開發果樹快速選育技術,育成耐候、抗病優質的果樹品種

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計畫名稱: 開發果樹快速選育技術,育成耐候、抗病優質的果樹品種
計畫主持人: 陸明德
共同計畫主持人: 邱展臺;陳甘澍;吳庭嘉;葉文彬;蔡惠文;林詠洲;徐錦木;賴瑞聲;潘光月;朱彧瑩;陳祈男;陳思如;王仁晃;張哲瑋;柯昱成;王怡玎;官青杉;宋家瑋;黃基倬;張淑芬;陳怡如;陳薪喨;李文豪;朱堉君;張雅玲;方信秀;徐智政;謝鴻業;郭展宏;陳柱中;劉碧鵑;邱國棟;李雪如;黃柏昇
計畫編號: 109農科-7.3.1-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 鳳梨;葡萄;實生選種;山竹;貯藏;育種;分子標誌輔助篩選;抗憂鬱;枇杷;果形;芽條突變;楊桃;保存;香蕉;嫁接苗;抗病;果實品質;採前處理;品種改良;紅毛丹;冷子番荔枝;文旦;鳳梨釋迦;番荔枝;砧木試驗;焦核;紅龍果;舒果套;番石榴;雜交;棗;柑橘;雜交育種;紅棗;引種;梨;蒐集;咖啡;新興品種;早熟;種原;荔枝;貯運品質;選種;柿;果樹週年生產;榴槤蜜;低需冷性;誘變;桃;新興熱帶果樹;包裝;輻射育種;酪梨;pineapple;Grape;seedling selection;Mangosteen;storage;Breeding;Marker-assisted selection;Anti-melancholy;Loquat;Fruit shape;Bud mutation;carambola;Conservation;banana;grafting seedlings;Disease resistance;fruit quality;Preharvest;varieties improvement;Ram
摘要: 不同果形和抗病葡萄育種 為改善台灣鮮食葡萄不具露抗病性、品種過於單純、產期集中、不耐貯運等缺點,以國外引進具抗病與優良性狀品種的花粉進行四倍體與二倍體親本正交、反交雜交授粉工作,並以優選品系與親本回交。加強新品種試種資料調查與收集。加強優選單株區域試種、特性調查與評估。選育出抗病、大果、不脫粒、不同果形、色澤與風味、不同成熟期的葡萄新品種。 梨與枇杷耐高溫穩產新品種育成 本研究育種目標為育成適應氣候變遷之梨新品種,低需冷量耐極端氣候優質梨偏重綠皮及紅皮品種,較耐儲運、早生、省工;而枇杷目標則為育成適應氣候變遷之枇杷新品種,較能適應開花期高溫之抗病耐儲運枇杷新品種,具備大果、易剝皮、少子、產期長等特性。今年度進行如玉梨、秋黃梨進行雜交後代繁殖工作,以預冷層積(4℃)從種子發芽期進行低需冷性篩選,目前選出早期發芽雜交後代共繁殖60棵雜交苗,發芽時間為34-59天,針對梨雜交育種方向以低需冷性為主,選拔5%提前發芽後代,選拔目標為市佔率低之綠或紅皮系梨,兼顧未來冬季升溫的低需冷性梨品種維持梨產業發展。枇杷方面,完成┌晶璽┘、┌玉出露┘2種枇杷授權推廣,目前這兩個品種在暖化現象仍保持一定產量,可取代目前所栽培之茂木品種,枇杷茂木因花期高溫,授粉出現異常,著果率低,108年度的台灣主要茂木產區甚至減產到剩2成,因此針對高溫下著果良好後代的性狀導入須儘快進行,雜交後代目前在田間選出在今年度氣候異常仍維持穩產且品質良好品系5株,將進行高接進一步評估生長勢與產量評估,而台東地區普遍栽培之日本育成的長崎早生枇杷,目前評估可能為耐花期高溫之穩產品種,108年試以長崎早生花粉與三種育成品種進行雜交,持續擴大雜交數量,期能選出花期耐高溫穩產後代,維持台灣枇杷產業穩健發展。 果樹種原保育、利用及健康化繁殖 本計畫蒐集國內外果樹種原,並就地田間保存進行生育特性調查,藉以建立種原基 本資料,尋求果樹種原相關的利用性和加工技術,同時,選育新興耐候性質優且具 潛力的果樹種原物種,進一步繁殖量化提供推廣以發揮其經濟效益。  具台灣特色之熱帶果樹育種及栽培技術改進 本計畫為選育具有台灣生產特色的熱帶果樹品種,預期有下列目標: 1. 芒果品種選育:比較目前雜交品系,預期可選出果形大小中等、果皮顏色佳、果實品質優良、不易生理劣變、耐貯運、具矮性及不時花特性等之優良品系3個以上,供品系比較試驗。番木瓜品種選育:更新維持番木瓜核心種原15種、選拔3個以上高甜度、具香氣且耐儲運中果型優良雜交品系,供品系比較試驗。 完成1個番木瓜新品種授權申請與技轉。2.楊桃品種選育:選育耐長程運輸且耐低溫檢疫溫度與處理條件、風味佳之鮮食用楊桃品種,提升楊桃在國內外市場之競爭力,提高楊桃出口量,紓解國產水果盛產壓力。 紅龍果品種選育:育成大果、高品質、具自花親和性,不需人工授粉且耐貯運之多肉色優質紅龍果新品種。 3.番石榴育種:提高已選拔的少籽品系自然著果率及增加紅肉少籽品系。4.蓮霧育種:選拔至少10品系具有良好外型之大果、風味佳、低裂果之性狀供選拔。蓮霧育種:雜交不同果皮顏色之品種以育成具有果色深紅、果形大、糖度高、糖酸比(風味)佳、裂果率低等特性之蓮霧新品系,供以命名及推廣,提高農友收益。5.棗育種:選拔單株育成高品質、早熟及不同成熟期之優質棗品種。6.早熟優質荔枝育種:選育極早熟(產期在四月)及焦核(無核)品種,分散荔枝產期高峰,提升荔枝市場平均價格。7.新興熱帶果樹種類開發與區域試作:積極搜集與進行黃金果、紅(黃)毛丹、榴槤蜜、星蘋果、榴槤及山竹等果樹品項優良實生品系選拔,期能選育出適應台灣風土氣候之新興熱帶品種(系)進行推廣栽培。8.探討新興果樹各品項快速繁殖的技術,同時建立無性繁殖供應體系,繁殖苗木供區域試作與進行栽培模式等試驗之需要。  鳳梨品種改良   本計畫目標為育成植株小,葉緣無刺,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。於3-4月間梨開花盛花期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品系進行比較試驗。種原貯藏力評估: 建立雜交用種原及優選及台農品種等之貯藏能力,以做為日後選育耐貯運性品種之雜交組合判斷來源。期能育成植株小,葉緣無剌,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。 荔枝、龍眼、酪梨、咖啡遺傳資源應用與作物改良 本計畫擬透過育種程序,選育不同產期、高品質、豐產穩產的優良荔枝、龍眼品系,提供果農栽培,以分散產期,解決因其品種單一,產期過分集中所致產銷失衡問題;酪梨則冀望育成適合台灣地區栽培之不同成熟期,高品質,高油分之接穗品種。咖啡部分期望育成適合台灣風土之咖啡品種。育種過程以創造實生苗變異產生優良新品系,而實生苗產自人工雜交授粉及收集開放授粉種子為之。計畫進行過程亦將調查作物基本生長發育情形,以瞭解一般栽培管理或新品種推廣所需知悉基本資訊,並作為育種研究參考。藉由本計畫執行,將獲得新品種荔枝、龍眼或酪梨,有助於整體提升我國相關產業價值。 柑橘育種 本計畫經由雜交育種及輻射育種選拔具少籽、大果型、不同產期及高品質等特性之新品種。並藉由胚嫁接、輻射誘變選種等加速育種效率並縮短育種年限。新興品種砧木試驗探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,以提高生產力與品質。 優質平地水蜜桃及澀柿品種選育     台灣平地水蜜桃的育種目標為育成低需冷量、低酸、果實生育日數短、大果、外觀 鮮艷動人、品質好、果肉白色、溶質、離核的毛桃與油桃新品種。柿品種改良工作 ,在育成低需冷量、大果、果皮紅、品質優良、早熟的澀柿品種。本計畫將進行桃 及柿低需冷量品種和優良品系間雜交,雜交後代選拔工作,及數個桃及柿優選品系區域試種、特性調查與評估工作。 