重要外銷鮮果檢疫處理技術之研發

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計畫名稱: 重要外銷鮮果檢疫處理技術之研發
計畫主持人: 杜武俊
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 95農科-13.4.2-檢-B1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 中興大學昆蟲學系(所)
全程計畫年: 2006
關鍵字:
摘要: 針對進口最有可能攜帶病原線蟲並藉以擴散之塊莖及植物苗木等繁殖體為對象,以薑穿孔線蟲、根瘤線蟲及地上部寄生性線蟲的草莓葉芽線蟲為例,研究精確可行之檢疫處理技術。

建立進口蔬果經溴化甲烷燻蒸後其無機溴離子殘留檢測標準流程,同時建立至少60筆進口蔬果殘留檢測值資料庫。接續前一年之工作,針對進口蔬果經溴化甲烷檢疫燻蒸後,其溴化物殘留情形進行監測工作,繼續增建進口蔬果殘留檢測值資料庫。同時針對特定蔬果種類,分析其不同部位與藥劑殘留相關性。繼續監測進口蔬果經溴化甲烷檢疫燻蒸後,其溴化物殘留情形,除接續增建進口蔬果殘留檢測值資料庫外,分析比較各類蔬果殘留模式。完成進口蔬果無機溴離子殘留檢測資料庫,並作成分析報告。

建立柳橙及紅龍果低溫檢疫技術及外銷處理作業流程,以減少損耗,增加銷售通路。

本計劃目的在建立芒果檢疫殺蟲處理技術模式,且為國際認同的處理方式,以減緩國內日後供銷之壓力,擬儘速開發番石榴檢疫殺蟲技術,以突破輸入國之檢疫限制,拓展外銷市場,提高果農收益。找尋最適芒果之檢疫處理技術,並進行最適殺蟲處理之基礎試驗。根據認證程序陸續完成抗性試驗、小量殺蟲試驗及大量殺蟲試驗,尋求最適處理條件以供未來應用在芒果之外銷。

本期計畫仍擬針對釋迦進行下列試驗:(1)繼續前期計畫部份尚未完成事項;(2)根據東方果實蠅在小樣本測試中所獲得的數據,進行大樣本的測試,以確立可以絕對抑制該蟲增長與繁殖的最適(低)處理劑量;(3)針對釋迦上的另一重要害蟲-粉介殼蟲(特別是太平洋臀紋粉蚧,Planococcus minor),進行輻射照射處理的測試,並觀察該等劑量對鮮果本身的影響。期能藉由本研究尋求建立輻射照設檢疫處理釋迦,同時達到殺蟲與維持水果品質的最佳方法。針對國內最重要的水果類害蟲-東方果實蠅-進行輻射照射處理試驗,以期訂定出完全殺蟲與抑制蟲體族群增長所需的最經濟照射劑量,亦得以評估輻射照射處理是否適用於釋迦外銷之檢疫處理。同時,預計本研究結束時亦可藉所得資料建立輻射照射處理東方果實蠅之檢疫處理標準作業程序,以供實際應用在檢疫實務上之參考。同時,初步建立釋迦發生之另一害蟲-太平洋臀紋粉蚧,對輻射照射處理的感受性資料,可供一併參考。

探討二氧化氯對植物病原細菌之抑制效果及抑制有效濃度、其在運用上的影響條件因子、施用後對植物是否有藥害及同時評估其在病害防治上之功效。

本計畫全程目標在開發國產鳳梨釋迦之外銷檢疫殺蟲技術,以符合輸出國檢疫要求,協助農產品業者順利拓展外銷市場。而本年度主要執行(a)檢討鳳梨釋迦各項可行低溫保鮮與東方果實蠅檢疫方法(b)開發鳳梨釋迦東方果實蠅檢疫低溫殺蟲複合處理技術(c)持續蒐集撰寫鳳梨釋迦田間生產管理及病蟲害防治資料去年度冷藏處理不適於鳳梨釋迦之果實蠅檢疫,本年度將試以不同比例之空氣/惰性氣體,對鳳梨釋迦東方果實蠅之檢疫進行低溫及惰性氣體複合檢疫殺蟲技術處理及其後之品質影響探討。預期可A.評估鳳梨釋迦可能使用之檢疫處理技術,促進外銷,增加農產品國際競爭力。B.建立鳳梨釋迦外銷檢疫低溫處理標準作業流程,確保輸出順利,提高農民所得。

