開發果品機能性、貯運加工技術與外銷市場分析研究

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計畫名稱: 開發果品機能性、貯運加工技術與外銷市場分析研究
計畫主持人: 徐敏記
共同計畫主持人: 羅惠萍;蘇育彥;張汶肇;黃勝新;李堂察;林慧玲;張栢滄;林妤姍;江一蘆;張春梅;周書立;張致盛;梁佑慎;黃世宏;陳幼光;張哲嘉;吳俊達;石佩玉;陳京城;王怡玎
計畫編號: 108農科-7.3.4-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2019
關鍵字: 紅肉番石榴;鳳梨;印度棗;有機;呼吸率;癒傷;溫室葡萄;貯藏技術;台蕉七號;採後處理;煙燻水;紅龍果;香蕉;red-flesh guava;Pineapple;Indian jujube;Organic;Respiratory rate;Curing;PE house grapevine;storage technology;Tai Chaio No.7;postharvest handling;smoking water;Pitaya;Musa
摘要: 發展優勢水果產業提升內外銷競爭力 ;本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出11個計畫。這些計畫如下:1)建立紅肉種紅龍果採後褐斑病整合防治技術與模擬海運試驗紅肉種紅龍果(Hylocereus polyrhizus)是我國新興外銷水果,其於5℃之貯運壽命約2週,由 Alternaria spp.引起的褐斑病果腐為主要長程貯運劣變原因,為該果品外銷的重要限制因子。為拓展遠距市場,本計畫將建立藥劑田間噴施與貯前藥劑溫湯處理整合防治技術,改善採後褐斑病果腐,提高外銷國際市場到貨可售率與櫥架壽命;藉由擴大試驗規模,實際裝櫃海運檢測防治技術效益。本計畫研究成果,將有益於紅龍果遠程出口貿易或中長期貯藏調節供需之參考。2)提升紅肉番石榴週年品質、貯運保鮮及非農藥防治栽培技術之研究本計畫將建立紅肉西瓜拔外銷加拿大之貯運流程。本年度計畫將改良外銷歐盟市場之採後處理技術,並建立紅肉番石榴外銷加拿大貯運技術;此外,開發線蟲非農藥栽培防治技術、及選育耐逆境之番石榴新品系。 3)建立克服‘大紅’紅龍果於高溫下結實障礙之技術'大紅'紅龍果為台灣主要之栽培及外銷品種,具自交親和性,然夏季高溫(35-40℃以上)下常有結果不良及小形果之產業問題(網室栽培者尤為嚴重),已知是雄蕊花粉異常所致。本研究擬以南投縣草屯鎮之7年生16目網室栽培之田間栽培植株為材料,於7-9月間進行簡易遮陰降溫資材配置、非高溫逆境下'大紅'有效花粉之蒐集與儲存、異質花粉('富貴紅')之蒐集與儲存等試驗,俾利後續授粉、受精,以減少生理落果並進而提高果實之產量、品質(果重)與苞片厚度。試驗成果將助益於未來調整生產策略與改進栽培技術之參考。4)耐逆境葡萄選育及無子葡萄栽培技術開發1.葡萄耐逆境測試。將測試水楊酸處理提升巨峰葡萄植株耐溫度逆境之效果,評估將來利用此技術至田間栽培之可能性。2.興翠葡萄田間管理模式建立。興翠葡萄促進果粒肥大之生長調節劑處理,目前尚未找到最合適的處理組合及處理時機,今年度將測試更多種GA與CPPU的處理組合,以找出較適合之處理模式。3.三倍體葡萄新品系田間管理技術開發。前期計畫培育之IK系(義大利 x 巨峰)三倍體葡萄中,已從中選出3個較具發展潛力之品系,將針對這些新品系植株之花果進行不同生長調節劑處理,以從中選出較具發展潛力之品系及開發其田間管理技術。5)改善簡易溫室葡萄結果枝基部葉片黃化之研究本研究擬將探討其發生之原因及解決方法。6)台農17號鳳梨長期貯運技術之研發 本研究之主要目的為研究鳳梨耐低溫技術,以改善果實耐低溫能力, 維持品質和延長貯運期。本年度有二個主要工作項目: 1.採前甜菜鹼和水楊酸處理對果實耐低溫能力之影響。2.果實採後以蠟和脂肪酸蔗糖酯處理對果實長期低溫貯運之影響。7)CPPU改進紅龍果苞片及探討包裝儲運壽命的影響本研究主要目的是增加紅龍果在採後儲運及保鮮的優勢。 田間施用氯吡脲(CPPU)已知可增加紅龍果鱗片厚度,並維持苞片鮮綠有較長的時間。而採後PE袋 (孔數 及孔徑)可以有效延緩低溫對果品的傷害,減少寒害,維持品質有較好的影響。結合採前處理及採後不同PE袋包裝的模式,使紅龍果在外銷和儲運上更具優勢。8)減少鳳梨裂果之研究本研究為了減少鳳梨裂果,擬利用複合式防曬處理,降低果實上裂紋及裂目的發生情形。另外,觀察裂果在果實發育過程中的發生時期,藉以研擬適當的防治時機,提高果農收入。9)番石榴根砧用基因型評估及選育番石榴在臺灣主要以嫁接技術進行營養繁殖,然而根砧的基因型對番石榴接穗品種的影響仍有待更多的探討及時有系統的評估。有鑑於番石榴立枯病及根瘤線蟲的蔓延,具有抗性的根砧可能是一個可行的解決途徑。本計畫的目的主要在比較不同品種或品系的根砧對番石榴主要栽培品種的差異,包括嫁接的親和性或成活率、植株生長勢及果實品質等,文獻中對立枯病及根瘤線蟲可能具有抗性的野生番石榴種類也將包括在根砧使用的種原中,期能從中選育出適合番石榴不同栽培目的的根砧基因型。珍珠拔扦插苗及嫁接苗田間生長及果實特性也將在本年度研究中進行比較。10)棗新育成品種採收成熟度與貯運特性評估台灣印度棗的外銷加拿大和新加坡需長時間低溫冷藏;外銷日本則需要低溫檢疫處理。而印度棗經長時間低溫冷藏或低溫檢疫處理後可能造成果實寒害的發生,進而影響到貨品質與商品價值。此外,近年各試驗改良場所積極育成新的印度棗品種,並推廣農民種植,但對於新品種的採後生理特性與貯運特性相關調查缺乏,農民及貿易商對於印度棗新品種的特性不熟悉,進而導致採後熟度過高或貯藏不良品質佳等問題發生。因此,對於新品種印度棗的採後生理特性有其調查之必要性,提供生產者與貿易商可用之基礎資料。11)香蕉黃葉病抗/耐病品種選育技術改進與建立優質香蕉栽培技術之研究1.香蕉優良新品種選育。  2.建立優質台蕉7號之生產管理及採後管理之整合技術。提升外銷鳳梨貯運良品率之技術研發本計畫擬設計以外銷鳳梨鮮果為目的之採後作業細節,研發提高良品率之選果與保 鮮技術。本年度之研發項目為待運與運輸期間之溫控條件及管理要領並模擬測試及修正改良,建立可供商業應用之外銷技術流程 ,延長外銷鮮果供貨期,提高貯運品質及到貨良品率。 印度棗外銷貯運技術與新興果樹黃金果之貯運研究一、東協與中東地區正逐年成長,配合政府南向政策,透過於新加坡馬來西亞銷售還可作為進入東協與中東地區之窗口,因此解決低溫貯運後室溫(25-30℃)販賣之品質黃化異味產生,使用適切包裝與資材,達到成功銷售的目的。另加強印度棗於採收後降溫之問題,測試不同降溫方式,以及不同材質包裝測試對印度棗品質之影響。二、黃金果黃金果較不耐貯藏,於室溫下則只有4天的櫥架壽命,不同低溫貯藏下寒害則以果皮褐化與果肉水浸狀之情形為多,探討不同包裝方式對黃金果低溫貯藏之影響。三、研發目前印度棗外銷預冷之易行處理流程,改善其外銷操作流程模組與預冷處理相關技術一式。四、開發黃金果低溫貯運與延長櫥架壽命之相關技術。   國產優質紅棗鮮果保鮮技術之研究    紅棗( Ziziphus jujuba Miller)自古以來主要是供作醫藥用途,每100公克紅棗含維生素C 600-800 mg,是兼具鮮食與食補之果品。紅棗果實成熟即可鮮食,另可以日曬或電箱乾燥等方式製成紅棗乾;然而其鮮果在室溫下不耐貯存,3至5天果實即變軟皺縮,維生素C的含量也會大幅減少。鮮棗貯藏受諸多因素影響,包含品種、採收成熟度、環境(含溫度、溼度、氣體成分)、其他物理及化學方法。本研究擬進行國產紅棗鮮果採後生理特性之研究,含呼吸率及乙烯生成率測定以及最適貯藏溫度等,為後續建立國產優質紅棗鮮果保鮮技術之基礎資料,目標可延長紅棗鮮果保鮮期至二週以上,調節市場供需及增加農民收益。北部地區農產品有機加工之研究-蔬果汁蔬果汁的風味、色澤及懸浮性是在製程中相當重要的因子,經常需要不同的食品添加物作為副原料來達到預期的結果。