鳳梨、荔枝、文旦品質改善及利用技術之研究     本計畫標的之三品項:鳳梨、荔枝及文旦,鳳梨產期集中於3-7月,荔枝產期集中於5-7月,文旦產期則集中於8月底至10月。當到貨量太大時,市場難以消化,導致容易出現產銷失衡情形,價格崩盤使農民收益受損。除產銷問題外,尚有許多產業問題待發掘與解決,例如近年來氣候變遷的衝擊亦影響產量及果實品質,包含鳳梨雨季時品質降低(肉聲果比率增加);暖冬及春旱使荔枝開花及產量減少;文旦採收易逢颱風使產量與品質受損。外銷為解決產銷失衡問題的可行方式之一,例如荔枝與鳳梨外銷澳洲,本計畫針對輸澳相關研究破口進行補強,但若要順利外銷,尚須相關機關於政策面上共同努力。同時本計畫預計成立三品項之團隊,廣邀育種、栽培、植物保護、採後處理...相關研究領域研究人員加入,於計畫執行期間辦理產業場域訪視,探詢產業問題並協助解決問題。  週年生產型果樹產業提升及改進之研究 紅龍果、番石榴和香蕉等3種果樹,容易發生產銷失衡 ,每年4∼8月為果實盛產期,產量大因此常造成價格低落或滯銷。可藉由產期調節技術,達成周年生產的目的。因此可透過輔導調節盛產期產量。目前3個品項具有技術服務團、外銷果品貯運技術服務團等,可立即整合成輔導團隊並運作。加強產業團隊與產業及團隊機關間之互動,以產業輔導之觀點發現新問題,快速利用團隊資源,集中且有效率排除問題。 甜柿之育種與栽培技術改進 本計畫旨在選育適合北部低海拔地區栽培之耐候性佳、適應性廣、質優豐產的甜柿新品種。本年度將進行柿108年雜交所得種子之實生苗培育工作,並繼續進行109年雜交授粉工作,並利用甜柿脫澀相關基因分子標誌測定方法,進行107年甜柿實生後裔評估。   低需冷性梨品種選育 本研究旨在選育出適合中低海拔栽培,具有低需冷性、果實品質優良及貯藏壽命佳之梨新品種,以推廣農民栽培。 柑橘無子品種選育         柑橘為臺灣重要果樹,而果實無子為柑橘重要性狀,國際貿易上之優良柑橘品種多為無子,本計畫擬利用種間雜交、芽條突變選拔及誘變方式,選育符合市場或生產需求之優良無子品種。 紅棗品種選育及加值產品研發 國產紅棗經多年栽培已存在個體間變異,本計畫將針對紅棗地方品系進行生長勢及果實品質比較,篩選純化優良品系,以作為品種更新或新植園的種苗來源,並以近緣種發展嫁接苗系統,藉由其主根系特性改善雨季裂果情形。另一方面,將藉由國產紅棗抗憂鬱保健功效驗證,配合成分分析結果進行產品開發,可帶動國產紅棗產業加值。 中部地區重要果樹-葡萄、梨、番石榴之育種 臺灣中部地區葡萄、梨及番石榴為重要果樹,葡萄以特殊果形及果色商業品種為親本進行雜交,目標選育具有特殊果形或果色的子代,擴大國內栽種品種,提供消費者更多選擇。平地梨果主要以高接梨方式生產,但成本風險高。以雜交育種方式選育出生長季耐熱,已分化的花芽不易夭折或開不時花品系,取代部份高接梨生產面積,分散風險並延長產期以平穩產業。珍珠番石榴為現有主要栽培品種,但夏果品質不佳、果肉易軟貯藏期短,利用雜交後代進行選育適合夏果品種,增加栽種品種多樣化,提供消費市場新的選擇。 高屏地區果樹品種改良     因應果樹品種單一、主流品種抗耐病性較差、產量及品質易受天候影響等問題,本研究進行熱帶果樹品種選育,育種目標為:選育具耐候性高、果實耐貯運、適合穩定供貨外銷之棗品種;篩選開花結果穩定、耐貯運之芒果品種;選育低裂果率、果色鮮紅之蓮霧品種;進行木瓜抗耐病毒自交系選種,以供育成耐病F1品種;選育果肉厚、口感風味穩定之番石榴鮮食品種。期能增加品種多樣性、降低生產風險、活絡市場需求,並利用抗耐病特性降低生產成本、提高產品良率,進而穩定臺灣果樹產業發展。 具國際競爭力之優質番木瓜品種選育 本計畫為改進目前木瓜主要種子外銷品種具有麝香氣味特性及增加品種多元特性,擬收集高產、大型果、耐儲運、耐病、果肉顏色深的木瓜品系,與本場已選育之自有品系雜交選育高產、大型果、耐儲運、耐病、果肉顏色深具機能性的木瓜品系。本年度進行大型果品系及耐病毒品系與自有品系雜交分離之S<strong><SUB>3</SUB></strong>世代之選拔及純化,並在分離選拔過程中選拔優良單株進行營養繁殖,建立營養品系。同時以上一期計畫選育之自交系進行雜交組合授粉,組合新的雜交一代,選拔優良新品種。Grape breeding for diverse fruit shape and disease resistant In order to overcome the disadvantages happened in grape industry, such as susceptible to downy mildew, single cultivar, concentrated production season, and low storage ability, artificial pollination has made using pollen from foreign cultivars with characteristics like disease resistant and pleasing aroma to breed new table grape cultivars with good quality and gain the diversity of grape cultivars. Tetraploid and diploid cultivars are used for crossing parents, also elite selections are used for backcrossing. Regional test of new grape cultivars and elite selections are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Objectives of table grape breeding are disease resistant, large berry, strong berry adherence, different berry shape, color, flavor, and ripening time. Breeding of resilient yield pear and loquat cultivars for warm climate In the production facilities and the regulation of light and heat conditions, temperate fruit trees Pears and Loquat to meet thegrowth demand, enhance quality and shorten the growth period.Photo-physiological response of Pears and Loquats to the LEP (Light Emitting Plasma) Regulation to avoid dormancy. Different wavelength light source regulate phytochrome system to regulate fruit quality and plant morphogenesis. Expected to produce pears from the earliest one month ahead of the end of April to the end of March. Expected to produce loquat production period from late December~April to extend