開發果樹快速選育技術,育成耐候、抗病優質的果樹品種

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計畫名稱: 開發果樹快速選育技術,育成耐候、抗病優質的果樹品種
計畫主持人: 陸明德
共同計畫主持人: 李文立;蔡惠文;徐錦木;朱堉君;劉碧鵑;李文豪;張仁育;郭展宏;黃基倬;施昭彰;張哲瑋;吳庭嘉;宋家瑋;邱國棟;陳薪喨;官青杉;陳祈男;邱展臺;葉文彬;陳思如;羅國偉;方信秀;張倚瓏;王仁晃;張淑芬;謝鴻業;李雪如;李柔誼;邱祝櫻;劉雲聰
計畫編號: 107農科-7.3.1-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2018
關鍵字: 荔枝育種;新興熱帶果樹;番木瓜;雜交;紅棗;柑橘健康種原;葡萄;果實品質;蒐集;引種;抗露菌病;番石榴;冷子番荔枝;柑橘;果樹;無子;鳳梨釋迦;柿;輻射育種;開花時間;早熟;種原;枇杷;新興品種;細胞質決定;DNA條碼;分子標誌輔助篩選;FLOWERING LOCUS T;貯藏;砧木試驗;楊桃;桃;實生選種;誘變;母系遺傳;棗;紅毛丹;榴槤蜜;育種;紅龍果;低需冷性;蓮霧;鳳梨;選種;保存;柑橘嫁接傳染病原;嫁接;梨;番荔枝;焦核;產量;山竹;雜交;雜交育種;著果;品種改良;芒果;雜交育種;lychee breeding;New promising tropical fruit trees;Papaya;hybrid;jujuba;Citrus healthy stock;Grape;fruit quality;Collection;introduction;Downy Mildew resistance;Guava;atemoya;citrus;Fruits;seedlessness;cherimoya;persimmon;irradiation breeding;flowering ti
摘要: 優質與抗露菌病葡萄育種 為改善台灣鮮食葡萄不具露菌病抗病性、品種過於單純、產期集中、不耐貯運等缺點,以國外引進具抗病與優良性狀品種的花粉進行四倍體與二倍體親本正交、反交雜交授粉工作,並以優選品系與親本回交。加強新品種試種資料調查與收集。加強優選單株區域試種、特性調查與評估。選育出抗病、大果、不脫粒、具香味、不同色澤與風味、不同成熟期的葡萄新品種。 梨及枇杷產業4.0創新前瞻新品種與栽培技術開發 1.育成適應氣候變遷之梨新品種,低需冷量優質梨偏重綠皮及紅皮品種,較耐儲運、早生、省工; 2.育成適應氣候變遷之枇杷新品種,較能適應開花期高溫之抗病耐儲運枇杷新品種,具備大果、易剝皮、少子、產期長等特性 。 1.預期將來育成優質綠皮梨及紅皮梨各至少1個;2.育成超越台農1號金鑲白玉、2號晶璽及3號玉出露優質白肉及紅肉枇杷品種各1個。 果樹種原保育、利用及健康化繁殖 本計畫蒐集國內外果樹種原,並就地田間保存進行生育特性調查,藉以建立種原基 本資料,尋求果樹種原相關的利用性和加工技術,同時,選育新興耐候性質優且具 潛力的果樹種原物種,進一步繁殖量化提供推廣以發揮其經濟效益。 具台灣特色之熱帶果樹育種及栽培技術改進 本計畫為選育具有台灣生產特色的熱帶果樹品種,預期有下列目標: 1. 芒果品種選育:比較目前雜交品系,預期可選出果形大小中等、果皮顏色佳、果實品質優良、不易生理劣變、耐貯運、具矮性及不時花特性等之優良品系3個以上,供品系比較試驗。番木瓜品種選育:更新維持番木瓜核心種原15種、選拔3個以上高甜度、具香氣且耐儲運中果型優良雜交品系,供品系比較試驗。 完成1個番木瓜新品種授權申請與技轉。2.楊桃品種選育:選育耐長程運輸且耐低溫檢疫溫度與處理條件、風味佳之鮮食用楊桃品種,提升楊桃在國內外市場之競爭力,提高楊桃出口量,紓解國產水果盛產壓力。 紅龍果品種選育:育成大果、高品質、具自花親和性,不需人工授粉且耐貯運之多肉色優質紅龍果新品種。 3.番石榴育種:提高已選拔的少籽品系自然著果率及增加紅肉少籽品系。4.蓮霧育種:選拔至少10品系具有良好外型之大果、風味佳、低裂果之性狀供選拔。蓮霧育種:雜交不同果皮顏色之品種以育成具有果色深紅、果形大、糖度高、糖酸比(風味)佳、裂果率低等特性之蓮霧新品系,供以命名及推廣,提高農友收益。5.棗育種:選拔單株育成高品質、早熟及不同成熟期之優質棗品種。6.早熟優質荔枝育種:選育極早熟(產期在四月)及焦核(無核)品種,分散荔枝產期高峰,提升荔枝市場平均價格。7.新興熱帶果樹種類開發與區域試作:積極搜集與進行黃金果、紅(黃)毛丹、榴槤蜜、星蘋果、榴槤及山竹等果樹品項優良實生品系選拔,期能選育出適應台灣風土氣候之新興熱帶品種(系)進行推廣栽培。8.探討新興果樹各品項快速繁殖的技術,同時建立無性繁殖供應體系,繁殖苗木供區域試作與進行栽培模式等試驗之需要。 分子生物工具輔助荔枝、龍眼、酪梨、咖啡遺傳資源應用與作物改良     過去本機關執行第一代育種計畫已育成若干荔枝與酪梨新品種,這些新品種使得作物產期得以較以往分散。然而近年來我們逐漸面臨到一些艱困問題的挑戰:首先,我們在執行第二代育種計畫過程中需要更快速、節源的方法以選汰更極端的潛力遺傳系;而對於既有育成的新品種,我們則是需要值得信賴的鑑別技術避免品種摻偽與混淆。當代的分子工具如次世代定序(NGS)將提供我們解決這些問題的有力方法。在計畫中我們將逐步建立自交後裔族群,並且藉由新技術獲取荔枝或酪梨的遺傳多型性。計畫中將探討候選標誌的應用,例如<I>FT</I>或許是荔枝選拔後裔可參考的候選基因。在被子植物中,成花累積因子FT在成花轉換上扮演重要角色,而荔枝<I>LcFT1</I>上游序列的變異則與花期物候有所關聯,因此釣取包含極早熟品種<I>LcFTs<U></U></I>的啟動子序列將在計畫中執行。相對地,<I>FT</I>的同族基因<I>TFL1</I>則調控花序特性,並且抑制成花進程。在我們執行四年度計畫的第一年,我們首要將探索<I>FT</I>/<I>TFL1</I>基因序列在荔枝及相關作物歧異情形。另一方面,焦核性狀為荔枝育種者企求的優良性狀,然而因為胚胎敗育的特性,傳統的雜交育種程序難以獲得穩定焦核遺傳系。我們推測細胞質調控參與焦核種子形態形成,而對細胞質遺傳的研究也將為本計畫著墨重點。 柑橘育種 本計畫經由雜交育種及輻射育種選拔具少籽、大果型、不同產期及高品質等特性之 新品種。並藉由胚嫁接、輻射誘變選種等加速育種效率並縮短育種年限。新興品種 砧木試驗探討主要砧木對各柑橘品種生長、產量與品質之差異,以提高生產力與品 質。 多樣化平地水蜜桃及早生澀柿品種改良 台灣平地水蜜桃的育種目標為育成低需冷量、低酸、果實生育日數短、大果、外觀 鮮艷動人、品質好、果肉白色、溶質、離核的毛桃與油桃新品種。柿品種改良工作 ,在育成低需冷量、大果、果皮紅、品質優良、早熟的澀柿品種。本計畫將進行桃 及柿低需冷量品種和優良品系間雜交,雜交後代選拔工作,及數個桃及柿優選品系 區域試種、特性調查與評估工作。 鳳梨品種改良 計畫目標:育成植株小,葉緣無刺,果實適中,糖酸比高,品質佳,適於鮮食品種,以供推廣。方法:(1).親本授粉:在3-4月間梨開花盛花期,選擇優良親本配組進行雜交授粉,然後將種子播種,依次經溫室、網室、田間育苗選拔。