重要作物疫病蟲害整合性管理技術之研發與應用

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計畫名稱: 重要作物疫病蟲害整合性管理技術之研發與應用
計畫主持人: 安寶貞
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 91農科-7.2.3-農-C1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農業試驗所植物病理系
全程計畫年: 2002
關鍵字:
摘要: 1.經濟果樹真菌性立枯型病害之綜合防治技術研究: 近年來,本省柑橘、荔枝、龍眼、番荔枝、枇杷、梅、梨及一些重要經濟果樹常陸續發生黃化、萎凋、落葉、生長衰退、而終至枯死之現象。依據在植物病害名彙記載及近年之調查結果,發現危害經濟果樹根部之真菌性病害不下十餘種,除少數已有詳盡研究,確知病因與診斷技術外,大都尚未經過柯霍氏(Koch's)法則鑑定病因。因此本計畫擬繼續調查立枯型病害之種類、病因,以建立病害資訊庫。同時對重要真菌性根部病害建立傳統快速的診斷鑑定技術。更重要的是繼續對重要根部病害(褐根病、白紋羽病、靈芝病害),研發防治策略。 2.荔枝露疫病與炭疽病之生態與防治研究: 調查不同時期荔枝露疫病及炭疽病之發病生態,探討荔枝露疫病菌殘存方式以作為阻斷初次感染源之依據。探討荔枝露疫病菌殘存方式及炭疽病菌侵入時期以作為阻斷初次感染源之依據。瞭解露疫病菌及炭疽病菌之生態、殘存機制,病害發生與氣象因子之關係,作為防治之依據參考。 3.印度棗根部病害生態調查: 調查南部地區印度棗果樹根部病害種類,以期建立防治根部病害.印度棗根部病害發生率與生產收益呈正相關,故防治根部病害,如能減少1﹪之印度棗,根部病害死亡,即可增加8千萬元的收益,故此項防治效益具有重大經濟效益。 4.子囊菌引起之病害種類及生態調查: 繼續前一年的子囊菌病害種類調查,並將調查到的子囊菌種類作進一步的鑑定及其研究;另仍繼續前一年在南部地區芒果上Guignardia sp及其無性世代Phyllosticta sp.的病害調查,瞭解其是否對芒果生產有影響. 5.芒果蒂腐病發病生態及防治之研究: 持續調查芒果蒂腐病病原種類與蒂腐病菌產胞研究及其分生胞子與傳播關係及發病生態調查,並進行田間藥劑篩選以了解引起蒂腐及果腐之病因與發病生態及室內篩選藥劑田間防治初步評估,另外了解遮雨設施對蒂腐及炭疽病的防治效果,提供芒果設施栽培的規劃參考。 6.梨害蟲綜合防治管理策略: 在嘉義竹崎、雲林古坑及台中東勢等地發現之梨主要害蟲類計有:梨瘤蚜、梨綠蚜、梨圓介殼蟲、梨齒盾介殼蟲、二點葉?、神澤葉?、荔枝葉?、東方果實蠅、粉介殼蟲、梨薊馬、小黃捲葉蛾及切葉蜂等。防治適期可於12月冬季,全株噴佈硫磺水、夏油、大滅松等。3–4月春梢期,應儘速採取局部性施藥防治蚜蟲。葉?類之防治,宜注意慎用農藥,以免愈噴愈多。其他如適當的果園之草生植被管理,可以孕育有益天敵。利用整枝修剪以清除病蟲害枝條,新病蟲害之偵測亦不宜放鬆。 7.玉荷包荔枝蟲害綜合防治: 玉荷苞荔枝是本省南部興新荔枝品種,因質優受消費大眾所喜愛,目前南部此品種已逐漸取代原有品種,為未來我國參加WTO後最有潛力之品種,為加強害蟲之防治,仍計畫執行本試驗。本計畫第一年先作區域性產地一般害蟲種類調查,然後逐年完成重要害蟲之族群動態研究,並做防治試驗,建立一套完整防治方法,提供農民防治之參考。 8.番石榴介殼蟲類田間生態調查及防治之研究: 田間調查番石榴園中現在發生的介殼蟲種類、數量及天敵相。對於藥劑先作初步調查及收集。希望將番石榴介殼蟲類的田間生態基本資料建立完整, 能適時防治該蟲, 並配合有效之防治法, 以達到防治之目的, 並提供農民參考。 9.草蛉對設施栽培番椒害蟲防治效益評估: 本年度預期完成草蛉防治番椒作物害蟲之數量調查,探討評估分析其壓制網室內小型害蟲粉蝨、斑潛蠅等族群為害效益,減少病蟲害之發生與擴散。, 10.酪梨病蟲害綜合管理: 了解台灣酪梨栽培時期及採收後發生之病害種類及病原菌發病生態,測試各品種系對炭疽病感病性,提供農民栽培管理參考,並提供育種人員抗病育種之種原參考。針對根腐病提出防治管理可行性之初步建議,作為更進一步研究的規劃依據。瞭解田間酪梨園之害蟲發生及危害情形及天敵種類作為防治之參考。 11.柑桔木蝨傳播黃龍病之生態研究: 調查結果發現,柑桔木蝨第一代成蟲出現於2月底,並於3月初開始往外遷移,每年的春芽期及夏芽期為木蝨族群之高峰期。由天敵之調查發現,3-5月亮腹釉小蜂寄生率在10-30%之間,6月以後釉小蜂能有效發揮作用,寄生率維持在70%以上,再加上其他捕食性天敵捕食,使木蝨能有效控制在低密度之下。木蝨帶毒蟲率之週年偵測調查,發現3月及8月為木蝨帶毒蟲率高峰期,其帶毒蟲率高達85%,其他月份在30-50%間。田間植株的罹病率調查,發現3-5月為罹病高峰。由試驗結果認為3-5月為柑桔木蝨之重點防治期,此期間侵入之木蝨較多,寄生蜂亦尚未能發揮作用,加強藥劑防治,可有明顯之防治效果。 12.有機草莓栽培模式之建立—病蟲害綜合防治: 於草莓園四周設立簡易減風柵欄設施以調節風勢,利用噴水霧防治紅蜘蛛。利用亞磷酸、碳酸氫鉀和抗蒸散劑防治病害發生。可建立有機草莓生產模式,建立有機草莓新的生產專業區。可平衡區域發展,對於偏遠生產低落地區,提供新的產業發展機會。可以有機草莓園帶動休閒觀光農業發展。 13.銀葉粉蝨綜合防治技術之開發研究: 完成銀葉粉蝨對作物產量損失之調查。量產繁殖所篩選之優良寄生蜂。整合各有效寄生蜂,設計研擬寄生蜂釋放時機、釋放數目及次 數,研究如何適時使用選擇性殺蟲劑,評估修正及建立合理有效的綜合防治體系,完成不同密度之粉蝨造成作物產量損失調查,可藉以推算經濟危害限界,是採取防治措施與否之標準。研擬一套可行銀葉粉蝨綜合管理技術,供生產者參考應用,可以降低生產成本增加收益,並兼顧環境保護。 14.瓜類病毒病防疫策略之研擬與應用: 瓜類病毒抗體檢定試劑製備,病毒種類發生調查,植物病害管理技術試驗。瞭解瓜類作物之病毒病疫情動態,認識新病毒株系,強化瓜類作物的病毒檢疫及防疫實力,有效防治瓜類作物的病毒病,解決瓜類栽培的限制因子。 15.甜椒病蟲害之綜合防治技術開發: 調查設施栽培甜椒之主要病蟲害之種類及其週年消長,並針對主要發生之病蟲害包括茶細蟎 、棉蚜及白粉病等進行有效藥劑之篩選,瞭解設施中栽甜椒主要發生病蟲害種類及其週年消長,並篩選對茶細蟎 ,棉蚜及百粉病有效藥劑供甜椒病蟲害管理之用 16.萊豆病蟲害綜合管理: 本計畫擬改進萊豆栽培方式、調查病害種類,記錄新病害,並找出病蟲害綜合管理的最佳時機,防止疫病蟲害蔓延、減少農藥、肥料用量、以降低環境負擔。 預期效益:經由對為害、影響萊豆生產之病蟲生態的瞭解,掌握重要病蟲害發生的時機,於病害或蟲害發生初期即加以防治,以減少農藥使用次數,降低農民成本。 17.作物相改變對青枯病發生及病菌遺傳差異性之影響: 青枯病是熱帶及亞熱帶地區茄科作物之重要病害,在台灣番茄上引起極大之經濟損失,防治相當不易,尤其是寄主廣泛之 race1 菌株,是否因環境或菌株遺傳差異性之影響,則有待探討。本試驗於種植不同耕作作物之前先種植農友301番茄,再於秋作番茄採收後種植不同的旱作作物,包括屏東長茄,台南白玉米,休耕等,以及水田作物台農67號水稻等共四種處理。