|關鍵字： 氣調貯藏；controlled atmosphere storage；巴斯德效應；Pasteur effect；番石榴；guava；釋迦；sugar apple；百香果；passion fruit；印度棗；indian jujube；楊桃；star fruit；長程外銷保鮮技術；long-distance export technology
|摘要： 台灣外銷水果多以熱帶水果為主，但熱帶水果通常不耐低溫貯藏，易造成果實寒害而降低貯運壽命，同時果實在採收後仍具有生命，會持續新陳代謝活動，如呼吸作用和後熟作用，直至老化和死亡，而生理劣變導致採收後果實品質劣化，如外觀褐化、果肉軟化、風味改變及營養價值的下降。 運用改變貯藏水果環境氣體組成，使產品貯藏於高濃度CO2及低濃度O2環境下，可減緩果品代謝及延後果品後熟老化進而達到保鮮之效果。然而，各項果品利用氣變包裝時常因產品發生無氧呼吸而造成酒精或乙醛之累積而影響果實風味。 因此本計畫之目的為尋找目前台灣5樣重要外銷水果—番石榴、楊桃、釋迦、百香果、印度棗之最低可耐氧氣濃度和最高可耐二氧化碳濃度，以此建立外銷果品氧氣及二氧化碳臨界無氧呼吸濃度條件與生理指標，並進行模擬外銷試驗，完善外銷果品外銷氣調貯運與主動氣變方法及流程，且將數據提供氣調貯藏或氣變包裝精準調控之參考，進而設計氣調貯藏及氣變包裝之條件，建立重要外銷果品高CO2低O2氣調貯藏臨界值及相關生理反應之資料庫，可提供氣調貯藏或氣變包裝精準調控之參考，其為台灣水果外銷不可或缺之關鍵技術。 In Taiwan, major of exported fruits are tropical fruits, however, tropical fruits are often not resistant to low temperature storage, for cold damage and reduced storage and transportation life are easy to occur under low temperature conditions. At the same time, the fruit is alive even after harvest and continues its metabolic activities such as respiration and ripening until decreased and death. The physiological deterioration leads to deterioration of fruit quality after harvesting, such as browning of the appearance, softening of the flesh, change of flavor and decline of nutritional value. By changing the atmospheric composition of the storage environment such as high CO2 and low O2 may slow down the metabolism and ripening of the fruit to achieve the goal of preservation. However, when fruits are subjected to modified atmosphere packaging, the accumulation of alcohol or acetaldehyde is often observed due to anaerobic respiration of the product which in turn affects the flavor of the fruit. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the minimum oxygen concentration and the maximum carbon dioxide concentration for controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere package of five important export fruits in Taiwan, such as guava, carambola, sugar apple, passion fruit, and Indian jujube. These results may then be applied to establish. The threshold concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in anaerobic respiration and physiological indicator for the export of fruits. Meanwhile, simulated export tests are performed to improve the methods and processes of modified atmosphere storage for the export. These data may be used as a reference for the precise regulation of controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere packaging, and then the conditions for controlled atmosphere storage and modified atmosphere packaging may be determined. These data may also be utilized to establish a database of threshold values of high CO2 and low O2 concentration for controlled atmosphere storage and related physiological responses, which may then be used as a reference for the precise regulation of controlled atmosphere storage or modified atmosphere packaging, and developed into an indispensable key technology for export of fruits in Taiwan .