(2).初選優良品系繁殖與複選:初選優良品系繼續進行複選,並利用組織培養及老莖切片繁殖種苗。(3).品系比較試驗:經複選結果較具優秀品系進行比較試驗。 (4).種原貯藏力評估: 建立雜交用種原及優選及台農品種等之貯藏能力,以做為日後選育耐貯運性品種之雜交組合判斷來源。預期效益:期能育成植抹小,葉緣無剌,果實過中,糖酸比高,風味佳,適於鮮食品種。 甜柿之育種與栽培技術改進及低需冷性梨品種選育 本計畫旨在選育適合北部低海拔地區栽培之耐候性佳、適應性廣、質優豐產和具外銷潛力的甜柿新品種及具低需冷性的水梨品種。本年度將進行柿106年雜交組實生苗培育工作,並繼續進行107年柿雜交工作,建立柿脫澀控制相關基因分子標誌測定方法,並進行106年甜柿實生後裔評估工作。本年度低需冷性梨品種選育計畫將進行梨實生苗培育(第三年)及101年組梨品系比較試驗嫁接繁殖及性狀調查工作。 柑橘無子品種選育 柑橘為臺灣重要果樹,而果實無子為柑橘重要性狀,國際貿易上之優良柑橘品種多為無子,本計畫擬利用種間雜交、芽條突變選拔及誘變方式,選育符合市場或生產需求之優良無子品種。 紅棗栽培花果期穩定生產關鍵技術之研究     為配合紅棗專區之推動,品種多樣化是必須推動項目。然而,引進或育成品種有賴嫁接更新技術之研發與應用。基於如此,紅棗多樣化品種之推動分4年期加以落實第 1年針對砧穗組合試驗。第2年嫁接期適期探討。第3及4年則針對著果率提升與品質 提升進行研究。期能建構優質穩產之優勢品種以強化紅棗產業競爭力。 中部地區重要果樹-葡萄、梨、番石榴之育種 臺灣中部地區葡萄、梨及番石榴為重要果樹,葡萄以特殊果形及果色商業品種為親本進行雜交,目標選育具有特殊果形或果色的子代,擴大國內栽種品種,提供消費者更多選擇。平地梨果主要以高接梨方式生產,但成本風險高。以雜交育種方式選育出生長季耐熱,已分化的花芽不易夭折或開不時花品系,取代部份高接梨生產面積,分散風險並延長產期以平穩產業。珍珠番石榴為現有主要栽培品種,但夏果品質不佳、果肉易軟貯藏期短,利用雜交後代進行選育適合夏果品種,增加栽種品種多樣化,提供消費市場新的選擇。 另番石榴田區線蟲為害嚴重,選育耐或抗病根砧品種可以有效延長植株經濟年限,有效降低生產成本。 高屏地區果樹品種改良 利用育種方法,選育品質佳或適合外銷需求之蓮霧、芒果、棗、番石榴、木瓜等品種,推廣種植或改進栽培方法,提高品質及產量,有利提高農友收益。為選育優良品種,本試驗乃以人工及天然雜交工作,所獲得之雜交種子則培育成實生苗,至少進行2個生長周期觀察試驗。選得之果實大、可溶性固形物高、櫥架壽命長等之優良品系,則選供品系比較試驗之用。選得之優良品系將供命名及推廣用。 具國際競爭力之優質番木瓜品種選育 本計畫為改進目前種子外銷品種具有麝香氣味特性及增加品種多元特性,擬收集高 產、大型果、耐儲運、耐病、果肉顏色深具機能性的木瓜品系,與本場已選育之自 有品系雜交,育成果實品質優良、果型整齊、果重1-3公斤,無強烈麝香味道及耐貯 運等具高營養價值的新品種,增加出口種子的多元性,促進種苗子業拓展出口業務 或在供應農企業境外設置生產基地,就地拓展市場。本年度除了純化引進品種外化,並觀察4個雜交組合之各項園藝性狀,同時亦採取自交種子供後序續分離選拔。Grape breeding for fruit quality and downy mildew resistant In order to overcome the disadvantages happened in grape industry, such as susceptible to downy mildew, single cultivar, concentrated production season, and low storage ability, artificial pollination has made using pollens from foreign cultivars with characteristics like disease resistant and pleasing aroma to breed new table grape cultivars with good quality and gain the diversity of grape cultivars. Tetraploid and diploid cultivars are used for crossing parents, also elite selections are used for backcrossing. Regional test of new grape cultivars and elite selections are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Objectives of table grape breeding are disease resistant, large berry, strong berry adherence, different berry color, flavor, and ripening time. Pears and Loquat Industry 4.0 -Prospects Innovation development of new varieties and cultivation techniques. Objectives of the Project:1. Breed new pear varieties adapted to climate change, low quality cold pear quality green pears and red varieties, more resistant to storage and transportation, early life, labor;2.The new varieties of loquat can adapt to the climatic change, which can adapt to the high temperature resistance to storage and transportation of loquat. It has the characteristics of big fruit, easy peeling, low birth weight,Expected results:1. It is expected that at least one green pear and red pear will be bred in the future;2. Bred beyond the Tai Nong 1 gold inlay white jade, No. 2 crystal Xi and No. 3 jade exposed high-quality white meat and red meat loquat varieties 1 each. Fruits Germplasm