選取新社種苗繁殖場之病圃為試驗田於種植農友301番茄後,調查發病情形,並從番茄病株分離青枯病菌,於水稻區、休耕(雜草叢生)、玉米區及屏東長茄區共獲得66,61,62及62株,共得251株青枯病菌。所有青枯病菌分別以菸草植株注射及L390番茄剪葉接種等方法確認其病原性。再分別抽取251株菌株之核酸,進行species-specific PCR反應,發現這些菌株在281 bp處可產生條帶,確認這些菌株均為青枯病菌,目前正進行rep-PCR分析中。 18.鱗翅目害蟲之抗藥性及防治策略研究: 本計畫擬建立重要蔬菜害蟲之抗性檢測技術及新型殺蟲劑之基本感度資料,經由區域性抗藥性檢測可瞭解各害蟲在主要專業區之抗性程度,及仍具防治功效之藥劑種類,以提供農民選用藥劑進行合理防治之最新依據。 19.蕙蘭細斑病綜合防治之研究: 篩選防治藥劑,利用植物抽出物防治蕙蘭細斑病,利用天然植物油防治蕙蘭細斑病,推薦給農民使用。 20.以溫控防治積穀害蟲之研究: 為解決小包裝米受積穀害蟲嚴重為害的問題,運用溫控使銷售環境溫度的降低,不只降低蟲數,更延緩害蟲發生,將可實際解決小包裝米嚴重的蟲害問題。Recently, species of important economic fruit trees were found frequently to show decline symptoms as slow growing, defoliation, and yellowing or quick decline symptoms in the fields. Almost all the infected fruit trees died eventually. In the study, Phellinus noxius, (about 50% decline trees caused by the pathogen) causing death association with brown root rot diseases of 48 species of fruit trees and ornamental trees, was found to be the most destructive pathogen among root pathogenic fungi existed in Taiwan. Rosellinia necatrix causing black root rot of peach, pear, carambola, and grape in cooler places was the 2nd important pathogen (20-30% decline trees). Besides, Phytophthora spp., Sclerotium rolfsii, and some wood-decay fungi in Ascomycetes (ex. Xylariaceae) and Basidiomycetes (Ganoderma spp., Phellinus punctatu, Rigidoporus microporus, Pereniperica sp. etc) a1so caused decline and death of some important economic fruit trees in the investigation. This study is to prove the pathogenicity of each fungus described above via inoculation study. The diagnosis tech1iques for identification and differentiation of brown root rot caused by P. noxius and black root rot caused by R. necatrix will to be established. Survival of pathogen in diseased tissues in soil under flooding condition will be tested. The more important parts are developing measures for control of brown root rot and other important root diseases in the fields. A mixture of urea, chemical (triadimefon or prochloraz) and calcium will recommended and evaluated for disease control. The purpose of this research is to study on the ecology and survive of Peronophythora litchii and Collectotrichum sp.;to understand the relationship betweem those two pathogens and agroclimatic factors. This project aim to survey of root diseases of Indian jujube in southern Taiwan.During identifying of root pathogens and their ecology,this project will make a successful control in root diseases of jujube trees.Reduced price and value of jujube fruits in market is positve correlation in occurrance of root diseases.For example,if decrease 1%of root disease damage by suitable control methods in Indian jujube.this will increase 80 million NT dollors income by Taiwan formers and a high or large potential of economic reward. We will continue disease reseurch of Ascomycetes from last year and to study the investigation of Ascomycetes further. We will continue disease investigation of Guignardia sp. and Phyllosticta sp. in mango at south Taiwan from last year and to know their effect in mango. We will continue the investigation of