重要作物綜合管理技術之研發與應用

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計畫名稱: 重要作物綜合管理技術之研發與應用
計畫主持人: 林鳳琪
共同計畫主持人: 余錦安;張為斌;吳子淦;黃姿碧;沈原民;吳怡慧;張淳淳;翁崧夏;曾信光;楊秀珠;陳任芳;郭章信;宋孟真;鄧汀欽;呂柏寬;許飛霜;曾敏南;林秀橤;姚瑞禎;林大淵;廖君達;林駿奇;蔡濰安;賴信順;簡禎佑;江正享;邱明賜;蔡依真;余志儒;葉士財;蔡志濃;鄭安秀;曹麗玉;陳怡如;黃秀雯
計畫編號: 105農科-10.5.3-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所應用動物組
全程計畫年: 2016
關鍵字: 整合型防治;生物農藥;偽菜蚜;作物病蟲害診斷諮詢;稻飛蝨;莖螟蟲;徒長病;番石榴;粉蝨;病害管理;整合管理;生物農藥;晚腐病;芋;物理防治;根螨;水稻;二點葉蟎;抗性基因;綜合管理;十字花科蔬菜;葡萄;拮抗微生物;生物肥料;綜合防治;草苺;甜瓜黃斑病毒;桃園3號;青蔥;硫磺可濕性粉劑;有害生物綜合防治;梨木蝨;非農藥防治;蘆筍;非農藥物質;病毒病;薊馬;吉園圃;石蠟基(礦物)油;葉鞘腐敗病;有害生物綜合管理;白葉枯病;白粉病;採收期病害;農藥;病害;病蟲害管理策略;十字花科蔬菜;綜合防治;赤星病;媒介;軟;integrated control;biopesticide;Lipaphis erysimi Kaltenbach;Plant Diagnostic Clinic;Rice planthopper;stem borer;Bakanae disease;guava;whitefly;disease management;Integrated pest management;Biopesticides;Colletotrichum;Taro;physical control;Rhizogly
摘要: 十字花科蔬菜嵌紋型病毒病害診斷與整合性防治:持續進行十字花科作物之病毒病害發生種類及收集。持續針對重要病毒 (如:RaMV) 進行病毒主要傳播途徑,與田間雜草,媒介昆蟲間關係之探討。針對蚜蟲媒介病毒,研究在現有田間栽培模式下病毒的自然傳播方式,比較幾種常用的殺蚜蟲藥劑之防治效果。並配合物理防治&nbsp; 等綜合防治技術,訂定安全生產體系,提供農民參考。</LI><LI>葉菜類十字花科蔬菜重要害蟲整合性管理模式:降低十字花科蔬菜農藥殘留殘留風險。評估殺蟲劑對偽菜蚜的毒效,包括直接噴施、葉片浸藥與殘效試驗。評估農藥輪用與農藥混用對作物上農藥殘留的影響。建立十字花科蔬菜蟲害安全用藥模式兩式,以供農民參考。</LI><LI>綜合運用天敵及誘蟲植物防治黃瓜上的蚜蟲之可行性研究:利用設施方式栽培胡瓜已經是一種趨勢,但是在設施內害蟲發生的更為嚴重。胡瓜又是連續採收型作物,每日都會收獲果品。因此,施用農藥防治病蟲害並不是恰當的措施。蚜蟲(Aphis gossypii Glover)是胡瓜主要害蟲之一。因此能夠在短短數天內就在相近位置產生龎大數量的後代。因此 平時蚜蟲尚未發生之時即應定期釋放天敵進行控管。食蚜蠅(Ischiodon scutellaris) 是蚜蟲的重要捕食性天敵。早期數據顯示定期釋放食蚜蠅可以將網室內的蚜蟲密度維持在低水準。但是也發現食蚜蠅在釋放之後很快的就在網室內消失。為了隬補這個缺點,對使用保蟲植物(Insectary plants)的效果作了評估。評估中使用了長寬高各為20 X 10 X 4公尺的網室。網室是由25mesh紗網構成。網室內種植30 至 50株胡瓜。開花的辣椒(Capsicum sp)盆栽被選作保蟲植物。</LI><LI>洋香瓜關鍵害蟲整合性管理模式之開發與改進:本計畫之目的在了解媒介雙生病毒及番茄斑萎病毒之粉蝨與薊馬對洋香瓜主要危害時期,及所引起的損失,以訂定防治適期研擬防治策略。 開發帶病毒薊馬及粉蝨的偵測技術,早期發現田間媒介昆蟲,即時防治遏止傳播病毒,可減少病毒病的發生,避免產生重大經濟損失。</LI><LI>吉園圃農場病蟲害管理策略之應用-甜椒、印度棗:本年度畫擬以甜椒印度棗為對象,整合各相關專業領域的人才及其研究成果,研擬建立符合吉園圃的標準作業流程,期能減少化學合成農藥的使用量。於印度棗、豌豆田設置GAP管理、慣行管理為對照組,共2種處理。針對主要病、蟲害,以策略性運應非農藥資材與田間管理主軸,並在配合監測病、蟲的狀況,適時地掌握並調整防治措施,以印證GAP管理是可行的。</LI><LI>番石榴病蟲害整合性管理技術之研究: 臺灣地處熱帶與亞熱帶氣候區,常年半數時間處於高溫多濕環境下,適合多種作物病蟲害的發生與傳播,增加農民生產成品,嚴重影響農產品的產量與品質。近年來,政府極力提倡與發展『安全農業』,祈能藉由生態平衡的耕作理念,充分利用各種栽培管理措施,配合農作物資源回收再利用,生產無農藥殘留的農產品。目前病蟲害防治的研究導向,多以研發安全且有效的非農藥防治方法為主,逐漸降低對化學農藥的依賴,以保障人類的健康、生態的平衡、及農業的永續經營。本研究目的為建立番石榴之病蟲害整合性管理,配合非農藥防治病蟲害方法,生產安全無農藥殘留之番石榴。</LI><LI>葡萄病害整合性管理技術之研究:本計畫主要目的為配合各式防治方法,包括清園、植保手冊許可藥劑及非農藥防治資材,以(1)針對重大病害以及常見之複合性病害,建立合理之防治方法;(2)了解病害發生生態, 於最佳防治時機, 透過整合之病害防治方法, 及早壓制病害;(3)整合現有非農藥資材,了解於葡萄園中混用時之效用,期當田間複合型病害發生時能相互融合使用;(4)配合非農藥資材防治效果與清園等耕作防治,互相整合搭配,建構整合性管理策略,開發並融合各式防治方法,期望降低農藥使用並降低病害發生,降低農業病害造成之損失。</LI><LI>研發媒介昆蟲綜合管理模式-薊馬傳播病毒防治技術之整合與應用:薊馬傳播之甜瓜黃斑病毒(MYSV)嚴重影響瓜類產業,在2008年重創洋香瓜產,估計損失8億美元,2007年在設施花胡瓜也受到MYSV感染,而傳毒之南黃薊馬正是瓜類上重要薊馬害蟲,不同瓜類罹病所造成的損失及是否會持續擴散至其他寄主值得國內重視研究。為探究媒介薊馬的流行生態學及傳毒模式,作為擬定薊馬傳播病毒防治技術,本年度預期建立1種媒介薊馬之傳毒技術及調查中部栽培區花胡瓜罹病率及薊馬發生密度基礎資料。</LI></OL><BR><BR><OL><LI>結合韭菜種植前採收後土壤處理,配合合理化施肥,依照防治曆適時適量施用防治資材,辦理韭菜整合性防治成果示範觀摩會。</LI><LI>針對草苺立體栽培自種苗培育病害管理、種植前介質處理、配合病蟲害發生適期以安全資材進行防治及清園等田間衛生處理等整合性防治措施,並進行防治成本分析,適時辦理講習與觀摩會。</LI><LI>建立韭菜專業栽培區農友肥培管理及用藥等基本資料,嘗試以合理化施肥,配合栽培歷程適時的病蟲害監測結果,進行合理而有效的藥劑施用等措施,達到不影響品質及產量且農藥減量的目標,提升農產品安全。</LI><LI>完成草苺立體栽培與傳統栽培方式生產期間病蟲害發生種類及時期調查。減少草苺立體栽培農藥施用並提高草苺安全品質,建立種苗管理,減少因種苗帶病造成後續田間植株補植及病害蔓延造成損失。完成精油發散管路及擾動裝置對草苺蟲害防治效果評估。</LI></OL><BR><BR><P>本計畫針對重要經濟作物病蟲害進行研究,包括紅龍果、梨、水稻及番茄。近年來紅龍果受到歡迎,具有外銷潛力,但紅龍果有設施栽培間病害問題,例如紅龍果病蟲害之發生,影響果實商品價值與外銷,計畫將進行紅龍果莖病蟲害防治資料評估以降低果品損失。臺灣中部地區的梨樹栽培農民須每年管理植物病害,但由於赤星病的感染源來自於梨園附近的龍柏,因而地方政府已進行中間寄主龍柏上藥劑防治,不過目前尚無處理效果的評估資料,在計畫中將測試藥劑處理對於赤星病冬孢子或擔孢子的抑制效果,提供評估資料或替代防治策略。危害水稻的莖螟蟲種類包括大螟 (Sesamia inferens)、二化螟 (Chilo suppressalis)及三化螟 (Scirpophaga incertulas) 等,幼蟲均會鑽入水稻莖桿取食危害,分別於水稻營養生長期或生殖生長期造成枯心或白穗,對於水稻產量造成損失。</P><BR><BR><OL><LI>甜椒整合性病蟲害管理:於栽種初期使用農藥並搭配採收前以非農藥方式防治,期能生產安全高品質的甜椒。 </LI><LI>設施蘆筍病蟲害整合性防治:了解設施栽培蘆筍的害蟲種類、發生時期及為害程度,以及非農藥資材管理措施等應用方式。</LI></OL><P>&nbsp;</P><BR><BR><P>建立高屏地區重要經濟果樹對於好發性及突發性疫病蟲害疫情監測、損害評估與預警系統。加強本區東方果實蠅區域防治之示範、推廣與成效評估。探討現行各類果樹重要疫病蟲害推薦藥劑之成效與防治時機之相關性,改善田間防治效率。開發可行之非農藥防治資材與技術,應用於田間各類重要疫病蟲害之偵測、密度監測與實務防治,並達到減少化學藥劑施用減少農藥殘留風險。</P><BR><BR><P>本計畫擬開發一套瓜類蔬菜綜合管理與與標準作業模式,結合植前土壤管理、栽培技術改進、微生物防治技術與田間衛生管理等方式,適時配合化學藥劑或其他非農藥資材應用,預期可控制疫情發生,並能減少農友對化學防治的依賴,達成病害綜合管理(Integrated Pest Management)之目標,解決長久以來連作障礙問題。</P><BR><BR><P>本研究針對連續性採收作物開發減少農藥之防治模式、改變栽培手段防治資材、技術及時機之綜合防治策略、監測田間重大病蟲害對農民常用農藥之感受性以及瞭解氣候異常對植物有害生物可能造成的影響等問題分別設計不同試驗,包括不同苗期栽培處理防治芋頭真菌性軟腐病試驗、青蔥冬季栽培葉片黃斑蔥管畸形病因探討、番石榴炭疽病對不同推薦藥劑之感受性,以及有機青蔥病蟲害、蟲媒南瓜捲葉病毒病、梨木蝨和彩色海芋細菌性軟腐病之非農藥資材及忌避之防效,以達成解決目前宜花地區重要病蟲害之防治缺口。</P><BR><BR><OL><LI>水稻為臺東地區重要產業,因此在栽培管理及防治病蟲害農藥使用上必須有良好的操作模式,以確保產量與品質。為協助農民,提供有效水稻重要病蟲害之防治技術,本計畫擬建立最適栽培模式以降低病蟲害發生,作為管理初步手段;篩選植保手冊推薦之有效藥劑,及最適防治時機,達到對症下藥農藥減量;開發非農藥防治方法及資材,供農民參考使用,擴增有機水稻栽培面積。</LI><LI>本試驗調查番荔枝及鳳梨釋迦葉蟎種類消長資訊,並篩選非化學農藥防治資材,擬定防治策略,建立番荔枝葉蟎整合管理模式,減少化學農藥使用。 </LI></OL><BR><BR><P>茶角盲椿象為近十年來茶園病蟲害管理重要害蟲之一,受危害之茶菁嚴重影響茶葉品質,進而茶農不採收,使產量大幅降低,而目前尚未有核准登記使用藥劑,故針對該害蟲進行整合性防治研究實為必要。本計畫擬針對化學、物理、非農藥資材、生物及耕作等防治面向進行相關試驗,化學防治部分包含試驗已登記於茶樹上之藥劑進行藥效試驗;物理防治部分利用風扇誘集方式降低茶園茶角盲椿象蟲口數;非農藥資材防治部分則利用植物保護增效劑石蠟基(礦物)油及硫磺可濕性粉劑)對茶角盲椿象防治效果進行試驗;生物防治部分則利用田間收集之受白僵菌感染茶角盲椿象,進行白僵菌之分離純化及鑑定,並進行致病性測試;</P><BR><BR><P>以整合管理為基礎建立高經濟價值與飲品作物之栽培模式<BR>1.編印推廣手冊並藉試驗觀摩會,推廣杭菊、咖啡、玫瑰、甜椒等作物之栽培管理模式,建立茶飲作物及高經濟作物之整合栽培管理模式。</P><P>2.完成不同種類茶飲作物及高價蔬菜或果品之整合管理模式,並建立管理作業流程,以為農民轉進有機栽培之基礎。</P><P>3.完成多種茶飲作物與高價蔬菜之整合管理技術,降低農藥使用量,延緩環境污染,對環境友善,並透過教育宣導,強化整合管理念。 </P><BR>防治作物病害及促進作物生長之木黴菌研發<BR><P>有機作物之病蟲害防治操作完全不可使用化學農藥,與慣行農業比較,有其栽培管理上之困難極需克服。本計畫擬利用國內近年來研發的本土拮抗微生物,例如,黑殭菌、白殭菌、木黴菌、蘇力菌與芽孢桿菌等,進行優良菌種的挑選與菌液發酵,並針對十字花科蔬菜(如甘藍、球莖甘藍、青花菜、結球白菜)、及茄科瓜果植物(如西瓜、洋香瓜、胡瓜、絲瓜、苦瓜、南瓜、冬瓜及番茄等),防治上述重要有機作物之病蟲害。逐年建立有機作物栽培之病蟲害防治技術及管理模式,以提供農民作為防治之參考,生產衛生安全的有機作物,提昇有機作物之衛生安全品質及其競爭力。</P><BR><BR><P>隨著設施栽培與有機栽培法逐漸盛行,提供了天敵昆蟲應用的契機,因天敵昆蟲能與有機農法相配合,輔助捕食害蟲以降低蟲害。在設施溫室中的作物栽培,面臨了不同的環境因子,與相異於露天栽培的病蟲害狀況。苗栗區農業改良場生物防治分場已掌握部分天敵昆蟲的繁殖技術。為了解天敵昆蟲對設施作物的蟲害防治運用效率,以及提升防治效果,本研究將邀請國外相關領域專家,就天敵昆蟲釋放評估、族群建立等面向進行技術交流,期尋求應用方式的效率提升。</P><BR><BR>桃園3號稻熱病抗性基因之篩選及導入<BR><P>桃園3號為具香味、米質良好、產量穩定之良質米品種,但對稻熱病抗性欠佳,成為一大栽培阻力。水稻稻熱病為水稻栽培之重要病害,栽植抗病品種為此病害管理之重要策略之一,抗病品種抗性基因與田間稻熱病菌生理小種間的交互作用直接影響了此一病害之發生,因此針對田間生理小種的分析可有效判斷具實際應用價值的抗性基因,進而擬定育種策略,應用分子輔助育種、抗性基因堆疊或抗性近同源系輪替使用計畫等方法,以有效抗性品系及防治策略突破桃園3號稻熱病抗性不佳之困境,降低用藥需求與管理成本,具體提升稻米安全及農民收益。 </P><BR>水稻主要病蟲害防疫體系之建立<BR><OL><LI>利用國際稻米研究所(International Rice Research Institute,IRRI)發展之具單一抗病基因的近同源系(near isogenic lines,NILs),稉稻品系LTH lines(IRBLlines),並加入臺灣的商業品種,進行田間稻熱病菌族群即時監測,藉以判別田間稻熱病菌生理小種,以提供病害預警監測,及未來栽培品種選擇與抗病育種之重要資訊。針對胡麻葉枯病及葉鞘腐敗病進行防治藥劑篩選。褐飛蝨、白背飛蝨及斑飛蝨等水稻飛蝨類害蟲對於水稻產量影響甚劇,本計畫擬瞭解飛蝨類害蟲於不同水稻栽培區域的組成比重,綜合褐飛蝨抗藥性研究及農民用藥習慣分析,釐清害蟲危害爆發的主要因子及研擬害蟲管理的對策。</LI></OL><BR><BR><P>本計畫以推動植物醫師制度為首要核心目標,以加速植物醫師法案通過立法及通過考選部認定為專技人員並納入國家考試。成立2個植物醫師輔導作物病蟲害及栽培管理團隊,培訓20位實習植物醫師模擬演練植醫(Intern)制度,提供50位以上農民農會或農企業團體之農民客製化及伴隨式輔導。透過實習植醫輔導作物栽培及病蟲害管理之模式,了解農民需求並有效解決問題,以營造未來植醫執業空間。.收集分析相關資料,分析執醫核心職能等,作為健全及推動植物醫師法案之後盾。 建立植醫輔導農作物安全生產之標準模式,評估此輔導模式運作之可行性、對農業生產之效益,藉以改進調整執行模式,健全植醫輔導制度,作為未來推動植物醫師法制化的基礎。<br/><P>&nbsp;</P> <P><STRONG>Diagnosis and control of viral mosaic-type diseases of cruciferous vegetables:</STRONG>Field survey of the occurrence and symptoms of cruciferous virus diseases by symptom inspection and indirect ELISA in southern Taiwan. Correlate the association of viruses and insect vectors and the competition of different cruciferous viruses. Screen of insecticides and other culture control to decrease the occurrence of virus diseases and the population of insect vectors. </P> <P><STRONG>Improvement and development of IPM for Brassicaceae:</STRONG>Cruciferous vegetables reduce the residual risk of pesticide residues.Lethal effects of&nbsp;insecticides&nbsp;against the striped flea beetle. Including direct spray, leaf-feeding and residual.Assess the impact of&nbsp;pesticides mix and&nbsp;pesticides&nbsp;round&nbsp;on pesticide residues&nbsp;of cruciferous vegetables.The establishment of cruciferous vegetables pest&nbsp;pesticides safety mode.