Conservation,Utilization, and Healthy Propogation To collect and check these fruit germplasm growth data that conservated in field.We will intend to find the utilities and proceed techniques in these fruit germplasm. And than,to supply for propogate more seedlings. To choice and breed new potential and excellent fruit germplasm species with tolerance stress ability for cost-effectiveness. Breeding and cultural practice improvement of Taiwan characteristical tropical fruit trees. This research is to improve Taiwan characteristic tropical fruit varieties, and we predict to have the following results. 一、Mango: Comparing current mango hybrid lines and we predict to select at least 3 lines with medium size, fine carp color, excellent fruit quality, less physiologically deterioration, well storage endurance, dwarf type, and off-season flowering into new variety evaluation. 二、Papaya: Breeding at least 3 medium size, high sweetness, rich fragrance, and storage endurable papaya variety. Besides, 15 core germplasms will be renewed and maintained, and we will achieve 1 novel papaya variety authorization and technology transfer.三、Carambola: Breeding and evaluating variety with long-range transportation, low temperature quarantine endurance and excellent flavor that strengthens competitivity in the foreign markets, improving export amount.四、Pitaya: New variety with large size, high quality, well self-compatibility, well storage endurance, and various flesh color will be selected.五、Guava: Selecting seedless guava lines into evaluation of fruit quality and productivity, elevating stability of seedless trait and fruit setting rate, seedless red flesh line will also be added.六、Sugar apple: Select 10 lines of sugar apple with good and large shape, well flavor, and low fruit cracking. Make 5 hybrid combinations of sugar apple and produce about 1000 seedlings.七、Wax apple: Hybridizing wax apples with different carp colors. New variety with dark-red carp, large size, high sweetness, fine sugar-acid ratio and low fruit cracking will be bred. In addition, shorter young stage type will also be considered.八、Indian jujube: Continuing culturing seedlings of indian jujube and selecting individuals with high quality, early mature, and different mature times. 九、Lychee: Select very early fruiting type which can be harvest in April to disperse production period and seed-aborted variety.十、Novel tropical fruit: Collecting novel tropical fruit such as abiu, rambutan, cempedak, star apple, durian, and mangosteen, and these will be applied in mutant seedlings selection. We predict to find out varieties adapted to Taiwan climate, and take research of these fruit on fast reproduction method and and asexual supply model which can produce lots of seedlings for field evaluation or cultivation model experiment. Molecular tools assisted genetic utilities and crop improvement on litchi, longan, avocado, and coffee     Several novel litchi and avocado cultivars have been released after the first generation breeding projects in the past