重要作物有害生物防治管理技術之研發與應用

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計畫名稱: 重要作物有害生物防治管理技術之研發與應用
計畫主持人: 林鳳琪
共同計畫主持人: 黃棨揚;王強生;鐘珮哲;許秀惠;曹麗玉;湯佳蓉;余錦安;林秀橤;蔡蕣隍;陳啟予;沈偉強;徐智政;賴信順;王泰權;黃毓斌;余志儒;顏志恒;鄭佳宜;劉亭君;黃秀雯;蘇秋竹;洪挺軒;林育聖;鍾嘉綾;彭慧美;李春燕;黃莉欣;林李昌;王照仁;鄭安秀;呂柏寬;郝秀花;邱明賜;張嘉玲;許飛霜;黃守宏;蔡志濃;賴柏羽;蘇俊峰;陳怡如;郭章信;呂昀陞
計畫編號: 109農科-8.4.2-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所應用動物組
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 秋行軍蟲;荔枝椿象;生態;植物線蟲病害;抗性基因;白葉枯病;洋菇;網室栽培;番荔枝;問卷調查;安全農業;侷限導管細菌;土壤傳播性病害;病毒病;生物農藥;紋枯病;根瘤線蟲;粉蟎科;秧苗立枯病;徒長病;檢測技術;真菌性病害;農田雜草;非化學合成防治資材;水稻害蟲;柑橘;稻熱病;虎皮菇;粉介殼蟲;龍鬚菜;天敵;植物菌質體;水稻;柑橘萎縮病毒;族群演化;窄胸天牛;經濟果樹;花胡瓜;酪梨;苦瓜;水稻葉鞘腐敗病;捕植蟎;突變品系;無毒基因;分子親緣分析;文旦;植物源殺蟲劑;土壤太陽能消毒;入侵植物;有害生物整合管理;Fall army worm;Tessaratoma papillosa;ecology;plant-parasitic nematode disease;Resistance genes;bacterial blight disease;Agaricus bisporus;nethouse-cultivation;Annona squamosa Linn.;Questionnaire Survey;safe agriculture;Xylella fastidiosa;Soil-borne
摘要: (一)整合氣候預警模式與水稻重要疫病蟲害管理(臺南場) 長期監測水稻病蟲害的發生,維持重要糧食作物的安全生產 稻熱病與品種之相關性調查分析 針對水稻主要疫病蟲害發展預警模式 田間病疫病蟲害發生之長期監測,研擬有效防治策略,提升管理水稻重要疫病蟲害效率 防治策略及藥劑效果之調查評估 主要病蟲害及次要病蟲害之監測及變動分析 (二)重要蔬果有害生物整合性防治技術開發及效益評估(臺大) 重要經濟果樹系統性病害之整合性防治方法研究 A. 網室栽培阻絕媒介昆蟲技術應用於柑橘黃龍病與萎縮病之防治 本計畫擬針對柑橘黃龍病與萎縮病這兩大系統性病害,採用網室栽培的策略,阻絕媒介昆蟲,保護柑橘健康種苗免再受黃龍病與萎縮病的感染,延續柑橘生長壽命,也減少農藥使用,以期生產安全、高品質且具市場特殊性的柑橘鮮果,並嘗試為有機柑橘栽培技術奠定基礎。本年度擬定的工作項目包括: (1)進行網室內有機防治資材非農藥防治試驗;(2)於授粉期引入蜜蜂協助授粉並進行結果效率評估;(3)持續追蹤網室內柑株黃龍病與萎縮病的感染情況;(4)持續進行不同柑橘品種於網室內生理表現與各種病蟲害發生的狀況;(5)比較本年度網室內栽培與露天栽培的果實品質與糖酸度初檢測;(6)繼續針對露天栽培的柑橘植株選擇在春芽與夏芽期進行套網保護試驗 (防阻黃龍病與萎縮病之感染)並評估成效;(7)完成該年度網室柑橘的生長與防疫效果評估。 B. 新發現的鳳梨釋迦衰弱病之病原鑑定、發病生態與防治方法研究 本計畫擬進一步完成詳細的病原鑑定工作,建立更高專一性與敏感性的病原PCR檢測技術,釐清其發病與傳播生態,進而研擬一套完善的防治策略,將此病之危害降到最低,保護臺灣鳳梨釋迦的產業發展。本年度擬定的工作項目包括: (1) 進行內部病徵與電子顯微鏡細胞病理學之觀察;(2) 尋找田間可能的媒介昆蟲;(3) 調查田間可能的中間寄主;(4) 研發本病害的Real-time PCR定量偵測技術;(5) 病原菌四季的消長與不同釋迦品種的罹病性差異研究;(6) 嘗試以四環黴素或其他抗菌物質進行注射治療試驗。 重要作物整合管理推廣與應用之效益評估 此探討與分析IPM施行成效不彰之原因為相當重要之議題。本研究透過彙整國內外有關IPM之規劃與執行案例,以釐清影響IPM推廣成效之關鍵因素,再藉由專家訪談之方式,規劃問卷項目與流程,透過問卷調查資料,進一步以數量方法分析農民對IPM之認知、意願與接受度等關鍵影響因素,瞭解實務執行上之困難,並提出相關政策建議以作為後續建構IPM經濟效益評估所需之資訊。 重要蔬果植物病原線蟲相調查及整合性防治策略之研擬 瞭解為害番石榴及火龍果園之象耳豆根瘤線蟲的整合性田間防治策略管理情形 瞭解根腐線蟲在主要經濟果樹(包括柑桔及葡萄)之分布及為害情形 確認根腐線蟲其生活史、型態、親緣關係及寄主範圍的多寡,並據此釐清此根腐線蟲為害的來源與模式 評估根腐線蟲對於台灣葡萄及柑桔產業的影響,包括果實的品質及產量的影響 篩選出針對防治根腐線蟲之適合綜合防治及管理技術,確保輸外市場及增加農民收益 (三)水稻重要病害之分子抗性育種與病原族群分析(臺大) 本計畫的目標,主要以族群譜系及AVR基因為標的,持續監測分析臺灣地區稻熱病菌主要生理小種族群AVR基因之狀態及動態變化,瞭解臺灣稻熱病菌族群生理小種之演替及與水稻抗病基因之關聯,此外配合良質米品種抗稻熱病多系選育品種的育成及栽培策略,分析病害發生的情形,病原菌族群結構的演替,提供未來抗稻熱病多系選育品種推廣的基礎。(3) 水稻白葉枯病與紋枯病雙重抗性品種之選育:目前自然界並對紋枯病免疫、或高抗性的種原,因此抗紋枯病之相關育種進展緩慢。先前已從疊氮化鈉誘變庫中,鑑定出紋枯病中抗品系。本計畫預計將紋枯病抗性基因型,以雜交、回交及分子標誌輔助選拔,導入已申請品種權之優良抗白葉枯病品系,以育成抗紋枯病與白葉枯病的雙重抗病品系。未來新育成的紋枯病與白葉枯病之雙抗水稻品系,除可增進台灣糧食安全,增加農戶收入,並可提供優良遺傳資源做為抗病育種之依據。 (四)重要作物病蟲害綜合管理技術之研發與應用(農試所) 外銷番石榴病蟲害整合管理模式:本計畫目標為建立適合外銷標準的番石榴病蟲害整合性管理模式,以供農民參考使用。預期效益為使外銷番石榴能符合美國及加拿大的農藥殘留標準。 咖啡果小蠹發生生態與生物合理性農藥防治研究:本研究將針對咖啡果小蠹的於果實上的入侵時間進行研究,並且利用生物合理性農藥來進行防治,以探討正確的施藥時機及用藥種類,並且對於現行誘殺器進行改進增進誘集效果。亦調查探討台灣地區咖啡果小蠹的天敵,期盼以天敵進行咖啡果小蠹的生物防治。此外對於咖啡果小蠹的田間其他寄主進行調查,以作為田間耕作防治之參考。 百香果主要害蟲及害螨整合性防治之研究:對於百香果病蟲害防治的研究多以病害為主,目前的蟲害是否因氣候變遷有所改變,未來百香果在南部的栽植面積有成長的空間,相對的對於病蟲害及防治的資訊更需要建立,藉此希望針對主要的害蟲及害螨的種類及田間生態調查,防治方法提供除了農藥以外的防治資材之整合應用,以提供農民防治適期及安全用藥參考。 重要熱帶果樹病蟲害安全用藥及整合性管理策略-蓮霧:目前病蟲害防治的研究導向,多以研發安全且有效的非農藥防治方法為主,逐漸降低對化學農藥的依賴,以保障人類的健康、生態的平衡、及農業的永續經營。本研究目的為建立蓮霧病蟲害整合管理技術,配合非化學農藥防治病蟲害方法,生產安全之蓮霧果品。 外銷蔬果產區安全用藥及防治策略研究:本計畫藉由蒐集外銷蔬果集團產區用防治藥劑及農民用藥紀錄,進行田間園區採樣及指導農民安全用藥。於蔬果生長期間,依照蟲害監測與實地調查,制定防治曆及防治策略,於生長期至集團產區採樣調查,以GPC/GC MS及QD/GCMS檢測外銷集團產區之蔬果上農藥殘留定性定量分析,結合兩種快速檢驗分析技術,應用於外銷供果園殘毒管理機制及蟲害檢疫風險。 苦瓜病蟲害整合性防治:本計畫目標為建立苦瓜病蟲害整合性管理模式,以供農民參考使用。籍由調查苦瓜田間病害、篩選出抗萎凋病的苦瓜品種、評估藥劑對苦瓜上蚜蟲的防治效果、篩選土壤有益微生物及調查土壤添加物對苦瓜萎凋病發生的影響,預期建立苦瓜病蟲害整合性管理模式,增加農民收益之目的。 茄科蔬菜重要病毒病害診斷與整合性防治:本年度主要探討番茄重要病毒田間發生種類及其傳播途徑、田間感染生態,並針對種媒病毒進行番茄種子帶毒率調查,建立基本病害資料,從中找出有效的防治方法及防治時機,而能對此類病毒病害之綜合防治方法的擬定有所依據。 病蟲害整合管理策略之應用-花胡瓜: 本年度以花胡瓜為對象,整合各相關專業領域的人才及其研究成果,針對主要病蟲害,研擬可用非化學合成資材(非農藥)之應用技術,並篩選對褐斑病有防除效果的非農藥資材,期能減少化學合成農藥的使用量。 基於生物防治之蔬果重要粉蝨與薊馬綜合防治技術之研發改進:研究如何導入本土及已有量產技術的昆蟲天敵於番茄生產期防治薊馬粉蝨,研擬如何調適其他栽培及病蟲害管理技術,建立可行之綜合管理模式,供農民參考應用。了解殺蟲劑對小黑花椿象及蚜小蜂之毒性,藉以調整綜合管理模式提供栽培業者參考應用。 強化水稻害蟲天敵防治效能之研究:研究創造及提供適於天敵棲息與繁衍之水稻環境,增強水稻害蟲天敵之生物防治效能。 (五)旗艦作物-菇類有害生物防治技術及安全生產體管理模式研究(農試所) 本計畫擬針對太空包栽培之木耳病害進行調查,分離並鑑定相關木耳 有害病原菌,以釐清病原菌之種類,調查洋菇的病害,並分離與鑑定洋菇的病原菌 ,再進一步研發各種病原菌之防治策略,以降低此些病原菌對木耳與洋菇產量與品質之損失。台灣菇類害蟲、害蟎研究已停滯近40年,對於菇類害蟲、害蟎與線蟲進 行調查及建立相應防治技術。 (六)農作物關鍵害物監測及防治技術之研發與應用(藥毒所) 粉蝨與薊馬及其傳播的番茄褪綠病毒與番茄斑點萎凋病毒之監測及防治技術之應用:本計畫擬調查薊馬與粉蝨及其傳播的TSWV及ToCV二種病毒在不同地區甜椒及番茄園之發生情形外,也擬建立蟲媒的防治技術,提供防治時機及防治策略研擬之用。 侷限導管細菌生態學及快速檢測技術應用之研究:侷限導管細菌(Xylella fastidiosa)危害寄主植物後至病徵呈現需經過一段較長的時間,因此一旦肉眼檢視出病害徵狀,植物可能罹病已久,加上病原細菌可殘存於不顯示病徵的替代性寄主植物,再藉由媒介昆蟲的傳播而擴散 台灣農地雜草監測及整合管理技術建立:本計劃擬對農地重要雜草與外來植物之難防雜草,提供雜草防治策略,降低雜草對作物產量與品質危害,及減少農民用藥不當現象,並作為田間雜草整合管理技術的參考。 