農民團體辦理水果農產運銷策略聯盟之研究-以國際觀光旅館通路為例

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論文名稱: 農民團體辦理水果農產運銷策略聯盟之研究-以國際觀光旅館通路為例
研究生姓名: 黃美瑾
指導教授姓名: 黃韶顏
出版年: 2003
學校名稱: 中國文化大學
系所名稱: 生活應用科學系
關鍵字: 農民團體; 農產運銷; 策略聯盟; 國際觀光旅館; Farmers׳ Organization; The Agricultural Products Marketing; Strategic Alliance; International Tourist Hotel
摘要: 本研究以國際觀光旅館對生鮮水果的採購需求為例,為農民團體制定此直銷通路之策略目標,藉以擬定策略聯盟模式,增加產銷競爭優勢,以因應加入世界貿易組織(WTO)。研究方法採用問卷調查法、焦點團體等方式,研究對象為國際觀光旅館及具有生產國際觀光旅館所需之生鮮水果的農民團體,採用百分比、次數分配、平均數、標準差做資料分析。本研究調查結果有下列情況:一、 國際觀光旅館生鮮水果的採購現況購買國內生產最多的水果種類依序為西瓜、柑橘類、哈密瓜、香蕉、木瓜、番石榴、鳳梨、芒果、小番茄、葡萄。選擇水果的重視因素為「新鮮度」;在選擇水果供應商時,最重視的是提供水果的「貨品品質」;而水果驗收首重「外觀、內容物及品牌」為考量因素;對於資訊來源多以「水果供應商」為主。二、 農民團體對配合國際觀光旅館生鮮水果採購程序的供應能力與組織間、運銷業者之聯盟意願對於比價採購、貨款採用定期結帳開票有半數以上表達同意,至於在定價、帳款積壓額度上的接受度,則顯見農民團體本身資金不足;多數農民團體需要貨運行或物流業者協助運送,且在對供應生鮮水果的數量上大多能配合;對提供服務的能力中最能做到的是「按照規格分級包裝」,而對「提供加工處理能力」則最低;在供應生鮮水果上最能做到的是「提供新鮮度高的水果」、「提供符合衛生安全標準」、「能夠達到農藥殘留標準」,而「提供水果可食部份的處理便利性」的能例則最低;在聯盟意願上,組織間及與運銷業者聯盟,結果顯示皆具有高度配合意願。三、 對國際觀光旅館生鮮水果採購供應之策略目標擬定內容包含(一)落實產品分級制(二)建立產品行銷計畫(三)透過聯盟增加產銷優勢(四)建立物流中心作業系統。四、 對國際觀光旅館生鮮水果運銷通路之策略聯盟擬定方式包含下列三種:(一)區域整合聯盟:採用水平結盟的模式,其方法為各個水果產區的地方農會,根據現有的產銷班制度及其輔導角色,結合各個產銷班的生產力量結盟。(二)異業間聯盟:依據全省產地水果作區域整合後,加上物流業的運送系統,依據消費者的需求,建立全省北、中、南、東四個不同區域的物流中心,整合水果生產量,並按照比例分配出貨。(三)與政府合作的聯盟:政府在輔導政策及制度的制定,可根據農民資金不足、產品分級仍有部分未確實、農民行銷能力不足、國人消費水果的推廣效用不彰等因素作規劃。The main focus of this research was maximized the profit margin of farmers׳ groups. Via alliance related groups to sell their fruits directly to international tourist hotels. Taiwan had joined WTO in the recent years. Government has to abide by its rules and regulations then to enjoy the benefits WTO supply.International Tourist Hotels and farmers׳ organization were sampled to be the research objects. The research was conducted by questionnaires and focused groups. The major findings of the research were as followings:1. Current fruits market and international hotels: The present sales of the International Tourist Hotel׳s fresh fruits, in order of volume, are: watermelon, citrus, honeydew, banana, papaya, guava, pineapple, mango, tomato, and grapes. The first priority in choosing fruits is its freshness. When selecting a supplier the quality of products is the first consideration. Upon receiving fruits, the appearance of the fruits is the most important element followed by its content and brand names. The specifications of fruits are mostly gathered by suppliers.2. Farmers׳ group׳s ability to cope with hotels׳ purchasing procedure and their willingness toward alliance: Half of the farmers׳ groups agree to accept periodical payment arrangement. However, these groups are unwillingly to deal with the “fixed price” policy and long term account receivable under cash flow consideration. Providing enough fruits is never a problem to farmers׳ groups. Packing by grades is also executed wonderfully. The weakness of these groups is the ability to do the pre-preparation processes. They also can easily reach the demand on quality, sanitation, and safety of their products. Again, they are lacking of the ability to process the edible parts of fruits. In the same time, most farmers show a high degree of willingness to alliance with other groups.3. Strategies and targets for international tourist hotels fruits purchasing principles: A. Design strict rules on grading system. B. Establishing sales and promotion plans. C. Taking the advantages from the alliance. D. Build up sales channel system.4. Various alliance formats between farmers groups and international tourist hotels: Basically, there are three types of alliances. A. Alliance based on territory — combining groups in the same area and producing same fruits. B. Horizontal alliance — coalition with related industries and dividing Taiwan into four segments, north, central, south, and east regions. C. Cooperation with the government — the government should set up rules in funding, training, and promoting fruits to supporting farmers׳ groups.
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