在有機加工的製程中能使用的食品添加物相當有限,本研究的目標是建立物理方式或使用有機可用的食品添加物製作蔬果汁之製程,在符合有機加工法規的前提下製作高品質的蔬果汁,且不嚴重影響成品外觀及美味,以提升有機產品多元性及產業競爭力。臺南區重要果樹採後處理技術開發    炭疽病為愛文芒果外銷品質上的亟需解決的採後病害,而溫湯處理為一可行之處理方法,建議處理條件為50℃/30min或60-62℃/20-30秒,但商業化操作上仍不完善,需強化芒果採後處理流程規範,重新定位溫湯處理的操作,以降低果實損失。試驗將重新探討愛文芒果於商業處理之溫湯處理流程,加入保鮮劑之應用,調查溫湯處理後貯運條件對其相關品質變化與病害發生的影響,找出最合理(時間、效率、成本等因素)的處理流程以供業者參考。    麻豆文旦為國內重要節氣應景果品,因應節氣及中秋節之間隔長短會造成柚農每年不同的銷售時間壓力,而且文旦需經過俗稱「辭水」的調理方式(Curing),才能會有較佳的食用品質,本試驗為針對今年銷售期間較長,建立合適的辭水及其後貯藏條件處理,並調查不同條件對果實品質及採後病害發生之變化,以期提昇其採後品質及貯架壽命,並提昇農友經濟效益。  To enhance the competitiveness of the advantageous fruits in export and domestic salesThe objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competitiveness of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 11 projects of current year. There are:1).Establishing Integrated Control Techniques of Postharvest Alternaria Rot and the Pilot Test of Marin Export Simulation in Red-fleshed Pitaya FruitsRed-fleshed pitaya ( Hylocereus polyrhizus ) is a new emerging export fruit crop in Taiwan. The storability of the fruit is around 2 weeks at 5℃.Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is the major deterioration in pitaya after long-term transportation, which is the major limiting factor for export of this commodity.In order to explore distant markets, to alleviate Alternaria rot, and to enhance salablity and shelf life after arrival at oversea market, we propose to establish an integrated control technique via combination of pre-harvest fungicide spray and pre-storage hot water immersion with low doses of fungicides.The benefit about application of the technology will be evaluated by scale up experiment of marine transportation.The results of this investigation are expected to be beneficial for exporting to distant trade and for prolonging the storability of red-fleshed pitaya.2).Studies on Improving Fruit Quality, Postharvest Preservation Techniques, and Non-chemical Culture of Red Flesh GuavaGuava can be produced all year round. Its yield and exporting quantities is increasing in Taiwan, which got monthly exportation. In order to improve the competitiveness in exporting market, stability of product supply and quality are necessary. Canada and China are the two main exporting market countries of Taiwan guavas. The EU market is yet to be developed. But its transportation time is longer. In order to maintain the storage life and shelf quality, we prepared to use 1-MCP treatment to achieve the goal. Currently, the exporting guava cultivar is mainly 'Jen-Ju'. For elevating the export competitiveness, the varieties of exporting guava should be diversified. Red-flesh guava in Taiwan domestic market share increased recently. And the preliminary market survey of  Canada showed great potential. In this project, we prepared to establish the export transportation and storage process, to promote the export of red-flesh guava to Canada. Nematode infestation is a serious disease in guavas, which often cause plant death. It is necessary to establish a plant protect strategy. Besides, climate change has influenced guava production. In response, we did the hybridization, and selected some stress tolerant lines by Chlorophyll fluorescence(Fv/Fm). The following-up work is to investigate the stress reactions, the growth characters and the relating horticultural traits. Overall, the project this year is going to improve the post-harvest preservation