百香果潛蠅科害蟲生態與防治研究:建立百香果潛蠅類害蟲新監測方式,使農民易於自行監測害蟲危害情形與決定防治時機,並配合百香果果實發育期與潛蠅類害蟲產卵習性,找出採收期潛蠅類害蟲防治關鍵時機點,以期有效防治害蟲並避免果實殺蟲劑超標。 (七)草莓於設施育苗之炭疽病管理模式探討(苗栗場) 本計畫將以簡易遮雨設施為試驗場域,除導入炭疽病檢測技術、改變給水模式,農藥減量策略外,並首次嘗試結合病害預警模式,希望提升草莓育苗之存活率。此外,草莓為連續採收性作物,將探討草莓重要病原菌對藥劑感受性分析,科學性量化數據,有助於提供農民或藥商對藥效的認知,減少無效藥劑於田間持續濫用;並建立一套綜合防治之應用策略,導正農民錯誤的用藥習慣與觀念,預防田間抗藥性的發生。 (八)中部地區重要經濟作物(葡萄、水稻)有害生物整合性防疫技術之研發及應用(臺中場) 本計畫將針對葡萄及水稻為重點研究作物,分別依葡萄真菌性病害及葡萄共存微生物之鑑定與管理策略;植物源殺蟲劑對水稻重要害蟲防治效果評估,共兩項子計畫同時進行。本計畫內容將著重在葡萄未知或新興真菌性病害;水稻重要害蟲防治效果來加以研究分析,盼能釐清葡萄新興病害與其管理策略;開發與評估植物資材作為水稻害蟲殺蟲劑之效果。 (九)臺南區重要作物有害生物防治管理技術之研發與應用(臺南場) 設施小果番茄非疫生產地建立之基礎評估,可作為建立非疫生產點之輔助,亦有助於對進口國提出諮商談判之科學證據。進行本土性天敵對外來種椿象及酪梨果園椿象害蟲之天敵及寄生率調查,可累積基礎資料,作為椿象綜合管理及生物防治策略之參考。 (十)高屏地區重要作物疫病蟲害防疫技術之開發與改進(高雄場) 本計畫將建立高屏地區重要經濟果樹對於好發性及突發性疫病蟲害疫情監測、損害評估與預警系統 。加強本區東方果實蠅區域防治之示範、推廣與成效評估。此外,亦探討現行各類果樹重要疫病蟲害推薦藥劑之成效與防治時機之相關性,改善田間防治效率,以及開發可行之非農藥防治與生物防治技術,應用於田間各類重要疫病蟲害之偵測、密度監測與實務防治,以達到減少化學藥劑施用減少農藥殘留風險。此外,針對瓜類與茄科作物,盤點與彙整植物保護防治資材,提供給農友防治藥劑選用的參考與依據 (十一)花蓮地區作物病蟲害防治技術開發(花蓮場) 本研究針對花蓮地區重要病蟲害,評估耕作操作模式,利用非農藥方式探討對病蟲害防治之影響,做為建議農友防治之參考,並確認轄內特色作物病蟲害種類,以建立相關預警制度,及時有效因應防治降低作物疫情發生,整合管理病蟲害防治技術,減少化學農藥使用,並避免錯誤用藥造成病蟲害猖獗,提昇地方產業。 (十二)臺東地區重要作物病蟲害整合性防疫技術之研發與應用(臺東場) 臺東地區水稻重要病蟲害防治技術之研究與推廣:水稻為臺東地區重要產業,因此在栽培管理及防治病蟲害農藥使用上必須有良好的 操作模式,以確保產量與品質。為協助農民,提供有效水稻重要病蟲害之防治技術 ,本計畫擬建立最適栽培模式以降低病蟲害發生,作為管理初步手段;篩選植保手 冊推薦之有效藥劑,及最適防治時機,達到對症下藥農藥減量;開發非農藥防治方 法及資材,供農民參考使用,擴增有機水稻栽培面積。 臺東地區番荔枝重要蟲害監測與防治之研究:本試驗調查番荔枝及鳳梨釋迦葉蟎種類消長資訊,並篩選非化學農藥防治資材,擬 定防治策略,建立番荔枝葉蟎整合管理模式,減少化學農藥使用。 同時調查鳳梨釋迦粉介殼蟲發生情形,了解病害好發的時期、氣候等資訊。 (十三)免登記植物保護資材整合應用防治茶樹病蟲害之研究(茶改場) 本年度計畫擬針對公告資材種類,包括碳酸鈣及無患子油等資材進行對茶樹病蟲害實驗室防治效果評估,進而進行田間試驗以建立施用技術,以推廣至友善有機管理茶園使用,達到生產更安全茶菁、保護生產者與消費者健康,以及保護環境之目標。Integrating climate early warning mode and management of important pests and diseases of rice</strong>(1)Long-term monitoring pests and diseases of rice, and maintain the safe production of important food crops.(2)Investigation and analysis of the correlation between rice blast disease and varieties.(3)Develop early warning model on monitoring and predicting pests and diseases in rice. (4)Long-term monitoring of the occurrence of pests and diseases in the field, research and development of effective prevention strategies, and improve the efficiency of management of important pests and diseases of rice.(5)Investigation and evaluation of prevention strategies and effects of chemicals.(6)Monitoring and variation analysis on rice major and minor pests and diseases. <strong>Development and benefit evaluation of the technologies associated with integrated pest management in important diseases of vegetables and fruits</strong>(1)<strong>Insulating insect vectors using nethouse-cultivation for control of citrus huanglongbing and tristeza</strong> <strong>A. Insulating insect vectors using nethouse-cultivation for control of citrus huanglongbing and tristeza: </strong>Citrus is an important fruit tree in the world. Recently, the citrus industry was seriously impacted by citrus hunaglongbing (HLB) and tristeza diseases, significantly reduced in the citrus production and led to tremendous economic losses for several citrus-cultivated countries in Asia and America. HLB is caused by a phloem-limited fastidious bacterium, tentatively named <em>Candidatus </em>Liberibacter asiaticus (Las). HLB can be transmitted by the vegetative propagation and vector insect (Asian citrus psyllid, <em>Diaphorina citri </em>Kuwayama). <em>Citrus tristeza virus </em>(CTV) causing citrus tristeza is another phloem-limited pathogen and may be also transmitted by the vegetative propagation and vector insect (brown citrus aphid,Toxoptera citricidaKirkaldy). These two systemic diseases are very harmful and lethal to various citrus cultivars and they have become main limiting factors in citrus industry. The production and cultivation of pathogen-free citrus seedlings have been implemented for several years in Taiwan, but the healthy seedlings still have the high risk to be re-infected by HLB and CTV through vector-transmission. This project is dedicated to use the net house-cultivation method to protect citrus plants from HLB and CTV infection by using insecticides as less as possible, which makes the citrus industry sustainable and may produce the safer citrus fruits with high quality and special properties. Several items will be conducted this year :  (1) application of organic materials against psyllids and aphids instead of insecticides;(2) application of bees for the assistance of pollination in the screen house; (3) continued monitoring the infectious percentages of test plants for HLB and CTV in the screen house;(4) comparative investigation for various