開發果樹肥灌、非化學農藥資材防治及有機栽培管理技術

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計畫名稱: 開發果樹肥灌、非化學農藥資材防治及有機栽培管理技術
計畫主持人: 唐佳惠
共同計畫主持人: 張繼中;蔡依真;石佩玉;張耀聰;林詠洲;吳庭嘉;賴昭宏;黃士晃;張富翔;張汶肇;葉文彬;盧柏松;江淑雯;陳奕君;劉啟祥;黃文益;宋家瑋;李建瑩;張芳魁;徐子芳;陳筱鈞;張廖伯勳;陳盟松;陸明德
計畫編號: 108農科-7.3.2-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所嘉義分所園藝系
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 金柑;土壤測定與植體分析;煤煙病;鳳梨釋迦;葉面積;有機果園;寄生蜂;留果部位;枇杷;果肉乾粒化;麻豆文旦;棲地營造;微生物液肥;生長條件;疏果;營養診斷;晚崙西亞橙;雨遮;網室;葡萄;貯藏;番石榴夏果;網罩;格氏突闊小蜂;寒害;栽培技術;育種;黑斑病;友善生態;部落;草生栽培;農業;紅龍果;梨;百香果;刺番荔枝;原生植物;果樹;有機生產模式;蜜露;地面覆蓋;野花植生毯;合理化施肥;芽休眠打破;扦插;花粉;畜牧沼液;椪柑;有機栽培;鳳梨;蓮霧;有益微生物;番荔枝;不良土壤性質;套袋;芒果臺中1號;防風網;kumquat;Soil testing and plant analysis;sooty mould;Atemoya;leaf area;organic orchard;Parasitoid wasp;Fruit position;Loquat;granulation;Matou Wentan;habitat manipulation;microbe liquid fertilizer;growth conditions;Fruit thinning;Nutrient diagnosis;Valenci
摘要: 一、果樹栽培(一)葡萄 以熱水與熱蒸氣處理打破葡萄芽休眠程度調查、人工光照對延遲休眠的影響、無子品種生長物候期調查。開發對葡萄植株沒有毒性與環境友善的打破休眠處理技術,維護果農與環境安全;建立台灣南部無子葡萄生產系統,利用冬季溫暖的地理優勢,生產3-5月的早熟葡萄,在地生產,提高進口葡萄替代率。近年氣候變遷造成葡萄產區微氣候變化大,使葡萄生產面臨轉色不良、品質不穩定等問題,本試驗擬利用葉面積儀調查結果枝葉面積,探討氣候變化下,巨峰葡萄結果枝葉面積與產量、品質之相關性。(二)梨及枇杷 以抗風設施生產並調控光熱條件滿足溫帶果樹作物生育需求,縮短生育期增進品質;以光電工業小太陽LEP(Light Emitting Plasma)調控溫帶作物的光敏素生理反應以逃避休眠、以短波長光源調控感光色素系統以調控果品品質及植株形態發生。預期將台灣可生產高接梨產期由最早4月底提前1個月至3月底。枇杷可調節於正常產期外生產。(三)柑橘 柑橘為台灣栽培面積最廣且產值最高的果樹,然而,許多柑橘種類易有嚴重的生理障礙或病害,使售價受限導致柑橘農友的收益無法獲得改善。有鑑於此,確保柑橘農友能獲得最新栽培關鍵技術、取得正確而有用的產業資訊等均十分重要,並使農友據以隨時調整管理模式,提升農友在競爭市場中存活。 本研究以探討造成椪柑果肉乾粒化之因子,並調查環境、栽培因子和樹體生理特性對乾粒化比率的影響。在文旦方面繼續進行水分及肥培管理最後一年度試驗,探討其對果實品質之影響。另外,輔導部落產業應以當地農民需求籌組輔導團隊,以各部落同產業狀況,召集不同領域研究人員針對不同面向缺口進行盤點同時也跟部落討論,並依部落農產業發展面向缺口籌組對應之輔導團隊,另外針對部落農產業目標進行規劃,由輔導團隊與部落進行訪談就部落傳統特色、栽培品項、加工及通路等面向共同討論,考量地方栽培環境與習性、市場需求與區隔性等,協助接洽與引介通路商或協助規劃品牌與通路再者直接販售消費者,並以永續農產業經營作為目標。麻豆文旦為花蓮地區最重要的果樹產業,以花蓮地區麻豆文旦果樹為試驗材料,進行早春時期地面覆蓋處理研究,用以促進植株生育,提高早收文旦果實品質,以協助地區產業之發展。本計畫期望能開發提高東部地區麻豆文旦果實品質栽培技術,以保障農民收益。建立麻豆紅柚疏果時期、套袋材料及採收適期,評估對著果率及品質之影響,以麻豆紅柚採收適期、疏果及套袋等技術,以穩定產量及果實品質,並提供農民實際生產應用。(四)紅龍果 紅龍果花苞及果實易產生蜜露導致發生煤煙病,而影響果皮外觀,增加栽培管理難度。因此,擬利用抑菌資材減少煤煙病發生。將紅龍果部分將進行不同套袋之比較與改良,藉以提高紅龍果品質,建立優質紅龍果套袋栽培技術。(五)番荔枝 為加強臺東地區果樹品質與改進生產技術,本計畫針對轄區內特色果樹之育種及栽培技術進行相關試驗研究,包括番荔枝育種、番荔枝果實及花粉貯藏試驗、鳳梨釋迦砧木試驗、刺番荔枝生產調查及紅龍果栽培試驗等,期能將相關成果提供農友實際應用,以提升臺東地區果樹之競爭力並確保農民收益。(六)蓮霧 宜蘭地區進行產期調節之蓮霧,於花芽萌發期及開花期前後易遭受寒害,造成花芽枯萎、落花、花蕾凍傷、花萼開裂及葉片寒害等現象發生。本試驗擬架設防風網及雨遮等防護措施以降低蓮霧寒害發生程度,減少果農的損失。(七)番石榴 ‘珍珠’番石榴夏果品質一直不穩定,其果肉容易軟化,導致貯運品質及壽命降低,本試驗擬利用不同套袋改善番石榴夏果之品質。(八)芒果 ‘臺中1號’芒果為本場育成並推廣於中部地區之新品種,但有果實易罹黑斑病之問題,本研究擬於花芽分化期至果實發育期,以生物性資材進行防治以控制病害。育成品質優、豐產、抗病性強、果實不易劣變及耐貯運之優良芒果品種,或具有鮮紅色果皮等特殊品種。同時分散部分芒果生產期,調節市場。(九)百香果 農業有機副產物經由適當的堆積腐熟過程製作成有機肥料而施用於農田,以改善農田土壤肥力,已經是消納農業有機副產物最適當方式之一。在農田合理施用有益微生物及有機肥料等,不僅可以提升農田地力,且有利於作物生長與增進產能。現有百香果嫁接苗木供應不及已成為生產限制因子,集團產區在長期連作下,病害防治困難,急需以安全、合理方法改善。本研究目的為探討組培苗、扦插苗及嫁接苗根部澆灌木黴菌對百香果生育、產量及病害發生之影響與建立百香果應用不同規格美植袋及應用方式對百香果生育之影響,以期提供多元苗木供應,及減少百香果病害問題。105年計畫第一年試驗結果顯示,在使用有益微生物處理下,施用全量堆肥(20 t/ha)及半量化學肥料( N-P<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB>-K<SUB>2</SUB>O =150-75-300 kg/ha )較適用百香果施肥用量參考,宿根栽培百香果施用有機質複合肥以RB處理之牛糞10 t/ha、蔗渣堆肥10 t/ha、複合有機質肥料4.0 t/ha為推薦施用模式。二、非化學藥劑防治 利用不同顏色之網罩包覆晚崙西亞橙植株,探討其對有害生物(野生動物及病蟲害)之防範效果與對晚崙西亞橙株植生育及果實產量與品質之影響,期能應用於有機果園,減少有害生物之危害,穩定產量及提高果實品質,以提高果農收益並友善果園之生態環境。三、土壤與肥料管理 追蹤與調查各地區之重點經濟作物葉片分析服務之結果,應用土壤葉片分析作物營養診斷服務及農試所土壤調查與土壤資訊庫,建立不同土壤之養分之管理策略,發展土壤與植體營養診斷技術,鑑認與克服關鍵生產問題,提升土壤葉片分析服務之效益 。推廣新修施肥手冊促進合理化施肥,補充調整施肥手冊,使內容充實及實用化。 建立紅棗產區土壤資訊,作物施肥量推薦與植體營養診斷標準。