process for guava exporting to EU market, and establish the storage and transportation technique of red-flesh guava. For the more, we are going to develop the non-chemical material nematode prevention technique, and select one or more stress-tolerant guava lines.3).Establishing the techniques to overcome fruiting barrier caused by heat stress of ‘Big Red’pitaya ‘Big Red’, a red flesh cultivar ( H. polyrhizus ) with self-compatibility nature, accounts for larger proportion of production of pitaya in either local or export market in Taiwan. However, it has been reported that this cultivar suffered from inferior fruit set and small fruit weight under heat stress in summer, possibly resulting from unviable pollen and thus failure of fertilization. To overcome fruiting barrier caused by heat stress, overhead shading to lower air temperature, and pollen collection under non-heat stress for viability and storage length determination for subsequent hand pollination to those under heat stress of field net grown plants were conducted from June to September. Shading and pollination effects on fruit set fruit characteristics including fruit weight and seed weight were examined. Pollen other than Big Red, i.e., Fu Que Hong which is a heat tolerant cultivar with regular bearing, was also used to document if it has xentia effect for improvement of fruiting. The results obtained might be useful to improve fruit production, and also provide the basic cultivation physiology information for further research of pitaya.4).Development of techniques for breeding stress tolerant grapevines and growing seedless grapesThe major objectives of this project in the 108 fiscal year include:1. Testing for grapevine stress tolerance. The effect of salicylic acid treatment on increasing temperature stress tolerance of Kyoho grapevines will be tested. The possibility of employing this technique in the field will be evaluated. 2. Developing a management model for growing the triploid Xingcui seedless grapevine. The optimal application time and combination of plant growth regulators for increasing the berry size of Xingcui grapevine is still lacking. Different combinations of GA and CPPU treatment will be tested in order to find a more suitable treatment.3. Developing field management techniques for new triploid seedless grapevines. Three lines with potential have been selected from the IK progenies. Different combinations of plant growth regulators will be applied on those new triploid seedless grapevines. New lines with higher potential for commercial cultivation will be selected and field management techniques will be developed.5).Study of leaf yellowing at the base of fruiting branches in PE house grapevinesIn Taiwan, PE house grapevine is one of the important fruit tree industries and it giveshigh yield. From March to April, which is close to the fruit color conversion period,yellowing and withering often occur at the leaves in the 1–6 segments at the base offruiting branches. In severe cases of this phenomenon, poor fruit coloring occurs. Thisresults in poor product quality and affects the sale price of fruits. The cause of thisphenomenon is not known and there are currently no studies and papers on it.Therefore, this study aimed to examine the cause(s) of this phenomenon and identifyrelated solutions. In the first year of research, differences in leaf yellowing in