</P> <P><STRONG>Integrated management of aphids on cucumbers by using biological control and insectary strips:</STRONG>Net houses are often used for the year round production of high quality cucumber fruits. However, cucumber grown in net house is always attacked by small insect pests. Aphid, Aphis gossypii, is the predominant pest species of cucumber. Outbreaks of this pest are often observed inside the net house. Application of pesticide for controlling pests is not recommended because cucumber fruits are harvested daily. Syrphid, Ischiodon scutellaris, is an effective predator of aphids. Research data had revealed that this predator would keep aphid density at low level when it was periodically released into the net house. However, researchers found that syrphid adults always escaped from the structure soon after releasing. However, it is known that flowering peppers as insectary plants can keep fly adults staying in the net house. In this stury, we will put flowering potted chili pepper into the net house as insectary plant and evaluate the efficiency of the flowering pepper on preserving syrphids. Two net houses will be used in this study. The structure is 10 m (W), 20 m (L), and 4 m (H) constructed of 25-mesh inset netting. 30 to 50 cucumbers will be planted in a net house and before syrphids releasing, flowering chili peppers will be put into the house. :</P> <P><STRONG>Developing and Improving the Integrated Management Model of Key Pests on Cantaloupe:</STRONG>The aim of this project is to understand the vector of geminivirus and tospovirus, whitefly and thrips on&nbsp;&nbsp;cantaloupe are the main hazards period, and the losses caused to set control level and strategies. Developing detection technique for viruliferous thrips and whitefly and real-time prevention to curb the spread of the virus, can reduce the occurrence of viral diseases, avoid significant economic losses.</P> <P><STRONG>Quality farming-The utilization of pest management strategy in GAP farm – Sweet pepper, Indian jujube:</STRONG>Both sweet pepper and Indian Jujube employed in this experiment. The standard applications of GAP will be established for reducing the synthetic pesticides input by integrating researchers and their contributions. Two treatments of pest management are conducted in field each crop, GAP, and conventional as control. Focus on the key pests, the workable GAP pest management of both crops will be demonstrated. Based on the tactical application of non-pesticides and farm operations, the control approaches in time should be also regulated and mastered by according to the pest conditions monitored.</P> <P><STRONG>Study of Integrated Pest Management on Guava:</STRONG>Taiwan is located in tropical and subtropical climates, that suitable for the occurrence and spread of a variety of crop pests and diseases. increase farmers&apos; production of finished products, seriously affecting the yield and quality of agricultural products. In recent years, the government has tried to promote the development of \\\\\\"safe agriculture\\\\\\" pray can be ecological balance farming concept, make full use of cultivation and management measures, with crop resource recycling, production of non-chemical pesticide residues in agricultural products. Currently pest control research-oriented, and more to the development of safe and effective non-chemical pesticide control methods based, gradually reduce dependence on chemical pesticides to protect human health, ecological balance and sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this study was to establish an integrated pest management guava, with non-chemical pesticide control methods, and production of safe guava.