選自屏東縣枋寮鄉之南洋種(粉紅種),果實大小以90-110 g為選別標準,且無外傷,熟度則以果皮顏色具有該品種之固有色澤者;過熟、果傷或有罹病果實則摒除不用。每10 粒用耐熱塑膠袋包裝後,為對照組,其他處理為:以抽真空機抽出袋內空氣,分別灌入氦氣、氮氣及二氧化碳與僅抽真空不灌任何氣體四種處理,每處理三重覆。將不同處理及對照組之蓮霧,放進0℃之冷藏櫃冷藏14天後,取出不同處理之蓮霧於室溫(25-28℃)回溫6小實後,測果重、硬度、糖度、可滴定酸及維他命C等品質測試項目,並與實驗前之測定數據比較,結果顯示抽真空後再灌入不同惰性氣體,再冷藏處理14天後經室溫(28℃)回溫,對蓮霧果表及品質影響不大,尤以僅抽真空及氦氣處效果最佳。另以直徑1cm之鑽孔器於每個蓮霧鑿一個洞,每一洞內放入30粒產下20hr的果實蠅卵粒,10粒為單位以耐熱塑膠袋包裝後,為對照組,其他處理為:以抽真空機抽出袋內空氣,分別灌入氦氣、氮氣及二氧化碳與僅抽真空不灌任何氣體四種處理,每處理三重覆。將不同處理及對照組之蓮霧放進0℃及25℃之冷藏櫃冷藏14天後,計算卵之孵化率,結果顯示抽真空後再灌入不同惰性氣體,再冷藏處理14天後經室溫(28℃)回溫,孵化率均為 0。The project will focus on quarantine treatments for tuber, rhizon and seedlings. These plant parts may carry plant-parasitic nematodes and cause rapid dispersal of quarantined nematodes. Using Radopholus similes, Meloidogyne spp. and ground Aphelenchoides besseyi and the hosts of these nematodes as models to develop precise quarantine treatments procedures.

Residue of methyl bromide may persist in fumigated vegetables and fruits and further reacts with other material in the vegetables and fruits to form new bromide compounds, which might be toxic to consumers. This study will develop an analysis technique of inorganic bromide in vegetables and fruits after fumigated with methyl bromide analysis in fumigated vegetables and fruits.

In this study, we determined whether cold treatment could be development that would provide quarantine security without damage by disinfesting orange and pitaya of fruit fly, and established an exported quarantine processing.
In order to face the challenge of fruits importing often join the WTO, this project aims on developing techniques for elimination of oriental fruit fly(Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel)in mango fruits, to meet demands of certification and quarantine treatments for export. Four treatments will be tested for fruit fly infested in mango. The fruits prepared for the experiments would be treated by cold, vapor heat, fumigation and complex treatments. Based on the result of the preliminary, small scale and large scale confirmatory disinfestations tests, the optimum condition would be find to treat, mango for export marketing.

The aim of this project is to examine if gamma-irradiation can be used as an alternative disinfestation method for quarantine treatment. The work of this year study includes: First, to examine the optimal irradiation dosages for the eradication of eggs and various stages of larvae of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively; Second, to investigate the tolerance of sugar apples to the irradiation treatments; Third, to evaluate the efficacy of combination of irradiation treatment with cold storage treatment to disinfest sugar apples. We expect to establish an optimal standard operation procedure for quarantine treatment of sugar apples to eradicate B. dorsalis by the end of the project. These data can contribute to evaluate if gamma-irradiation is a suitable alterative to methyl bromide for quarantine treatment.

The project of this study is to investigation the inhibitory action and effective concentration of chlorine dioxide to plant pathogenic bacteria, and their restricted conditions when application to plant, whether or not caused medical injury to test plant. Furthermore, we will evaluation the efficiency of chlorine dioxide on disease control.Improvement of Quarantine Treatments for the exportation of Atemoya

The propose of this project is to develop the suitable quarantine treatments for the exportation of Atemoya. The major practices include:(a) Test the feasibility of low temperature treatment for keeping fruits fresh and fruit fly extinction(b) Develop low temperatures and inert gas complex treatments for the quarantine of fruit fly(c) Collect the production management and pest control information about Atemoya. Different components of air/inert gas will be test with the suitable low temperature. The effects of control fruit fly and evaluation of fruit qualities will also be conducted this year.
The hatching rate in tested wax- apple of difference density were 30, 60 and 90 eggs of orient fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel in each tested pear were about 89.3, 90.0 and 89.9﹪,
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