decades. These genetic combinations established the divergent flowering season. Some tough problems, however, we have confronted in the recent years. Firstly, we have to gain ground more quickly by cheaper means in the next generation projects, and to find the rarely hopeful monsters. Moreover, the reliable methods to identify the novel cultivars are required. The modern molecular biology tools such as next generation sequencing (NGS) provide powerful solvents for answering the issues. We prospect for the genetic polymorphisms of litchi and/or avocado by the sequencing methods that also adapted to be used for barcoding or genetic mapping. Application of candidate markers are discussed in the project as well. <I>FT </I>is regarded as one of ideal candidates on offspring selection in litchi. The flowering integrator <I>FT </I>plays the crucial role on floral transition in angiosperms. The variation at upstream regions of<I> LcFT1</I> in litchis has been reported to correlate to the phenology of flowering. Therefore, <I>LcFT</I>s promoter regions of further cultivars including the ultra-early maturing cultivar will be performed. On the other hand, shrive seed is one the wonder trait pursued by litchi breeders. This is difficult to create the stable shrive-seeded lines via traditional hybridization method because of the failure embryogenesis. We supposed the cytosolic regulation involves in the shrive seed morphogenesis and the the comparative research on cytosolic genetics will be highlighted.  Citrus breeding Citrus cultivar improvement by means of crossbreeding and irradiation were conducted. This project was to reduce breeding period with embryo grafting and irradiation breeding. The objective of breeding includes fewer seeds, larger fruit size, different maturity season and better fruit quality. The rootstock trials investigate the influences of rootstocks on horticultural characteristics of major citrus scion cultivars including Tainung Giant, Satsuma mandarin and kumquat for improving fruit quality and productivity. Cutivars improvement for low-chilling peach and early-season astringent persimmom Objectives of Peach breeding in Taiwan are to develop low chilling requirement, low acidity, short fruit development period, large, attractive, good quality, white- fleshed, melting freestone peach and nectarine cultivars. Cultivar improvement ofastringent persimmon in Taiwan are to development low chilling requirement, largefruit, red skin color, good quality, early-season cultivars. The peach and persimmon low-chill cultivars and elite selections are used for crossing parents. The progenies will under evaluation. Regional test of elite selection are evaluated for fruit characteristics. Pineapple Breeding Objectives:The goals of the breeding are to breed fresh pineapple cultivars having characters of small plant size, smooth leaf, medium fruit size, high sugar content and better fruit qualities. Methods:(1).Controlled hybridizations are conducted in March to April, when the pineapple are in full