pests among different citrus cultivars in the screen house;(5) comparative investigation for fruit quality and sugar:acid ratio between screen house and open air cultivation;(6) net-covering protection trials from the infection of HLB and CTV for the healthy citrus plants in the field; (7) the evaluation of efficiency about growth and protection against HLB and CTV. <strong>B. Pathogen-identification, ecological study and control measures for newly discovered disease, Atemoya decline: </strong>Atemoya (<em>Annona squamosa </em>L. x <em>A. cherimola </em>Mill.) is one of special representative crops in Taitung, and it is also an important export fruit in Taiwan. Most significant diseases of Atemoya were categorized into post-harvest diseases, and few diseases occurred during the cultivation period. However, a new disease tentatively called “Atemoya decline” was discovered and gradually spreading in the Atemoya orchard in Taitung with the symptoms such as decline, leaf-yellowing, tiny leaves and witches’ broom. The primary diagnosis revealed that all diseased plants were infected by Phytoplasmas, but detailed pathogen-identification must be executed. The diseases caused by Phytoplasmas usually become serious epidemics via vector-transmission and probably bring a tremendous damage to the Atemoya industry. This project is dedicated to identify the pathogen causing Atemoya decline, develop the highly sensitive and specific PCR assay for the detection of pathogen, investigate the disease-ecology and transmission, and then propose a efficient control strategy against this disease. Several items will be conducted this year: (1) study of internal symptoms and cytopathological observation with electron microscopy; (2) investigation of insect vectors; (3) survey of alternative hosts of the pathogen (Phytoplasma) and insect vector in the field; (4) development of the real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection for this Phytoplasma pathogen; (5) study of seasonal dynamic of the pathogen concentration in hosts and comparative susceptibility among different Atemoya cultivars; (6) therapy trial with the injection using tetracycline and the other bactericides.(2)<strong>Benefit Evaluation of Integrated Management Promotion and Application of Important Crops:</strong> To follow the international trend of reducing chemical pesticide risks and maintaining our food security and food safety, the Council of Agricultural (hereafter COA) not only tries to integrate the labels and enhance the management of tracing agricultural products but raises the self-sufficiency rate of domestic food. The COA also expects to reach the aim of half reduction on the use of chemical pesticide by the promotion of integrated pest management (hereafter IPM), and further extend a series of measures including the non-chemical control technique, management, the acceleration of the alternative biological materials development, the biological control subsidy, and the Organic Agriculture Promotion Act (OAPA) formulation. However, the prime concern of IPM, that is, prevention is better than cure, has not been effective and widely applied to agriculture. Therefore, it is quite crucial to explore the possible reasons for the poor results of IPM implementation. In this study, we try to summarize the planning and case studies in relation to IPM and clarify the important factors about the effectiveness of IPM promotion. To this end, by means of expert interviews, we further plan the questionnaire issues and set up the processes. Finally, we adopt the econometric methodology to access the cognitions, willingness, and acceptance of farmers for IPM to discuss the difficulties in practical implementation and have some suggestions at a policy level.(3)<strong>Investigation of plant-parasitic nematodes of important vegetable and fruit and development of integrated control strategies</strong>(1)Fully understand the management of integrated field control strategies for root-knot nematodes that harm guava and pitaya orchards(2)Clearly understand the distribution and damage of root rot nematodes in major economic fruit trees (including citrus and grapes)(3)Confirm the root rot nematode's life history, type nd host range, and clarify the source and pattern of root rot nematode damage(4)Assess the impact of root rot nematodes on the grape and citrus industries in Taiwan, including the impact on fruit quality and yield(5)Screen out suitable comprehensive control and management technologies for root rot