</P> <P><STRONG>Developement of grape intergrated disease management:</STRONG>Grapes are one of the major crops with high economic value in&nbsp; Taiwan. However, the hot and rainy weather in summer, with typhoon and rains, results in server diseases and cause great losses. The farmers were often manage the disease by spraying fungicides and sometimes might overuse of the chemicals and leave high concentration of fungicide residue on the fruits. According to the investigation on diseases severity of grapes in 2015, the major diseases in Taiwan were anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum spp.) and downy mildew (caused by Plasmopara viticola). In addition, the molecular evidence (ITS region) showed that the species of the isolated pathogens were not identical to the recorded species before. For example, our data showed the pathogen of (1) anthracnose was Colletotrichum siamen, while Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were recorded in the reference; (2) grape rust was Phakopsora euvitis and Phakopsora montana while Phakopsora ampelopsidis were recorded in the reference. Therefore, to make and organize suitable disease management strategy and improve the management efficiency of control, the ecology and species of the pathogens of grapes is needed to be investigated. The main purposes of this project are as followed. (1) Investigate the ecology and species of the pathogen of grape diseases to manage the disease in advance. (2) Develop reasonable management for major diseases and complex diseases in the field. (3) Integrate the non-synthetic chemical agents to the disease management. (4) Develop proved the orchard sanitation according to the pathogen ecological study. The project are trying to develop integrated the disease management for controlling the diseases of grapes besides synthetic chemicals to reduce the over-usage of the chemicals. We have found tha lime sulfur solution, cinnamon oil product, NaClO solution, and Bordeaux mixture could inhibit the conidia germination of Colletotrichum siamen. The disease control efficiency in the field would be test in the future.</P> <P></P> <P><STRONG>Development of IPM model for insect vectors - Intergrated management techniques of thrips vectors of virus and their application:</STRONG>The thrips-borne Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV) has recently been found infected cucurbits, and it &nbsp;has been caused&nbsp;serious damage on melon resulting in the loss of US $8 milloin in Tainan county in 2006.&nbsp; Therefore there are high risk to raised cucurbits in open field. Related study&nbsp;coducted that MYSY&nbsp;infected net cucumber in Taiwan in 2007, and&nbsp;the thrips vector <EM>Thrips palmi</EM> is&nbsp;a major pest on cucumber.&nbsp; Accordingly, disease of MYSV risk increases therefore we should pay more attention on thrip born disease. To understand the incidence&nbsp;the virus transmission mode between thrips&nbsp;and plants and to make a tactics of&nbsp;the management of MYSV, we couducted building a technique of thrips transmission,&nbsp; field surveys of MYSV-infected&nbsp;and thrips density in cucumber greenhouses in middle of Taiwan . &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</P><br/><br/><OL> <LI>To control the leek thrip and soft rot disease, according to&nbsp;rational fertilization, to compare the&nbsp;effect on leek disease and pest.