結合土壤資訊系統之土壤分析資料,氣候、作物生育期、水分管理等因子,區分土壤管理組,解決傳統施肥推薦量未能充分反應地區環境差異、產量與品質之問題。擴編肥料施用資訊,增加作物品質與主要、次要及微量元素,葉面施肥、養液栽培方法,強化作物健康管理。依據土壤營養診斷分析結果,臺東地區許多番荔枝果園有土壤酸性至強酸性土壤及營養失調問題,因此擬利用合理化施肥技術建立臺東地區重點作物-番荔枝養分管理模式(包括施肥量、施肥方法等),分析資料可作為重編作物施肥手冊之參考資料。四、果樹有機栽培 近年來有機農業逐漸成為研發之重點,在品種選育、栽培管理模式及技術之建立方面,多集中於水稻及蔬菜;而果樹之投入則稍微不足,為提升鳳梨及柑橘果農之收益,同時研發有機鳳梨果實加值利用之技術。金柑為宜蘭地區最具特色之重要經濟果樹與連續採收作物之一,希藉本研究推廣有機耕作及同時兼顧鮮果產量與品質,評估金柑在台灣進行網室有機栽培之可行性及效益。為建構生態豐富的農田環境,本計畫預計藉由原生地被植物營造技術,完成生物多 樣性與生態系統服務健全之文旦柚田區,以達成增加天敵棲所、維持害蟲管理、改 善土壤性質、減少除草成本、增進果實產量和品質。本計畫為評估多樣化植被對果 園各面向造成的影響,除了評估果實蠅和其天敵的動態之外,並且透過長期的調查 評估對於土壤和果實產量之影響,以開發一套永續生態系統服務果園應用之技術。以花蓮宜蘭地區重要園藝作物麻豆文旦與金柑為試驗材料,進行亞磷酸對麻豆文旦生育影響以及設施金柑有機栽培施肥技術試驗研究,預期可以開發東部地區麻豆文旦與金柑有機栽培技術共2項,維護有機栽培園藝作物產量與品質,提高農民收益。 臺東地區有機果園面積約200公頃,多數有機農友之肥培管理為施用有機質肥料及自製有機液肥,但仍有不足之處。本研究擬調查已篩選之土壤有益微生物,評估於微生物液肥製作之可行性,於製作微生物液肥後,進行營養元素含量分析,進行有機果園應用試驗,做為臺東地區有機果園肥培管理之依據。由於諸多農地屬於施肥不易之土壤性質,往往造成果樹對養分的吸收不良,致生產力低,倘使能於適當時機供應予均衡的養分,將使果樹對各種養分的吸收不虞匱乏,並提升其生產品質及良率,不論對果樹產業、經濟與社會發展均具正面效益。沼液中含有腐植酸、有機酸、胺基酸等對植物生長有益之物質,若能充分應用,對作物生長必有助益,本研究擬利用畜牧場沼液配製有機液肥,並使用放流水稀釋後,與農民慣常使用以灌溉水配製之有機液肥進行性質比較,以及以放流水稀釋後之使用方式進行比較,一方面了解對於果樹品質及產量的影響,一方面計算省水省電之成本,達循環農業及合理化施肥之功效。預期可提升果實糖度1-2度,良率提升10-15%。一、 Fruit tree production technology(一)Grape The development of grape plants are not toxic and environmentally friendly processing technology to break dormancy, maintain farmers and environmental safety; the establishment of the Southern Taiwan seedless grape production systems, the use of mild winters geographical advantages, production from March to May in the early grape, ground production and improve the rate of import substitution grapes.Climate change has caused unstable micro-climate, which make grape production face problems like poor coloring and unstable fruit quality. This project is going to investigate the leaf area of fruiting cane by leaf area meter and determine the relation among leaf area, fruit yield, and fruit quality of ‘Kyoho’ grape under changing climate.(二)Pears and loquat Taiwan is expected to produce a high yield pick pears from the earliest by the end of April in advance of 1 month to the end of March. Taiwan produce loquat production period from late December to mid-4 to extend from November to next July, depending on the variety of storage may be upgraded to 3 to 6 months.(三)Citrus Citrus are most in quantities, most valuable fruit trees in Taiwan. But there are many kinds of citrus, some of them have more serious physical barriers or disease. Consequently the prices of them are limited and the farm income of the citrus farmers wouldn't be able to be improved. Therefore, it's really necessary for the owners of the citrus farms to hold the key point of getting the latest cultivation techniques, correct and useful information to adapt their management so that they can survive in market competition. This study to attempt discussion the factors of resulting ponkan mandarin fruit granulation, and investigation the effect of environmental, cultivation factors and physiological characteristics. Wentan pomelos will improve water and fertilizers on fruit quality. In addition, counseling tribal industry should be based on the needs of local farmers to organize counseling team to the tribal industry with the status quo, convened in different areas of researchers for the