differentfamers will be used for examining differences in plant growth status, fertilizermanagement, and the use of growth regulators for analysis of the possible causes. Inthe second year, the results of the first year will be used for testing factors that maycause leaf yellowing. In the third year, improvements to leaf yellowing at the base offruiting branches in PE house grapevines will be made and better cultivation methodswill be suggested.6).Development of technologies for long term transportation Tainung No.17 pineapple fruitPineapple is a tropical fruit which is susceptible to low temperature, leading to limitation on application of cold storage technology to transportation and maintain quality. The long-term low temperature transportation usually causes severe chilling injury impede exportation. This study is aimed to develop technologies for low temperature tolerance of pineapple fruit to maintain the fruit quality and to extend the transportation period. Thus, there are 2 objectives scheduled for this year, which are:1. Preharvest application of glycine betaine and salicylic acid on pineapple fruit to improve the tolerance of low temperature.2. Postharvest treated select wax and sucrose fatty acid ester affect the low temperature tolerance of pineapple fruit.7).The effect of CPPU and packing technology on storage and preservation of red-fleshed dragon fruitThe aim of this study is to enhance the advantages of postharvest storage and good fresh of red dragon fruit. Field application of forchlorfenuron (CPPU) is effective to increase the thickness of fruit bracts of the pitaya fruit, and can maintain bracts bright green for a longer time than the control. In addition, postharvest packaging (PE bag with different pore number and pore size) is a good method to reduce storage loss, cold damage, and maintain fruit quality. Combination of preharvest CPPU application and postharvest  PE bag packaging modes may result in more advantages on red dragon fruit in exportation and storage.8).Reduce fruit splitting in PineappleThe damages of ‘TaiNong No. 17’ pineapple production come from fruit cracking. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of cracked and split fruit by using compound sunscreen treatments. In addition, we record the timing of cracked and split fruit during the fruit development to apply the appropriate treatment to reduce the damages and increase the incomes of farmers.9).Evaluation and selection of genotypes used for rootstocks in guavaGrafting is the main technique for vegetative propagation of guava in Taiwan. However, the effect of rootstock genotype used on the performance of scion cultivar remains under exploration and requires more systematic evaluation. In view of the widespread occurrence of guava wilt and root knot nematodes, resistant rootstock might provide a feasible solution. The objectives of the current project are to compare the influence of different rootstock cultivars or lines on major guava cultivar scions, including graft compatibility or success rates, plant growth vigor, and fruit quality parameters, etc. The wildPsidiumspecies which are possibly resistant to either guava wilt or root knot nematodes based on literature will also be employed as rootstocks. We hope to select and breed for rootstock genotypes suitable for different cultivation purposes. The growth and fruit characteristics of Jen