bloom. Extracting hybrid seeds as the fruits are harvested and then planted seed in the greenhouse. Hybrid seedlings are primarily selected both in net room and greenhouse. Selected seedlings are transferred onto field for advanced evaluation. (2). Superior hybrid clones are propagated for advance stages testing of individual plants. Tissue culture and asexual propagation are used to keep adequate number for replicated evaluations. (3). Superior advanced clones are fur there valuated by comparing with commercial cultivators at Chai Yi Agriculture Experiment Station. (4).Storage ability assessment : Establishment of the pineapple grmplasm, Tainung varieties and hybrid line,assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding.Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters.assessment the storage capacity for the hybrid combinations source as a future breeding. Expected achievement:It will be expected to breed some cultivars which have good fresh fruit characters. Breeding and Cultural Techniques Improvement of Persimmon (<i>Diospyros kaki</i> L.) and Breeding low chilling requirement of Pear (<i>Pyrus pyrifolia</i> Nakai) The program aims to breed new varieties of sweet persimmon and pear with high quality, high yield and wide adaptability to the weather in low-altitude areas in northern Taiwan. In this year, the seedlings of sweet persimmon progeny obtained from 2017 hybridization group will be cultivated, and another sweet persimmon hybridization will also proceeded. The evaluation of progeny obtained in 2017 will also conducted this year. Meanwhile, the molecular markers for  astringent  control gene of  sweet persimmon will be established, too. Pear breeding trials will be carried out pear seedling breeding (third year) and pear strains of comparative grafts and traits investigation. Induction of seedlessness in citrus  Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. Seedlessness is an important characteristic in citrus. The world citrus market has shifted significantly toward seedless types. The objective of this project is to develop new seedless mandarin cultivars suitable for Taiwan conditions. The major approaches being used are hybridization selection, spontaneous mutation and mutation induction to obtain local seedless citrus. Improved cultivation techniques for jujube     To exportied jujube to promote the area, species diversity is an important work project. However, the introduction of improved varieties of mass production stage, or the process of grafting depends on the development and application of technology updates, there are economies of scale in order to develop into the industry. Based on this, to promote diversification of varieties of dates over four years to be implemented for the scion of a combination of tests to explore the second year of grafting suitable period of 1 year 3 and 4 years for the rate increase and the fruit quality improvement study, Fang Construction of highquality and stable helps the dominant species, the dates in order to