different inventory for the gap also discussed with the tribes, and tribal agriculture development in response to the gap for the formation of counseling Team, in addition to the objectives of the tribal agricultural planning, interviews with the tribal team and the tribal traits on the traditional characteristics of the tribe, cultivated items, processing and access road for discussion, consider the local cultivation environment and habits, market demand and segmentation, To assist with the introduction and introduction of distributors or to help plan the brand and access to further direct sales of consumers, and to sustainable agriculture operations as the goal.Wentan pomelo is the most important fruit tree in Hualien county. The purpose of this project is to improve cultivation techniques of wentan pomelo by ground mulch in early spring. It is expected that the cultivatural technique could improve the further development of fruit industry in Hualien area. To set up a high-yield and high fruit quality practice of Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. ‘Matou Hongyu’ for farmers, the time of fruit thining and harvest are investigated and also the materials of bagging were also examine to improve the industry.(四)Pitaya Honeydew, which often seen on pitaya flower buds and fruits are secreted by themselves and usually caused gray-black mildew ( Phaeosaccardinula javanica ) infection. This may influence the fruit appearance. Therefore, our research is going to take advantage of fungal-inhibit materials to decrease the incident of gray-black mildew on pitaya. In order to improve the fruit quality of pitaya, various kinds of bagging material and bagging methods will be tested in this study.(五)Sugar apple In order to enhance the productive technology and the fruit quality, our research is about to improve the breeding and cultivation technology of the characteristically fruit in Taitung region, including hybrid technology of superior Annona varieties, the storage technology of Annona fruits and pollens, the rootstock of atemoya characteristic, the investigation of soursop development, and the effect of different fruit position of pitaya etc. We hope to upgrade and stabilize the production and quality of sugar apple, atemoya, soursop and pitaya fruits for farmers’utilization and income level up.(六)Wax apple The wax apple produced by forcing culture techniques in Yilan area often suffered chilling injury at flower bud emergence stage and anthesis stage, which cause flower bud withered, flower abscission, flower injury, calyx cracked and leaf damage. This study aimes to lower the chilling injury by constructing windbreak net and rain cover before chilling occurrence. Overall, the cold protection methods will ensure the yields of farmers.(七)Guava The fruit quality of 'Jen-Ju' guava in summer season has been unstable. The flesh softens easily, and causes low quality after transportation and storage, and decrease the shelf life. To solve the problem, this research is going to use bagging techniques with different materials of bags, hoping to promote the quality of summer 'Jen-Ju' guavas.