Ju Ba plants propagated by cuttings or graftage will be compared in the current study.10)Evaluation of Harvest Maturity and Storability of new Indian jujube varietiesIn recent years, Taiwan's Indian jujube fruit overseas sales have gradually increased. The export of Indian jujube form Taiwan to Canada is required to be refrigerated for a long time; for export to Japan, low temperature quarantine treatment is required. Indian jujube may cause chilling injury after long-term low-temperature refrigeration or low-temperature quarantine treatment, which may affect the fruit quality and reduce the value. The Agricultural research center actively bred new Indian jujube varieties and promotes farmers' cultivation. However, there is a lack of assessment of the postharvest physiological characteristics and storability of new varieties.Farmers and traders are unfamiliar with the characteristics of new varieties of Indian jujube, which leads to problems such as over ripening or poor storage quality. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the postharvest physiological characteristics of the new variety Indian jujube, and provide basic information available to producers and traders.11).Improvement of Techniques in Breeding Banana Varieties Resistant/Tolerant to Foc TR4 and the Establishment of High Quality Banana Cultivation Management  1. Breeding of excellent banana varieties :(1)Excellent strains Pei-No.1 (selected by 'Pei Chiao') and v70-1 (selected by 'Williams'), and horticultural characteristics data were collected. (2) Commercial varieties ‘Grande Nain’ and ‘Williams’ with potential for promotion, screening tests for resistance to Foc TR4 disease. (3) Using P4T medium and its improved technology to induce buds, and with the continuous screening of test tubes, nursery rooms and field high density, accelerate the breeding of new varieties.2. To establish the techniques for the production and post-harvest management of Taiwan banana for export purpose, with special emphasis on the protection of production environments, the food safety and hygiene, the consistence of production and consumption trends, and the sustainability of industrial management and development, to stabilize the annual production and supply of Taiwan banana, to improve the quality of export banana, to promote the banana export business, and to rebuild the export industry of Taiwan banana. Upgrading postharvest technologies to ensure a high percentage of pineapples arrive at the export markets in the top-grade quality.This project is to develop upgraded postharvest handling and shipping technologies for export pineapples to ensure that a high percentage of the fruit arrive at the market in excellent condition and quality. There are two major tasks to be completed this year. Firstly, more repeated studies on the optimum temperature requirement and temperature management tactics during packing and shipping will be carried out before a recommendation being made to the industry. Secondly, consolidated postharvest technologies for export pineapples, including fruit selection, cleaning, treatments, and simulated shipping will be tested in the laboratory and a streamlined procedure will be mapped out.Studies on postharvest technology of Indian jujube for exporting and transporting.