from November to next July, the storage period may be upgraded depending on varieties of 3 to 6 months. Fruits Germplasm Conservation,Utilization, and Healthy Propogation To collect and check these fruit germplasm growth data that conservated in field.We will intend to find the utilities and proceed techniques in these fruit germplasm. And than,to supply for propogate more seedlings. To choice and breed new potential and excellent fruit germplasm species with tolerance stress ability for cost-effectiveness. Breeding and cultural practice improvement of Taiwan characteristical tropical fruit trees. This research is to improve Taiwan characteristic tropical fruit varieties, and we predict to have the following results.(1)Mango: Comparing current mango hybrid lines and we predict to select at least 3 lines with medium size, fine carp color, excellent fruit quality, less physiologically deterioration, well storage endurance, dwarf type, and off-season flowering into new variety evaluation. (2)Papaya: Breeding at least 3 medium size, high sweetness, rich fragrance, and storage endurable papaya variety. Besides, 15 core germplasms will be renewed and maintained, and we will achieve 1 novel papaya variety authorization and technology transfer.(3)Carambola: Breeding and evaluating variety with long-range transportation, low temperature quarantine endurance and excellent flavor that strengthens competitivity in the foreign markets, improving export amount.(4)Pitaya: New variety with large size, high quality, well self-compatibility, well storage endurance, and various flesh color will be selected.(5)Guava: Selecting seedless guava lines into evaluation of fruit quality and productivity, elevating stability of seedless trait and fruit setting rate, seedless red flesh line will also be added.(6)Sugar apple: Select 10 lines of sugar apple with good and large shape, well flavor, and low fruit cracking. Make 5 hybrid combinations of sugar apple and produce about 1000 seedlings.(7)Wax apple: Hybridizing wax apples with different carp colors. New variety with dark-red carp, large size, high sweetness, fine sugar-acid ratio and low fruit cracking will be bred. In addition, shorter young stage type will also be considered.(8)Indian jujube: Continuing culturing seedlings of indian jujube and selecting individuals with high quality, early mature, and different mature times. (9)Lychee: Select very early fruiting type which can be harvest in April to disperse production period and seed-aborted variety.(10)Novel tropical fruit: Collecting novel tropical fruit such as abiu, rambutan, cempedak, star apple, durian, and mangosteen, and these will be applied in mutant seedlings selection. We predict to find out varieties adapted to Taiwan climate, and take research of these fruit on fast reproduction method and and asexual supply model which can produce lots of seedlings for field evaluation or cultivation model experiment. Pineapple Breeding Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf, medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. Methods:(1).Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in net room and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. (2). Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. (3). Superior advanced clones are fur there valuated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. (4).Storage ability assessment : Establishment of the pineapple grmplasm, Tainung varieties and hybrid line,assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding.Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding. Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters. Genetic utilities and crop improvement on litchi, longan, avocado, and coffee In this project our objectives are selecting litchi and/or longan lines, which are high quality, aboudant and stable on yield, and have different harvest season from major commercial cultivars in Taiwan. The avocado lines adapted to local climate, having good flavor, higher crude fat content are also the targets in the project. We also expect to breed coffee lines which are adapted to local climate. Potential lines are selected from senetic recombinated seedlings created by artificial pollination and/or open pollination. The growth and development of crops will be investigated as well to realize the basics for cultivation, cultivars extension, and breeding processes. Novel cultivars are expected to be obtained, and will promote elavation of industrial values of these four fruits. Citrus breeding Citrus cultivar improvement by means of crossbreeding and irradiation were conducted. This project was to reduce breeding period with embryo grafting and irradiation breeding. The objective of breeding includes fewer seeds, larger fruit size, different maturity season and better fruit quality. The rootstock trials investigate the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars including Tainung Giant, Satsuma mandarin and kumquat for improving fruit quality and productivity. Low-chilling peach and astringent persimmon breeding for high fruit quality      Objectives of Peach breeding in Taiwan are to develop low chilling requirement, low acidity, short fruit development period, large, attractive, good quality, white- fleshed, melting freestone peach and nectarine cultivars. Cultivar improvement ofastringent persimmon in Taiwan are to development low chilling requirement, largefruit, red skin color, good quality, early-season cultivars. The peach and persimmon low-chill cultivars and elite selections are used for crossing parents. The progenies will under evaluation. Regional test of elite selection are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Study on quality improvement and utilization technology of pineapple, litchi and wentan pomelo The three objectives of this project are pineapple, litchi and wentan pomelo. The production period of pineapple is concentrated from March to July, the litchi production period is concentrated from May to July, and the wentan pomelo production period is concentrated from the end of August to October. When too much fruits were sent to the market, it is difficult for the market to digest it. Under this circumstances, imbalance between production and sales occur, and the collapse of prices will damage farmers' income. In addition to production and marketing issues, there are still many industrial problems to be discovered and resolved. For example, the impact of climate change in recent years has also affected yield and fruit quality, including