(八)Mango Mango ‘Taichung No. 1’ is a new cultivar bred by TDARES and promoted in central Taiwan, yet it is susceptible to black spot disease. Therefore, this project is going to take advantage of bio-materials from flower bud differentiation period to fruit developmental period to help control the disease.(九)Passion fruit The application of organic wastes as a source of fertilizer for farmland has been popularly used and recognized as a workable method in agricultural waste management. In terms of increasing soil fertility and yield of crops, the application amounts and methods of beneficial microorganisms and organic fertilizers should be assessed and ensured before use. The supply of seedlings is one of determining factors of passion fruit ( Passiflora edulis ) production. Moreover, with continuous cropping in group producing area, the safer and reasonable ways are required to improve disease control and prevention. The objective of this research is to assess the efficiency of production of tissue culture and cutting seedling of passion fruit with incubation of Trichoderma sp. and to set up the root control bag cultivation technique of passion fruit for increasing the nursery supply and alleviate the occurrence of diseases. The results of 2017 showed that the application of cattle waste compost (20t/ha) and 50% chemical fertilizer (N-P<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB>-K<SUB>2</SUB>O =150-75-300 kg/ha) inoculation with beneficial microorganisms with 20 L/ha/2 months was suitable for passion fruit.With perennial cultivation, the application of dairy manure 10 t/ha, bagasse compost 10 t/ha with compound organic fertilizer (N-P<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB>-K<SUB>2</SUB>O-OM =6-3-10-40%)4.0 t/ha was the recommended mode.二、Non-chemical agent control The protective effects of different colors covering nets on the wild animals, pests and diseases and their effects on the growth of plants and fruit yield and quality of Valencia orange were studied. It is hoped that it will be applied to organic orchards, reduce the harm of harmful organisms, stabilize the yield and improve the fruit quality, so as to improve the fruit farmers' income and the ecological environment of friendly orchards.三、Fertilizer and soil management Using the advantages of soil survey and soil information data base developed by Agricultural Research Institute, the project will create and upgrade new management strategies of soil nutrient in different soils and areas cultivating key economic fruits. It includes there search and development of soil and plant nutrient diagnosis and revise fertilizer recommendation of different fruit crops in update dedition of fertilizer manual. Thus, “the rational use of fertilizer” could be well realized and implemented to help farmers better use of soil information database and fertilizer manual. For the purpose of crop fertilizer recommendation, we combine the soil analysis data of soil information system based on soil management group. The soil and leaf nutrient content was monitored to establish diagnostic criteria for plant nutrition. The results were used to revised the manual of crop fertilization. It will resolve the short of traditional fertilization recommendation, respond adequately to regional environmental difference, yield and quality of issues. According to the result of soil nutrient diagnosis, many sugar apple orchards have the problems of acidic soil and nutrient deficiency in Taitung district. In the study, reasonable fertilization technique will be used to build the nutrient management model of sugar apple and analysis data will be the reference for re-edition of the book of crop fertilization management. 