strengthen industrial competitiveness. Central Taiwan Important Fruit- Grape, Pear, Guava Breeding   In central Taiwan that grape, pear and guava are important fruits. The grape is crossed with special fruit shape and color by commercial varieties. The target is to select special fruit shape or color, expand domestic cultivars and provide consumption more choices. The mainly production method of pears fruit in Taiwan was top-graft, but this method is with high cost and risk. The hybrid selection of heat-tolerate in growing season, differentiated flower buds is not easy to die or open off-season flower in autumn, replace part of the top-graft pear area, spread the risk and extend the production period for industry stable. On guava pearl guava for the existing main cultivars, but the poor quality of summer fruit, flesh is easy soft on storage period. Breeding by hybrid progeny for summer fruit varieties, increase the variety of cultivars selectivity. Nematode is another serious damage in guava cultivation, breeding  rootstock resistance nematode varieties can effectively extend the economic life of guava, effectively reducing production costs.  Fruit Breeding in Kaohsiung and Pingtung Areas Selection of better quality or suitable traits for exportation purposes in wax apple, mango, Indian jujube, guava and papaya through breeding for planting, or cultural practice improvement in increasing the quality and yield will be beneficial for increasing the farmers income. For breeding and selection of superior varieties, the artificial and natural crosses will be applied in this experiment. Hybrid seeds obtained from different cross combinations will be propagated as seedlings for the two year observations. Lines with large fruit size, high total soluble solid content, and long fruit shell life etc. will be selected as materials for line test. Superior lines selected from line test will be further tested by regional yield trial at major production sites. From the results of regional yield trials, the selected lines with good performance will be registered as new cultivar and then for extension. Breeding of high quality papaya varieties with international competitiveness The variety of exported papaya seed has a musk smell.  In order to improve this characteristic and to provide more choices of variety favored in the export market, this project aims to breed new varieties with characteristic of excellent fruit quality, fruit ripen neatly, fruit weight between 1-3 kg, tolerance to transportation, high nutrients and no strong musk smell. Various varieties with good characteristics, including high yield, large fruit, tolerance to transportation, resistance to disease, deep pulp color will be collected and cross with our own hybrid strain. Yearly works of breeding scheme will include obtaining the inbred line of new collected varieties, observing various horticultural traits of 4 hybrids. The self-pollinated seed will be harvested for further selection.
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