行區域試驗。本計劃預期可育出良好品種改進台灣荔枝產業。龍眼之育種工作項目,則為選育具不同產期、高產穩產及高品質之優良龍眼品種,本計畫之實施方法如下,先蒐集各地的優良品種系進行人工雜交,或自然授粉實生株系之選拔,就選出之優良株系,先在本分所進行優良株系繁殖及品系比較試驗觀察評估,表現優良者再於產地進行區域試驗。預期可育成具不同產期、品質優良、高產穩產、沒有隔年結果現象及不易退甘之優良品種,以分散產期舒解鮮果市場壓力,並提昇台灣龍眼品質,加強台灣加入世界貿易組織後龍眼產業之競爭力。除育種部分之工作項目,亦進行產期調節及採收後處理之調查,完成後預期可把玉荷包荔枝之產期分散於5-7月,南部地區調節於5月上旬至6月中旬,中部地區產期調節於6月中旬至7月中、下旬。本計畫之執行具有穩定荔枝產業發展,及調節出貨量及價格之效益。在空、海運外銷荔枝採後處理作業流程之研究:改變現行荔枝採收後零亂的處理作業,成為前後緊密配合的一貫流程,協助產業拓展,確保外銷荔枝的到貨品質。 四. 石榴育種:以四個安石榴大果優良品系(89-01,89-02,90-01 and 90-02)之四年生植株,每品系20株為供試,定植於嘉義農業試驗分所果園,行株距5 m × 5 m,並行微噴灌水及覆蓋塑膠布等設施。本年度主要探討: 1. 果實生長及發育之調查。 2. 果實物理及化學性之分析。 3. 控制果實數之品質及產量之調查。 4. 實生苗種植、培育及選拔。 五. 酪梨品種改良:本計畫主要在於育成適合台灣地區栽培之不同成熟期,高品質,高油分之接穗品種及耐根腐病砧木品種。進而推廣給農民種。主要方法利用種苗交換或購買方式等引進目前國外商業品種及至國內農民栽種地區選種。不同品種栽種於同一園中進行開放授粉,而後收集優良植株種子播種以獲得優良實生品系。引入品種於本分所進行單株產量、粗脂肪、味道、成熟期、果實性狀等特性初步評估。將本分所初選優良接穗品種,於南部地區選殷實農民合作試作。預期可引進優良接穗品系及耐根腐病砧木並得到優良實生結果品種供農民栽培。1. Citrus: Citrus cultivar improvement through crossbreeding and regional trials of introduced cultivars was conducted. The objective of crossbreeding include fewer seeds, different maturity season, better quality, larger fruit size or resistant to citrus canker. Regional trial for introduced cultivars was planted in main production areas, and investigated their growth adaptation, fruit quality and grower's responses. The project of rootstock trial investigates the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars in Taiwan for improving fruit quality and productivity. The mother tree of the all citrus commercial varieties have been commonly by the systemic virus diseases caused by citrus tristeza virus, tatter leaf virus, exocortis viroid, and virus-like disease caused by likubin fastidious bacteria, and they are the major problem in citrus industry in Taiwan. The technique of shoot-tip grafting has been widely applied for obtaining foundation stocks free of viruses. By using STG method to clean up the materials and reestalished the citrus germplasm collection in screen-houses, and the virus-free Foundation block was established at CAES. The aims of the program are using STG to free virus from shoot and increase free-virus varieties, and supplied materials to foundation block for duplicated more buds and final released free-virus buds to the growers in the future.Experiment was conductedin in Ponkan orchards to studies relationship between water management and fruits quality and flowering of ponkan trees, as well as survey their fruit growth and without irrigation during for pre-harvest. 2. Pineapple: The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf,medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. Methods: 1. Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in greenhouse and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. 2. Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. 3. Superior advanced clones are furtherevaluated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. 4. Promising clones such as C68-4-9、C71-8-142、C72-8-109、C75-2-25 areadvanced to regional trials at pineapple producing areas. Studies on the design on planting suitable cultivars in production area and the post harvest handling technology improvement in pineapple fruit industry in Taiwan: The goals of pineapple program are to design the suitable cultivars, which adapt for different production area base on the direction of marketing benefit, and provide the possible management practices for these areas. The program will increase the income of pineapple growers in Taiwan. Improvement on postharvest handling technology of pineapple fruits: Different postharvest treatments will be tested on pineapple fruits, including grading, chemical treating, waxing, packaging, and transportation temperature control. The effects on fruit decay control and on fruit quality changes will be studied. 3. Litchi and longan: In order to develdop varieties of various mature seasons, quality (large and seedless fruit), high and stable yield, the litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) breeding program was conducted through hybridization and selection. Controlled and open pollination methods are used. After fruit harvest, plant seeds and manage seedlings. Evaluate tree and fruit characters in field. The evaluating items are as follows: tree vigor, tree shape, fruit quality, yield, and crop retenion. Superior lines are further evaluated by comparing with commercial cultivars at Chai Yi Agriculture Institute. In order to selected varieties with various times to maturiety, good quality (large fruit, high aril ratio and high sugar), and high and stable yield. The longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) breeding progam takes the following steps, germ plasm collections, controlled hybridization, selection of seeding variation and regional trials of promising lines. It will be expected to breeding a variety with excellent characters and high quality, to resolve the pressure of fresh fruit market,and promoted the contested ability in Taiwan after joining the World Trade Organization (WTO). The goal of lychee program is to extend harvest period from one month of the present time to three months in future, the experiment will be conducted in four region, that are Pintung county, Chianghua county, Taichun county and Nantou county. In order to adjust floral initiation time, it will be response to pruning time and timing control of last flushing, four different pruning time are designed as follow: June, 15; June, 30; July, 15 and July, 30. Soil and leaf sampling will be carried out prior to blooming for nutrient management. Improvement on postharvest handling technology of Litchi fruits: Different postharvest treatments will be tested on Litchi fruits, including grading, packaging, precooling, and transportation temperature control. The effects on fruit decay control and on fruit quality changes will be studied. 4. Pomegranate: In a field trial on 4-year-old 4 pomegranate clones (89-01, 89-02, 90-01 and 90-02 selected by Hsian, 2000) trees were planted during March 2003 at a distance of 5 m × 5 m in the Chia-Yi Agricultural Experiment Station orchard and then they be given the best of care of newly-planted trees. In the fourth year of cropping were studied: 1. Investigation of fruits growth and development. 2. Anlysis of fruits physico-chemical. 3. Effect of controlled fruits number on fruit yield and quality. 4. Seedlings planting,cultivation and selection. 5. Avocado: The aim of this plan is to obtain good different season avocado scion cultivars which is adapted to Taiwan climate and had good flavor, high crude fat, and also root rot resistant stock variety. The main method is to continue searching, introducing and selecting cultivars from foreign country and Taiwan avocado orchards and then evaluate their growth behavior, adaptability, crude fat and yield. Also in order too get hybrid seedlings, method of open pollination will be attempted: The better cultivars will further be evaluated in Southern Taiwan districts. It is expected that good avocado cultivars can be introduced to Taiwan and cultivars, which will afford to meet the need of avocado industry, will be got.
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