pathogens inducing the stem end rot and fruit rot of mango fruits to realize the all kinds of pathogens for getting the complet controling. Then we will study the conidiogenesis of Botryodiplodia theobromae and its role during the pathogenesis that be an important help in the control. And the effect of rain-shelf for reducing anthracnose and stem end rot of mango will be tested too. Finally we will test the field effect of chemicals screened in the lab. Aphids scales, spider mites , fruit fly , moths , wasp and thrips are the major pests of pear at Chia-Yi , Yun-Lin and Taichung. Optimum control stages are winter control and spring stage for the aphids and scales. For the spider mite control we must avoid the mass using single miticide all the way to induce the resistance and resurgence. Cover vegetation management is also important for protecting natural enemy. In the other hand, we must detect the occurrence of decline disease of pear constantly to avoid its break out. Bio-technique of transfer resistant plant is also our goal for the purpose to decrease the use of pesticides in future. The"yuh-heh-bau" Lichee is a new variety economic fruit in Taiwan. It's flash is more delicious than "black leaf" variety, with good quality and tasty, It is still competent after Taiwan becomes a member of WTO. Because it is a new variety, so lack of pest-inesct information, Though there are some references about lichee pest, but it may be same different. This progam will investigate the population fluctuation of Lichee insect-pests in the field and excite control experiment, and to establish the integrated control method for farmer control reference. The scale insects are the most important insect pests on guava. There are three items including: 1) to investigate into how many kinds of the scale insects on guava and the occurring period of one year; 2) in the same time to investigate into the natural enemies of the scale insects; 3) to sieve out the best insecticides providing for the peasants to control the scale insects. The purpose of this section year is to investigate the interaction of population density between the lacewings of Chrysopidae and its preys such as leafminers and whiteflies in the net house. To reduce the spread and occurrence of these small-sacled pests by means of assessing and analyzingthe suppressed model between the predators and preys. In order to provide correct controls, the investigation of the kinds of pathogens of avocado in the fields and postharvesting period andthe study of diseases ecology will last for 4 years. Tolerance of avocado varieties for anthracnose will be tested. The results of anthracnose tolerance not only benefit the breedings of anthracnose-resistant but also the cultivation. The suggestion of IPM for avocado root rot will be texperimented this year too. And we will continue the survey of avocado pests and their potential enemy this year too. Factors which influence the existence or absence of citrus psyllids are discussed. Natural host plants of the vector Diaphorina citri, flush rhyms of citrus and natural host