&nbsp;&nbsp;At the end of the project, we'll promote the health managment and rational fertilization meeting for the leek producer. According to the stereoscopic cultivation in strawberry, we try to offer the strawberry producer safer pesticides, by combine the environment control, differnet water supply, and the field sanitation.&nbsp;By integrated pest management techniques to reduce the pesticide residues. </LI></OL><br/><br/><P>This project focuses on pests and plant diseases studies of economic plants, including pitaya, pear, rice, and tomato. Since pitaya became a popular fruit tree recently, it has a potential to be an exported crop. Some&nbsp;pest influence the quality of the fruit and its potential to export. In this study, management strategies of pest of pitaya will be evaluated and screened in order to minimize the negative impact of the disease. For the pear cultivation in central Taiwan, farmers manage plant diseases annually to maintain the health of the fruit tree and the fruit quality. However the inoculum of pear rust disease is from Juniperus trees near the fruit orchids. The fact pushed local government posed preventive spray on Juniperus trees near major pear production areas, although there was no evaluation on these treatments. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of the treatments on teliospores or basidiospores of pear rust diseases, providing evaluation data and alternative strategies. Rice stem borers, including <EM>Sesamia inferens</EM>, <EM>Chilo suppressalis</EM> and <EM>Scirpophaga incertulas</EM>, could attack rice plants. Their larvae had penetrated into rice stem and causing damages. In recent years,<EM> S. inferens</EM> has replaced <EM>C. suppressalis</EM> to become the dominate stem borer specie. The traditional white light lamp shouldn’t performed better attractive capacity, which let lack of useful monitoring tool for <EM>S. inferens</EM> population dynamics in Taiwan. Furthermore, the mostly commercial cultivation varieties don’t own resistance characteristics to rice stem borer. In the study, the composition of stem borers will be surveyed to distinguish the contributed level in different growth stages on rice plant. The white-light lamp, black-light lamp and sex pheromone will be compared to <EM>S. inferens</EM> attractive activity to establish the tool for <EM>S. inferens</EM> population monitoring. Field-cultivated tomato not only depends on chemical control mostly to keep yield and quality due to the rapid spread pests and insect-borne viral disease, but also had pesticide residue problems. Current research shows silver plastic mulch and other reflective materials can effectively prevent invasion of insect vectors such as whiteflies, thrips and aphids, but the efficacy varies between regions and crop species. In general, the efficacy of such material was more stable in early cultivation. Then the efficacy would greatly decrease after the crops’ leaf area generally grows, thus cannot stay its function and limiting its duration. Studies have shown that reflected or scattered ultraviolet light can confuse vision of insect vectors, modifying the way such materials applied could keep up its protective effect on field-cultivated tomatoes. Therefore, application of physical control strategies timely can prevent pest invasion and spread of diseases, making chemical control more effective. Assessing physical materials application should be an important part in tomato integrated pest management.