nematode control to ensure export to markets and increase farmers' income <strong>Marker-assisted breeding and analysis of pathogen population for important rice diseases</strong>    Rice plays a tremendously important role in achieving global food security. Rice production suffers from pest and pathogen damages. Extreme weather events caused by climate change have led to increased risk of epidemics. This project aims to study important rice diseases in Taiwan, from the aspects of host resistance and pathogen population. Details are as follow: (1) Using multiline and gene pyramiding techniques to enhance durable resistance in Taiwan rice cultivars. This study aims to expand genetic resource for blast and bakanae disease resistance, develop molecular markers closely linked to resistance genes, breed for rice lines resistant to different races of <em>M. oryzae </em>and multiple diseases, and enhance resistance spectrum and durability in Taiwan rice cultivars. This year we plan to evaluate the introgression lines derived from “IRBLs × Kaohsiung 145” in the regional test, advanced yield test and blast nursery test. A mixture of selected introgression lines will be tested for agronomic and resistance performance in the field. The Kaohsiung 145 introgression lines will also be used for the development of pyramiding lines. WM1370, a blast-resistant Tainung 82 mutant, will be analyzed for the sequences of known blast resistance genes <em>Pi2/9</em>, <em>Pik</em>, <em>Pita/Pita2</em>, and <em>Ptr</em>. The major resistance locus of WM1370 will be fine-mapped using the “CO 39 × WM1370” F<SUB>2:4</SUB> population. Markers associated with the bakanae resistance locus on chromosome 2 will be developed and used to uncover the resistance resource in Taiwan rice cultivars. To develop rice lines combining multiple disease resistance, the bakanae-resistant progeny lines will be tested for resistance to blast, and crossed with a line containing three bacterial blight-resistant genes (<em>Xa4</em><em>、xa5、Xa21</em>) for gene pyramiding. (2) Field monitoring and development of fast surveillance technique of rice blast fungus population in Taiwan. To sustain breeding program, effectively deploy resistant varieties, and prolong or maintain field resistance, it is necessary to monitor the structure and variation of rice blast fungus and understand the evolution of pathogen population in the fields. In this study, we aim to utilize Pot2 rep-PCR fingerprinting technique and avirulence (<em>AVR</em>) genes to continuously monitor the dynamics of blast population in Taiwan. We also aim to characterize the mutation features of AVR genes and try to correlate the physiological races with the resistance natures of Taiwan elite rice varieties. We will also continuously monitor and determine the genetic features of physiological races infected TN11 variety. Furthermore, we also aim to monitor and evaluate the occurrence of blast disease and evolution of pathogen population in the fields deployed the marker-assisted molecular breeding TN11 mono-resistance varieties. We hope that the data from our long term monitoring efforts will provide useful information of population structure of rice blast fungus in Taiwan and serve as the foundation for future deployment of resistance varieties in Taiwan. (3) Breeding of rice variety resists to both bacterial blight and sheath blight diseases. Because no immune or highly ShB resistant germplasm is available in nature, the progress of ShB resistance improvement has been very slow for a long time. In our previous studies, ShB moderately resistant mutants were identified from a sodium azide-induced mutant pool. In this project, we will breed new rice varieties with ShB and BBD double resistance through the introduction of ShB resistance into the elite BBD resistant varieties (XD9 and XD11), which has recently been submitted to apply for plant variety rights (PVR). The newly developed lines carrying both ShB and BBD resistance would provide safe food to consumers, increase the income of farmers, and provide good genetic resource for improvement of rice resistance. <strong>Development and Application of Integrated Pest Management for Important Crops</strong>(1)<strong>Integrated pest management model for guava export: </strong>The common pests of guava include scale insects, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies, aphids, leafhoppers and oriental fruit flies. Diseases which affect the growth of guava, including 10 fungal diseases, 1 nematode disease, and others are non-infectious plant diseases, thus guava disease are mainly caused by fungal diseases.  