plants, weather conditions, site location, parasitism and nursery practice might influence the occurrence of the citrus psyllids. The citrus psyllids is the vector of the organism which causes huanglongbing of citrus. Intensive studies on the parasitoids of the citrus psyllids showed that patasitism range between 10 and 30% in March to May, and over 70% from June to December. Although predators play a role in the reduction of the citrus psyllids, they are not capable of keeping the pest's population at an acceptably low level. No parasitoids attack the eggs or first nymphal stage of the citrus psyllids. Yellow sticky traps proved to be useful as monitoring of citrus psyllid populations. Preventive chemical control should be applied before the start of the major spring flush cycle to reduce psyllid populations later in the season. The purpose of this project is to set up an integrated organic strawberry production model in order to produce the organic fruits. After the finish of this project a new organic strawberry model could be created and the organic strawberry farms could be gradually developed. The items for the purpose of this project are as follows: 1.To check the loss of crop production by the silverleaf whitefly. 2. To mass product the parasitoids screened in the laboratory for controlling Bemisia argentifolii. 3.To establish the reasonable and effective integrated system of SLW including to design the optimic time, numbers and intervals of release of the parasitoids. In addition to approach the application for the utilization of selective insecticides in the integrated control system of SLW. Cucurbits are important vegetable crops in Taiwan, but recently viral diseases were widespread that limits the production of this industry. To control these diseases, we will identify the causing agents first, and then provide the virus-resistant cultivars available in the field. An island-wide survey of viruses infecting cucurbit will be made. The field samples shown symptoms will be collected and react with 8-10 antibodies (including CABYV, CGMMV, CMV, MVbMV, PRSV-W, WSMV, WMV-2, ZYMV) in ELISA. Some samples shown clear symptoms but negatively react in ELISA will be collected and inoculate to indicator plants for the novel virus isolation and identification. Serological tests and detection techniques for CABYV will be developed. By greenhouse seedling inoculation, virus-resistance screening will be conducted to test the lines of watermelon, wax gourd, and cucumber resistant to ZYMV, PRV-W, or CMV.According to these results of virus identification, epidemic information, and resistant breeding materials, we can offer the strategies to control the viral diseases of cucurbits effectively and economically. The survey on the variety pests infesting sweet pepper in greenhouse during through year, and toxicity of three concentration of pesticides to Broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, and powdery midew, Leveilulla taurica, We are expect select the pesticide with low toxicity that are safe to human are available for use in the management of