</P><br/><br/><OL> <LI>Integrated pest management of sweet peppers includes applying pesticides correctly early in the crop cycle and non-chemical practices before harvest, to produce safe and good-quality sweet peppers.</LI> <LI>Integrated pest control of the screen cultivate asparagus: Investigate the pests that occurred on asparagus, and monitor its occurrence timing and the degree of damage. Investigate the non-chemical method to pests of screen cultivate asparagus.<BR></LI></OL><br/><br/><P>Study and develop the monitoring systems and management techniques for the major plant diseases and insect pests of the economic crops in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area. Evaluation and extention of the area-wide control technology of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis). Step by step to achieve more convenient and efficient control for the fruit flies. Mango is an economically important fruit tree in southern part of Taiwan, a total planted, area is about 6,500 ha. per year. To conducted an integrated control measure under field conditions. To collect and investigate the population densities and fluctuation of the important diseases and insect pests in mango plantations. Survey the fungicides and insecticides used by the farmers on forcing culture mango. To teach the farmers safely used the pesticides and the control methods.</P><br/><br/><P>This project is to develop a Cucumber diseases management coordinated with the pre-implantation soil management, cultivation techniques improved, microbial control techniques and field sanitation management. To reduce or replace of use of the pesticide and solving the successive cropping problems of cucumber. In addition, we must develop the integrated pest management (IPM)concepts. Implementation of field sanitation and using of chemical and non-chemical material to reduce the pathogen density and the variety, amount, usage frequency of pesticides. In the near future , integrated pests management strategies of cucumber described above would be widely used for field applications.</P><br/><br/><P>In our study, we focus on problems including developing the pesticide-reducing mode of control, using non-pesticide materials by changing cultural control and integrated pest management, surveying different sensitivity of pesticide on significant pests, and understanding the connection between climate changes and pest occurrances. Thus, to achieve our goal of effectively controling pests in Yilan and Hualian, we design trails including changing cultivated method to control taro soft rot , investigating cause of deformed green onion, the pesticide sensitivity of Guava anthracnose, and finally, the effect of non-pesticide and repellent materials on pear scab, calla lily soft rot, pests of green onion and Cucumber leaf curl virus.</P><br/><br/><OL> <LI>Rice is an important crop in Taitung. We will develop a good operation model cultivate management and use pesticides in pest control for ensure quantity and quality. We suggest farmers in providing effective method of pest control. In this project, we plan to build optimal operation model of cultivate for reducing pests by select the most effective pesticides and the best timing for reducing the usage of pesticides. To develop non-chemical materials for organic rice and extend the organic paddy rice area.