高屏地區果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進

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計畫名稱: 高屏地區果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進
計畫主持人: 賴榮茂
共同計畫主持人: 陳明昌;王仁晃;邱祝櫻;李雪如
計畫編號: 95農科-1.3.2-高-K1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 高雄區農業改良場作物改良課
全程計畫年: 2006
關鍵字: 開花期; 果實生育期; 果實品質; 抽穗率; 著果; 木瓜; 儲藏; 外銷; 番石榴; 育種; 印度棗; 疏花; 疏果; 裂果率; 花粉 ;Flowering; Fruit Development Period; Fruit Quality; Rate of Panicle Formation; Fruit-set; Papaya; Storage; Export; Guava; Breeding; Indian Jujube; Flower Thinning; Fruit Thinning; Cracking Rate; Pollen
摘要: 1. 印度棗育種:選育品質佳之印度棗品種推廣種植,有利提高農友收益。為選育優良品種,本試驗乃進行印度棗品種間人工及天然雜交工作。所獲得之雜交種子則培育成實生苗,進行2年觀察試驗。選得之果實大、可溶性固形物高、櫥架壽命長之優良品系,則選供品系比較試驗之用。入選之優良品系則進一步於各主產區進行區域試驗。根據區域試驗之結果,選得之優良品系將供命名及推廣用。 2. 在來種芒果品種選育:蒐集國內芒果品種,培育優良品種之實生苗進行高接,觀察新品系嫁接後生育情形及調查開花習性、果實特性及耐病蟲害情形;期選育出早熟、品質優良、果實中等、無果實劣變及耐炭疽病之優良品系。 3. 番木瓜外銷品種(系)選育:本試驗自東南亞、中南美洲、夏威夷等地進行引種並蒐集優良品系,進行品系選育,以期選出果實硬度高、果肉厚、早熟、果實約600公克及品質優良的品種,以提供作為外銷供果之品種選擇。 4. 高品質番石榴品種選育:進行番石榴風味濃郁的品系與目前的少籽拔的雜交、後代選拔,及進行品種(系)的蒐集。完成有潛力品系(種)之雜交,預期選出較現有品種更具風味的優良品系,供產業種植。 5. 蓮霧育種:蒐集蓮霧品系建立種原圃,進行品系適應性觀察及供作進一步的雜交材料,以提供多元的品種。 6. 花粉立即效應對印度棗果實品質之影響:印度棗(Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.)為台灣南部重要熱帶果樹,由於授粉樹種類頗多,不同的授粉樹是否會對母樹產生不同的果實直感效應不得而知,因此,本研究以蜜棗為母樹,分別授以高朗1號、高雄2號、肉龍之花粉,栽植於分開之獨立網室中,藉以瞭解3印度棗花粉親是否對蜜棗果實品質及其它性狀產生立即效應,以提供農民栽培之參考。 7. 玉荷包荔枝穩定生產技術之研究:本試驗於玉荷包荔枝於果實採收後,結果枝條於6月下旬進行強剪、中剪及弱剪等處理,花穗抽出後於第1朵小花即將開放至偏雌花開放時,花穗進行不同程度修剪處理,試驗期間,調查枝梢生育、開花時間、著果率、果實成熟期及果實品質,以尋求枝條適當的更新程度及疏花量,來穩定玉荷包荔枝產量。 8. 蓮霧果實品質改進:為改進蓮霧的栽培技術,提升產業的競爭力,進行本研究,主要目的、改變疏果方式及果串選留,提升品質,減少藥劑防治的成本及養分的浪費。1. Breeding of Indian jujube: Breeding Indian jujube with good characteristics for plantation will be beneficial for increasing the farmers' income. For breeding and selection of superior varieties, the artificial and natural crosses will be applied among Indian jujube varieties in this experiment. Hybrid seeds obtained from different cross combinations will be propagated as seedlings for two-year observations. Lines with large fruit size, high total soluble solids, and long fruit shell life will be selected as materials for line testing. Superior lines selected from line testing will be further tested by regional yield trial at major production sites. From the results of regional yield trials, the selected lines will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension. 2. The Breeding of 'Local Variety' Mango: The new collected mango lines grafted. Characters of new mango lines such as flowering, fruit setting, pest resistance are investigated. The expected traits of mango are early maturing, good quality, medium size, soft-nose absent and disease resistance. 3. The Selection of Papaya Lines for Export: Some cultivars and new lines of papaya will be introduced from the local research stations and some countries of east-southern Asia, mid-southern America and Hawaii. In this breeding program, we try to select some new lines for papaya fruit export. The target characters of the high qualities papaya fruit include hardness and thicken fruit flesh, early mature and fruit weight about 600 grams. 4. The Selection of High Quality Guava Lines: To improve the flavor of guava varieties planting in nowadays, hybridization between the varieties with good flavor and customer popular in present were proceeded. It is expected to select a excellent variety with superior quality and provide to farmer cultivation. 5. The Breeding of Wax Apple: The collection of wax apple could diversify the varieties by hybridization of different lines or observation tests. 6. Immediate pollen effects on the fruit qualities of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.): Indian jujube is one of the important tropical fruits in southern Taiwan. Pollen metaxenia phenomenon that affects the fruiting characteristics caused by different pollen trees may vary. For providing cultural reference for farmers, the pollen xenia effect on fruiting characteristics of various pollen varieties (Kalong1, Kaohsiung 2, and Rouhlong) on stock variety of Meajo has been studied. Plants of three cross combinations were planted at separated net house to prevent pollen contamination. The immediate fruiting characteristics such as shape, size, color, and quality were investigated to evaluate the xenia effects caused by different pollen sources. 7. Studies on methods of stable production in "Yu-Her-Pao" litchi: The "Yu-Her-Pao" tree was pruned(by the different level) after harvesting on late June, and the panicles were thinned (by the different level) at the beginning of flowering stage. Then, to survey growth of shoot, the blooming date, the time of fruit mature, the percentage of fruit-set and fruit quality. The objects of this study are to search the level of shoot pruning and panicles thinning that can stabilize the "Yu-Her-Pao" litchi production. 8. This study focuses on improving cultivation techniques and competitive of wax-apple industry. The objectives are modifing the techniques of thinning flowers in order to raise new fruits qualities, hence decreasing the cost of chemical prevention and nutrition waste.
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