四、Organic cultivation of fruit trees The agriculture research is focusing on the organic farming lately. Most of the organic crop breeding, cultivation management and technology research are on rice and vegetables, but not fruits and grain crops. To increasing the organic pineapple farmer’s income and the value of the pineapple processing products. Kumquat is one of the important fruit industry in Yilan. The purposes in this study are to have good yield and fruit quality in the net-house facility and to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness to promote organic cultivation under net-house. Biodiversity is a key point that maintain ecological balance in agricultural ecosystem which enhanced by keeping diversity plants on the pomelo orchard. This study focus on habitat manipulation in orchard for supporting ecosystem service such as pest control, weed control, soil propertied improvement, and increasing fruit quality. On the other hand, the landscape is a kind of culture service as well. the data should be recorded sequentially for 3 years for evaluating long-term effect. Technology for buliding an ecosystem service orchard by ground cover plants should be developed for maintain a sustainable pomelo farmland. The effect of phosphonate salts on wentan pomelo, and the integrative organic cultural technology test of kumquat will be carried out. It is expected to have 2 organic techniques for wentan pomelo, and kumquat to be established.There are about 200 hectares organic orchard in Taitung area. Most organic farmers applicated organic fertilizers and homemade liquid fertilizer for soil fertilization management, but there were still shortcomings. This study will investigate the beneficial soil microbes that have been screened, and assess the feasibility of the production of microbial liquid fertilizer. Nutritional element content will be analysed after production of microbial liquid fertilizer. We will perform the experiment of organic fertilizer in the organic orchard. The data will be an organic orchard soil fertilization management basis in Taitung area. The efficiency of fertilization is commonly low in the poor soil properties and causing the decreasing production of fruit trees. If the fertilizing efficiency is improved, the productive quality and yield of fruit trees will be increased. The fermented liquid from livestock contained high humic acids, amino acids and other benificail ingredients for the growth of fruit trees. This experiment will be proceeded to the method that the irrigated water is instead of fermented liquid for the production of liquid fertilizer, and it is compared to farmer’s method for the productive quality and yield of fruit trees. By the modified method, the sugar degreeof fruits will be increased to 1-2o Brix, and the quality will be increase to 10-15%。
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