the decline in pineapple quality during the rainy season (increased meat-sound fruit ratio); warm winter and spring drought reduce litchi's bloom and production; the production and fruit quality of wentan pomelo is damaged by typhoon easily. Exporting is one of the feasible ways to solve the problem of imbalance in production and sales. For example, export litchi and pineapple to Australia. This project reinforce the research breaches related to the export to Australia. However, for successful export, the relevant agencies must work together on the policy side. At the same time, this project is expected to set up three team for each crops, and invite researchers from related research fields such as breeding, cultivation, plant protection, and post-harvest treatment to participate. The team will hold the industrial field visits to explore industry issues and help solving the problem. Research on the Improvement of the Annual Production Fruit Tree Industry Pitaya, guava and banana are easy to produce imbalances in production and sales. The fruit season is from April to August every year. The large output often causes low prices or slow sales. The purpose of annual production can be achieved by the production adjustment technology. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the output during the abundance period through counseling. At present, the three products have technical service groups, exporting fruit storage and transportation technical service groups, etc., which can be immediately integrated into the counseling team and operate. Strengthen the interaction between industry teams and industry and team organizations, discover new problems from the perspective of industrial coaching, quickly utilize team resources, and eliminate problems in a centralized and efficient manner. Breeding and Cultural Techniques Improvement of Persimmon (<i>Diospyros kaki</i> L.) The program aims to breed new varieties of sweet persimmon with high quality, high yield and wide adaptability to the weather in low-altitude areas in northern Taiwan. In this year, the seedlings of sweet persimmon progeny hybridized in 2019 will be cultivated, and another sweet persimmon hybridization will also proceeded. The evaluation of progeny obtained in 2018 and 2019 will also conducted this year.  Breeding Low Chilling Requirement of Pear (<i>Pyrus pyrifolia</i> Nakai) The purpose of this study is to bred new pear varieties with low chilling requirement, excellent fruit quality and shelf life, suitable for low and medium altitude cultivation, in order to promote the cultivation of farmers. Breeding of Seedless Citrus         Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. Seedlessness is an important characteristic in citrus. The world citrus market has shifted significantly toward seedless types. The objective of this project is to develop new seedless mandarin cultivars suitable for Taiwan conditions. The major approaches being used are hybridization selection, spontaneous mutation and mutation induction to obtain local seedless citrus.  