一、Wrose harvesting method and storage method that were easily induced quality lose and decreasing shelf-life of fruits. In this study, we will focus on developing fruit : Indian jujube Not only improving technology of cultivating, but also paying attention of postharvest handling. In order to decrease the loss of chilling injury after low temperature storage and storage disease happened. (1) Developing sutiable treatment and storage technology: improving low temperature storage and increasing export of foreign country (ASEAN countries). (2) Establishing new precooling method to reduce Indian jujube ripening and low shelf life.(3) Quality analysis of putative exporting method of Indian jujube.二、Innovating postharvest handling of Abiu and elongating Abiu shelf life.Studies on storage technology of Chinese jujube    Ziziphus jujuba Miller has been considered as functional fruit with nutritional and high medicinal value. Because of physiological and biochemical characteristics of jujube fruit are easy to turn up  post-harvest dehydration shrinkage, senescence, softening, Vitamin C content reduced,and so on. In order to study and utilize the high quality and storability of fresh jujube fruit, different storage temperature ,ethylene production and respiration rate were investigated.  In order to promote the development and utilization of fresh jujube fruit, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the jujube fruit storability and establish the physiological index of Chinese jujube in Taiwan.Development of Organic Processing Methods in Northern Taiwan - JuiceThe flavor, color, and suspension of vegetable juices are quite important factors in the manufacturing process. In order to have better quality, we need to use different food additives. However, food additives that can be used in organic processes are quite limited. In this study, we establish a physical way or process of making juice using food additives that can be used in organic processing. In line with organic processing regulations under the premise of making high-quality juices and does not seriously affect the appearance and flavor of finished products.Postharvest techniques improvement of important fruit crops in Tainan District      Anthracnose is an essential postharvest disease on mango exportation. Hot water treatment, which is suggested for 50℃/30min or 60-62℃/20-30 seconds, is a possible way to reduce the incidences. However, the commercial management  of mango postharvest procedure is still need to be improved. We try to reexamine the whole procedure on the commercial practice of hot water treatment and the application of preservatives will take into investigation. The changes of fruit quality and incidences of postharvest diseases will be evaluated to set up a proper SOP for the commercial use.      Citrus grandis Osbeck cv. 'Matou Wentan' is an important fruits for Moon Festival in Taiwan. The extremely short or long duration between harvest time and the holiday is a stress for farmers on selling the fruits. And the curing treatment is an important postharvest treatments for pomelos to meeting the good quality. We will try to build a proper curing and storage condition for the long-term period for selling this year. Fruit quality and incidences of postharvest will also be evaluated. We hope the procedure on curing improve the postharvest quality and shelf-life and to rise the economic profit for farmers.
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