Guava black spot (<em>Phyllosticta psidiicola</em>), guava anthracnose (<em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em>) and guava scab (<em>Pestalotiopsis psidii</em>) are the main disease of guava fruits. As long as there are lesions on the fruit, thereby totally lose its economic value, and it also has a negative impact on the guava export. In order to ensure the quality of exported fruits, the primary goal is to reduce the rate of fruit rot. To date, the information on the guava fruit diseases for fruit supply orchards is not complete. Therefore, to clarify the main diseases of the fruits, it is planned to investigate the orchards planning for export in Taiwan. Till now, only a few recommended pesticides are available for use in black spot and scab diseases. By testing the effects of recommended pesticides in Taiwan,  US and Canada, make sure that the pesticides can be used as a disease control material for the guava export. At the same time the post harvest interval is established and it can be a reference for the safe prodution of fruit; Additionally, in order to provide an additional option for guava fruit disease control, the effectiveness of commercially available microbial materials and non-pesticide control agents will be examined to reduce the guava fruit rot rate. The goal of this project is to establish an integrated pest management model for guava export that suittable for export standards and to be a reference for farmers. The expected benefit is to enable the guava exportation to comply with the pesticide residue standards regulated by US and Canada.(2)<strong>The ecology of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and control the pest with biorational insecticides: </strong>Coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is an invasion pest in Taiwan and caused the ecomonic loss in coffee production. Now there is no officially recommended insecticides to control coffee berry borer, but the previous study showed chlorpyrifos is highly toxic to the pest. The farmer often used the chlorpyrifos and hanged the traps to control the pest. Right now, the infestation timing of coffee berry borer is not clear, so the study will realize the best control timing and test the control efficacy of biorational insecticides. Beside, the study will test trapping efficiency by trap colors, lure substances and setting heights. In other countries, some parasitoids and predators of coffee berry borer are used as biological control agents. This research will focus to realize the fauna of natural enemy and expect to use local enemy to control the pest. On the other hand, alternative host of the pest will be investigated in order to practice cultural control. These study results will be applied to pest management in the future to improve the safety of coffee production system.(3)<strong>Study on integrated control of main pests and mites on Passion fruit: </strong>Passion fruit industry in recent years gradually attention. In addition to fresh food can also be processed. Passion fruit suitable for growth in the winter, Taiwan's flat and low-lying slope can be planted. At present, more concentrated in Nantou and Hualien planted. As a result of serious virus disease, must be updated every year, can not be planted for many years. For the fruit and insect pest control research and more disease-based. And pest field ecological information has not been updated for a long time. Whether the current pests have changed due to climate change. Relative to the pest and control information need to be established. For the main types of pests and pests and field ecological investigation, prevention and treatment methods to provide in addition to pesticides other than the integration of control materials.(4)<strong>Study on safe use of pesticides and integrated pest management strategies for important tropical fruit tree diseases and pests- wax apple: </strong>Taiwan is located in tropical and subtropical climates, that suitable for the occurrence and spread of a variety of crop pests and diseases. increase farmers' production of finished products, seriously affecting the yield and quality of agricultural products. In recent years, the government has tried to promote the development of "safe agriculture" pray can be ecological balance farming concept, make full use of cultivation and management measures, with crop resource recycling, production of non-chemical pesticide residues in agricultural products. Currently pest control research-oriented, and more to the development of safe and effective non-chemical pesticide control methods based, gradually reduce dependence on chemical pesticides to protect human health, ecological balance and sustainable agriculture. The purpose of this study was to establish an integrated pest management on wax apple , with non-chemical pesticide control methods, and production of safe wax apple.