Research on plant breeding and value-added products of jujube Variations of domestic jujube are observed after years of cultivation. The project will compare the growth potential and fruit quality of jujube local strains. Screen and purify the excellent strains as a source of seedlings for renewal or new plantation. Grafted seedlings will be develop with related species. The grafted seedlings system with its main root characteristics maybe improve the cracking situation in the rainy season. On the other hand, based on verification of antidepressant health care effect and ingredient analysis to develop products can boost the value of domestic red jujube industry. Central Taiwan Important Fruit- Grape, Pear, Guava Breeding   In central Taiwan that grape, pear and guava were important fruits. The grape is crossed with special fruit shape and color by commercial varieties. The target is to select special fruit shape or color, expand domestic cultivars and provide consumption more choices. The mainly production method of pears fruit in Taiwan was top-graft, but this method is with high cost and risk. The hybrid selection of heat-tolerate in growing season, differentiated flower buds is not easy to die or open off-season flower in autumn, replace part of the top-graft pear area, spread the risk and extend the production period for industry stable. On guava pearl guava for the existing main cultivars, but the poor quality of summer fruit, flesh is easy soft on storage period. Breeding by hybrid progeny for summer fruit varieties, increase the variety of cultivars selectivity. Breeding of the Main Fruits in Kaohsiung and Pingtung Areas     In response to the fruit industrial problems of simplification of cultivars, lack of disease resistant variety and sensitiveness to climate, we carry out tropical fruit breeding programs in this research. The aims of our breeding programs are (1) selection of jujube varieties with high weather resistance, transportable fruit, and which suitable for export fruit supply, (2) selection of mango varieties with stable flowering and fruit set characteristic, and good storage quality, (3) selection of wax apple with low fruit cracking rate and red skin color, (4) papaya virus tolerance inbred line selection for F1 hybrid breeding, (5) selection of guava variety with thick pulp and stably good tasting. By increasing the diversity of cultivars, we expect to decrease the risk of production and create new market demand; and using the disease resistant cultivars to decline fruit production cost, enhance quality fruit rate, and therefore stablize the development of fruit industry in Taiwan. Breeding of high quality papaya varieties with international competitiveness This project is to improved currently seed export varieties with musk smell characteristics, toincrease their multiple characteristics and intend to  collect high yield,  large fruit,  tolerant transportation, and resistance of disease, and pulp color deep with functional trait of papaya strains, This year to carry out S3 generation selection and purification (strains with large-scale fruit and virus-resistant  cross with owned strains). In the separation selection process, select good single plant for nutritional reproduction, to establish nutrition line. At the same time, the inbreed lines of previous plan was used to cross each other. Combine the new hybrids and to select excellent new varieties.
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