pest in sweet pepper In this project, we will investigate what kinds of pests and disease pathogens present in the lima bean field. We can reveal the condition that the disease/pest occurs, to find out the best timing for integrated management, prevent disease/pest from spreading, and reduce the amounts of chemicals used. The practical cultural practice will also be discussed for improving the cultural practice. It will be useful to farmers in the practical management of lima bean crop. Ralstonia solanacearum , the causal agent of bacterial wilt of plants, is the most serious disease of solanaceous crops in both tropical and subtropical regions. The great economic damage has been reported on tomatoes in Taiwan. The control of bacterial wilt has proved to be very difficult, especially for race 1 with its broad host range. Whether the control method breakdown is due to enviromental causes or / and genetic diversity among population of R. solanacearum. To understand more about the complexity of the pathogen, DNA-based methods will be used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of R. solanacearum in Taiwan. The purpose of this research, strains of the pathogen will be collected from stems and rhizospheres of tomato plants after intercropping with maize or rice or fallow or eggplant. The genetic diversity of strains from these two sources will be analyzed with the study model established in this research. The results will be used to determine This project is aiming at developing insecticide resistance monitoring techniques for various lepidopterous pests, testing the resistance profile of insect pests to the environmentally friendly mircobial insecticides, newly introduced and traditional insecticides. The information will be helpful for rationally rotating insecticides which can then minimize the residual problem. The major purposes of this project are as follows: 1. to verify the causal agent of Cymbidium leaf spot; 2. to observe the infection process of pathogen on Cymbidium leaves; 3. to understand the ecology of the causal agent caused Cymbidium leaf spot and develop the methods for disease control. In order to finish the purposes, to identify the caused agents of Cymbidium leaf spot will be carried out. Then, to establish the ecological information of causal agent. Finally, some strategies for controlling this disease are suggested. After finishing those procedures, the causal agent caused Cymbidium leaf spot diseases will be verify, and the methods of integrated control will be erected. In order to solve problems caused by stored-product insects affecting commercial rice in small packages, rice in storehouses at mill factories was sampled and was subjected to a series of tests in this experiment. Lower temperatures can dramatically reduce the number of S. oryzae occurring in rice and delay the development of these pests. The method of air-conditioning may be an effective pest management strategy to solve the severe pest problems in small packages of commercial rice in the future.
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