(5)<strong>Study on Safety Chemicals and Control Strategies for Export Vegetable and Fruit Producing Areas: </strong>The project is to guide the farmers by collecting with practicing in pesticide of the export of cultivated areas. During the growth of vegetables and fruits, according to pest monitoring and field surveys, formulate control calendars and control strategies. Sampling surveys during the growing period to the group's production area, and qualitative and quantitative pesticide residues on vegetables and fruits in the export group's production area by GPC / GC MS and QD / GCMS. The analysis, combined with RBPR and chemical analysis , is applied to the pesticide residual management and pest quarantine risk for export.(6)<strong>Improvement and development of IPM for <em>Momordica charantia: </em></strong>The goal of the project is to establish an integrated pest model of bitter gourd for farmers to cultivate. The main works of the project are screening of bitter gourd against Fusarium wilt, reducing the risk of pesticide residues in bitter gourd, screening soil antagonists microorganisms against bitter gourd Fusarium wilt and investigating the effects of soil amendment on bitter gourd Fusarium wilt. The expected benefit is establishing the integrated pest management of bitter gourd.(7)<strong>Diagnosis and integrated control of important viral diseases of solanaceous vegetables: </strong>Field survey of the occurrence and incidence of virus diseases by symptom inspection and indirect ELISA of tomatoes in the southern Taiwan. To investigate the difference of virus species and symptoms among the main cultivated species, and to collect and identify the virus types of suspected virus-infected strains in the field. To study the natural complex infection of different viruses in the field, and to explore the effect of the virus competition on the differences of disease symptoms and the impact of viral reproduction. This year, we mainly explored the types of tomato important viruses in the field, their transmission routes, and the ecology of field infections. We also conducted a survey on the virus infection rate of tomato seeds or seedlings against the seed-born virus, established basic disease data, and found effective prevention methods and prevention opportunities. The preparation of comprehensive prevention and control methods for such viral diseases is based on.(8)<strong>The utilization of integrated pest management strategy – cucumber: </strong>Cucumber is employed in this year. By integrating researchers and their contributions to develop the integrated management technics of available non-syntheses materials (non-chemicals) for the dominant pests. And some useful such materials will be selected for Brown spot (<em>Corynespora cassiicola</em> (Berk & Curtis) Weir)) control. Results will be expected to reduce the synthetic pesticides input. The workable pest management without chemicals in cucumber cultivation will be demonstrated that based on the tactical application of non-chemicals and farm operations, and in conjunction with control methods regulation in time by pest monitored.(9)<strong>Developing and Improving the Integrated Management Model Based on Biological Control of Whiteflty and Thrips on Vegetable: </strong>The purpose of the project is to study how to use native of insect enemies to control thrips and whitefly on Tomato. To understand how to adjust other cultivation and pest management techniques for establishing the pest integrated management program for growers. Learning about toxin of insecticides toxin to orius strigicollis and eretmocerus.