鈣肥對黃晶果果實品質之影響

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論文名稱: 鈣肥對黃晶果果實品質之影響
研究生姓名: 邱明泉
指導教授姓名: 顏昌瑞
出版年: 2017
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系所
關鍵字: 黃晶果;水浸狀;植體營養元素;溫度;鈣肥;Abiu;Water core;Plant nutrient element;temperature;Calcium fertilizer
摘要: 黃晶果(Pouteria caimito Radlk),別名黃金果、加蛋蜜黃果,英文名為Abiu或Caimito,屬山欖科(Sapotaceae)桃欖屬(Pouteria)的熱帶常綠性果樹,為台灣具潛力的新興栽培果樹,因近幾年全球暖化及氣候變遷,導致黃晶果果肉水浸狀現象日益嚴重。本研究目的在以營養改善黃晶果果實水浸狀。探討葉片元素變化,於週年生長中,一月和二月溫度平均溫度下降,由根部吸收的氮應該較少,此時進入生殖生長期所需之氮含量大部分來自葉片,伴隨著葉齡的增加也就造成了三月及十月氮含量的急速下降。磷含量的變化於二月進入生殖生長期初期時上升,接著並在四月至七月進入營養生長期期間磷含量下降;八月開始至十月進入生殖生長期而磷含量往上攀升,此時可能與果實大量開花期需要較多磷以供製造能量有關。鉀由葉片運移至果實和花,分別於生殖生長期三月、七月及九月呈現下降。黃晶果植株於生殖生長期後於三月時葉片中可溶性醣含量上升,四月至六月的營養生長期則緩緩下降,接著七月急速的上升,與此同時澱粉在此期間與可溶性醣呈現相反的趨勢。著果之前,植株會將可溶性醣轉換為澱粉儲存於葉片中,當植株進入生殖生長期時,植株將澱粉運移至供果實生長使用。對照週年的溫度變化,夏季果實及冬季果實的水浸狀程度分別為50.6%及27%有顯著差異。經過三種不同鈣肥處理後,呈現水浸狀生理劣變程度分別由高至低依序為:EDTA-Ca 0.05 g/L(80.4%)>CaMg(CO3)2(52.3%)>EDTA-Ca 0.15 g/L(38.6%)>EDTA-Ca 0.10 g/L(34.7%)>超微粒水溶和劑-CaCO3 150倍(20.1%)。綜合上述,根據黃晶果營養元素於葉片的週年變化以及施用鈣肥對黃晶果果實水浸狀生理劣變之影響,以葉面施用強農植鈣150倍較佳,除可有效改善水浸狀嚴重程度外,亦可維持果實總可溶性固形物含量。提供農民來針對各個時期進行為合理化肥培管理之參考,增加農民的利益藉此發展成具有淺力之新興果樹。Abiu (Pouteria caimito Radlk), or Caimito, is a pouteria tropical evergreen fruit tree of Sapotaceae. It is a high-potential new fruit crop in Taiwan. Accompany with global warming and climatic changes, fruit water core of abiu increased rapidly recently. The study is to investigate possible relationship between nutrition and fruit water core in abiu. Mineral nutrition analysis and further calcium treatment was conducted to decrease the fruit disorder. Nutrition analysis indicated the lower average temperatures of January and February might result in less nitrogen taking up from root. Most nitrogen for flower initiation was derived from leaf. With foliar aging nitrogen rapidly reduced in March and October. The phosphorus increased in February when early stage of reproductive growth, and then declined during the vegetative growth period from April to July. While from August to October (enter the reproductive growth period), phosphorus increased might be related to a large requirement for flowering initiation. Potassium is from the leaves to the fruit and flowers when reproductive growth, decreased in March, July and September. The soluble sugar concentration increased from reproductive growth (March), and decreased gradually during vegetative growth period (April to June). Then followed by a rapid increase in July, might derived from starch. Before fruit setting, the plant might convert soluble sugar into starch and stored it in leaf. When in reproductive growth stage, the plant might transfer the starch to soluble sugar for fruit growth. Compared with the annual temperature, the water core rates of fruit in summer and winter was 50.6% and 27%, respectively. After calcium fertilizer treatments, the water core decreased with the order: EDTA-Ca 0.05 g/L (80.4%)>CaMg(CO3)2(52.3%)>EDTA-Ca 0.15 g/L (38.6%)>EDTA-Ca 0.10 g/L (34.7%)>Ultrafine particles and water soluble agents- CaCO3 150x Dilution (20.1%). In conclusion, according to the annual change of nutrients in the leaves and the effect of calcium fertilizers on the water core of the fruit. Foliar application ultrafine particles and water soluble agents- CaCO3 150x dilution can effectively improve the degree of water core, but also to maintain the total soluble solids content of the fruit. The study provides farmers the information of management and fertilizers for abiu production.
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