</LI> <LI>In this study, we will investigate the species of tetranychid spider mites and their natural enemies on Annona spp. (<EM>Annona squamosa</EM> and <EM>A. hybrida</EM> ) to know the species, and the population dynamics in the year in Taitung. At the same time, we will select non-pesticide on spider mites control, try to establish the safety guide model, use the pesticides reasonably.</LI></OL><br/><br/>Tea mosquito (Helopeltis fasciaticollis) is the main pest in tea field this decade. In according to the fresh tea leaves which seriously damaged by tea mosquito couldn’t be manufactured, tea farmers have no desire to pick them up. The yield of tea reduced dramatically afterwards. It is necessary to research the integrated control of tea mosquito because there’s no any permitted pesticide which control the pest. The project contains several parts which are chemical, physical, non-pesticides substances, biological and cultural control of examining the control of tea mosquito. In the part of chemical control, choosing two permitting pesticides for test and evaluate the control effect. The electric fan attracts the tea mosquito as a physical control. In the part of non-pesticide substances control, choosing two non-pesticides substances for test and evaluate the control effect. In biocontrol, to collect the tea mosquito infected by <I>Beauveria</I> in the field. Isolation, purification, identification and virulence test of the <I>Beauveria</I>. In the final part, cultural control, weeding and spraying pesticides to soundings. We expect to integrate all aspects to provide an efficient integrated control of tea mosquito.<br/><br/><P>The establishment of cultivation mode of the high economic value and heverage crops based on integrated crops management<BR>1.The pruose of this project is to establish the crop intergarted management of chrysanthemum, coffee, rose and sweet pepper.&nbsp; The manuals for promotion will be produced when the model of management established.</P> <P><SPAN lang=EN 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: New mso-font-kerning: mso-ansi-language: \?新細明體\?,serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; \?Times Roman\?; EN&apos;><SPAN lang=EN 0pt; New mso-font-kerning: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: \?Times FONT-FAMILY: Roman\?,serif; COLOR: black; EN; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; AR-SA&apos;>2.To finish different kinds of tea crops and high prices of vegetables and fruits of integration management mode, and to establish management processes, thought that the farmers can build the organic cultivation base.</SPAN></SPAN></P> <P><SPAN lang=EN 0pt; mso-bidi-font-family: New mso-font-kerning: mso-ansi-language: \?新細明體\?,serif; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; \?Times Roman\?; EN&apos;><SPAN lang=EN 0pt; New mso-font-kerning: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: \?Times FONT-FAMILY: Roman\?,serif; COLOR: black; EN; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; AR-SA&apos;></SPAN></SPAN><SPAN lang=EN 0pt; New mso-font-kerning: mso-ansi-language: mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; \?Times Roman\?,serif; EN; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體&apos;>3.Complete the technique of integrated management with tea crops and high prices of vegetables, by reducing the use of pesticides, delaying pollution, and build a friendly environment.<SPAN style='"mso-spacerun: ' yes\?>&nbsp; </SPAN>To strengthen integration management idea of farmers through education and advocacy.