(10)<strong>Research on the enhancement of the natural enemy control efficacy of rice insect pests: </strong>For improving the yield and quality of crop, farmers use to apply the chemicals, and in the meanwhile, it also causes the environmental pollution and human healthy problems.The insect pest problem still do not resolve and cause chemical resistace and pest resurgence occurres after that. Natural enemies can control the population of insect pests into a low level naturally in the ecosystem, the project is aimed to maintain and preserve the population of natural enemies, and enhance the control efficacy of insect pests in rice ecosystem. <strong>Flagship crop - Developing techniques for identification and management of key pests on mushrooms</strong>    Edible mushrooms are important economic crops in Taiwan and the annual output value is more than 12 billion NT. Since of the global warming, several new diseases of Auricularia polytricha have been occured and some historical diseases of Agaricus bisporus have become seriously. However, lack of study for the diseases of A. polytricha and only a few pesticides recommended for mushroom pest control pose a threat to the mushroom growers. Due to inappropriate control for the diseases of A. polytricha , it has caused tremendous losses to A. polytricha production. Although some fungicides were recommended for controlling the white bottle mushroom diseases in Taiwan, it was observed that the pathogen had developed resistance against fungicide of Benomyl. It is needed urgently to develop prevention and control techniques for the diseases of A. bisporus . As the changes of cultivated mushroom species, the main mushroom pests also have been changed during time, and some mushroom fungivorous-nematode diseases were not be investigated in Taiwan. In this study, the survey will be done for sawdust bag of A. polytricha . In order to clarify the pathogenicity of fungivorous-nematode, mushroom nematodes collected from sawdust bags will be isolated and identified. The control strategies of these pests will be further developed to reduce the losses of A. polytricha and A.bisporus caused by these pests. We will launch the investigation on mushroom pests, fungivorous nematodes and develop techniques for identification and  management of key pests on mushrooms in this project after the stagnation of research on mushroom pests for nearly four decades in Taiwan. <strong>The development and application on detecting techniques and pest control of key pests on crop</strong>(1)<strong>Survey of whitefly-transmitted ToCV and thrips-transmitted TSWV, and application of whitefly and thrips control techniques in tomato and sweet pepper fields: </strong>Thrips and whitefly not only directly feed plant sap by piercing-sucking mouthpart, but also can transmit plant visurs, such as TSWV and ToCV. Thrips-transimtted TSWV mainly occurred on sweet pepper in Taiwan from field survey, and transmitted-vector is <em>Frankliniella intonsa</em>. So far, occurrence of TSWV in tomato fields was uncertain, this project will go to survey to confirm it. <em>Bemisia tabaci </em>biotype B is key pest in tomato field, it also can transmit <em>Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus</em> (ToLCTWV), <em>Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus</em> (TYLCTHV), and <em>Tomato chlorosis virus </em>(ToCV). Recently, ToCV in tomato field sometimes was detected, but the impact of ToCV caused disease on tomato product was much lower than caused by ToLCTWV and TYLCTHV. However, ToCV could have an opportunity to become a key plant virus on tomato, because anti-virus resistant tomato cultivars are going to extend for inhibiting plant virus diseases. Therefore, the project intends to investigate density of thrips and whitefly, and survey occurrence of TSWV and ToCV in sweet pepper and tomato fields. In addition, the project also will improve control techniques of thrips and whitefly vectors to control them and to retard plant virus spread.(2)<strong>Study on ecology and the rapid diagnostic techniques of <em>Xylella fastidiosa: </em></strong>Due to the fastidious characteristics of the causal agent, it often takes a longtime for the disease symptom to develop after the plants are infected with the bacterium. Once the symptom becomes visible, the plant might have been affected by the pathogen for a long time; in addition, the bacterium can be transmitted by insect vectors, leading to the widespread of the diseases before people's awareness. When the disease epidemicsoccur, there are no available chemical pesticides for controlling thedisease. The objective of the proposal is to develop a simple, quick, and accurate molecular detection technique for the<em> Xyl. fastidiosa </em>strains that can be applied for assist BAPHIQ to quarantine identification for plant pest. Besides, this project also aims to analysis the bacterial phase variation between the pear leaf scorch diseased plants in different regions in Taiwan.(3)<strong>The monitoring and managing for weeds in Taiwan farmland: </strong>Taiwan is located in the tropics and subtropics, and much more weed species are widely distributed in the environment and have a great impact to the ecology and agricultural production. Invasion by non-native species represents one of the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide and is considered a major component of global change. In recent years, herbicides were used in high frequency and bring out strong plants that were high fecundity and high tolerant to herbicides. Invasive plants caused by importing agricultural products. So far, more than 130 invasive weeds were confirmed in the field. In Taiwan, the weed in the field with a considerable change due to climate change, herbicide selection pressure, and invasive weeds competition, therefore, the management of difficult control weeds would be an important issue. This project aims at difficult control weeds in important weeds and invasive plants in farmland to provide weed control strategies to reduce the damage to crop yield and quality and reduce inappropriate use of herbicides and as a reference for integrated management of weed.(4)<strong>The Study of Ecology and Control of Leafminer in Passion Fruit: </strong>Establish a new monitoring method for leaf miner on Passion Fruit , making it easy for farmers to monitor the development period of pest and decide on the timing of control. By understanding the spawning characteristic of leaf miner on young fruit to find out the control method of pest in the harvest period . <strong>Study the management model of strawberry seedling anthracnose in the facility</strong>    Anthracnose rot is an important disease in many crops. However, in strawberry, it has become more destructive over the past decade. The most unpredictable for strawberry farmers is that this disease will cause strawberry plants wilt, especially at high temperature and humidity, however, the key period of strawberry seedlings is summer. The serious problem in the field is that even if the fungicides frequently sprayed, there is still no guarantee that the healthy seedlings can be successfully bred. The project will use the simple rain-proof facility as the test field. In addition to introducing the anthracnose rot detection technology, changing the water supply mode, and the pesticide reduction strategy, the first attempt is to combine the temperature and humidity changes of the test field with the occurrence of the disease, and hope to increase the survival rate of strawberry seedlings. Besides, in order to control the strawberry fruit diseases, the farmers had to spray a lot of fungicides during 4 month harvest period. Therefore, the chemicals spraying is very frequent and then the pesticide residue is very common. Fungicides records from field surveys showed that farmers used single systemic fungicide, lack of alternate using with different mechanisms of fungicides, causing the strong selection pressure. It may induce pathogens mutate, or cause the resistant strains become the dominant ethnic group. Dahu and Shihtan are the main growing area of strawberry, up to 90% of farmers planted single cultivar, "Taoyuan No. One", also increases the risk of fungicide-resistant strains. In this study, we will analysis the sensitivity of strawberry important pathogen to pesticide. Scientific and quantitative data will help to promote the concepts of farmers and pesticides dealers on the pesticides efficacy, reducing the usage of ineffective agent in the field. To prevent the occurrence of resistance in the field, integrated pest management (IPM) will be the strategy to control strawberry diseases. <strong>Development and application of Integrated Pest Control Technologies on High Value Crops (grape and rice) in Central Taiwan</strong>    This project was focus on grape and rice as the key research crops, and divided into three sub-projects which were (1) Identification and management strategies of grape fungal diseases and grape co-existing microorganisms in fields; (2) Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived pesticides in controlling the important pests on rice. The targets of these sub-project were focus on (1) Unknown or emerging fungal diseases of grapes; (2) Control effects of plant-based materials on important pests in rice, respectively.  Moreov
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