</SPAN>&nbsp;</P><BR>Development of Trichoderma spp. on controlled of pathogen and enhanced growth of crops<BR>Organic Farming is a system of growing agricultural produce which generally excludes the use of artificial fertilisers, pesticides and other harmful chemicals. Improvement of quality and yield is the main objective of organic crop culture. Now this agriculture method is promoted by goverment and non-govermental organization. Therefore, the objectives of this project are designed to select effective biopesticides to control the pests of organic vegetable.<br/><br/><P>The trend of facility and organic cultivation provides the opportunity of application of natural enemy insects, which can cooperate with other organic method, and assist in pest control. The cultivation in the green house faces the different conditions compared with the traditional one. The biological control branch, miaoli district agriculture research and extension station has developed most of the natural enemy propagation techniques, yet the natural enemy efficacy evaluation and the further population establishment are still needed more progress. In this study, we will invite the concerned experts to exchange the techniques about the application evaluation and find the way to upgrade our application efficacy.</P><br/><br/>Screening and import resistance gene of rice blast to Taoyuan 3<BR> <P>Taoyuan&nbsp;3 (TY3) is a rice varieties which having&nbsp;flavor, good grain quality, stability of yield good quality. But TY3&nbsp;is&nbsp;poor resistance to&nbsp;rice blast.&nbsp;Planting resistant varieties&nbsp;is important&nbsp;management&nbsp;to rice blast.&nbsp;In addition, the pathotype of pathogen and resistance genes are directly affect the occurrence of this disease. In this study we try to survey the pathotype of rice blast in North Taiwan and&nbsp;introduce the resistance genes&nbsp;in IRBL line to TY3with marker-assisted selection (MAS) .</P><BR>The establishment of diseases and pests mangement system in rice<BR> <OL> <LI>Use the International Rice Research Institute (International Rice Research Institute, IRRI) developed by a single resistance genes near isogenic lines (near isogenic lines, NILs), rice strains LTH lines (IRBL lines), and add Taiwan's 20 commercial varieties to monitor the group or race of blast pathogens in the field, in order to provide early warning and monitoring to rice blast disease, and important information for future selection to breed disease resistance cultivars.&nbsp; Screen the control agents of brown spot disease and sheath rot disease.Rice planthopper, including brown planthopper (<EM>Nilaparvata lugens</EM> Stål), white backed planthopper (<EM>Sogatella furcifera</EM> Horváth) and smaller brown planthopper (<EM>Laodelphax striatella</EM> Fallen) are important rice insect pests which caused yield loss on rice. In this study, it would like to examine the composition of different kinds of planthopper among the individual rice cultivated area, integrate the study of insecticide resistant for planthopper and assay the insecticide application behavior by famers to clarify the key factor for pest outbreak and investigate the pest management strategies.</LI></OL><br/><br/><P>The purpose of this project is to reduce the proportion of inconformity of pesticides residual standard on products through guiding farmer to cultivation and pest management of crop from expert in plant medicine system. The goal will finish to training 6 plant medicine doctors to assist 13 growers in the region of high risk of pesticides residual of cucumber, to distinguish the key pest and to provide an individualized culture and management solution. Directing and correcting the farmers to control pests and pesticides using behavior.
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