貯藏溫度與包裝對‘中山月拔’與‘紅肉拔’ 番石榴果實採後品質及貯藏壽命之影響

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論文名稱: 貯藏溫度與包裝對‘中山月拔’與‘紅肉拔’ 番石榴果實採後品質及貯藏壽命之影響
研究生姓名: 簡文暄
指導教授姓名: 郭純德
出版年: 2013
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: ‘中山月拔’番石榴;‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴;果實後熟;貯藏溫度;包裝;1-甲基環丙烯(1-MCP);果實品質;貯藏壽命;‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava;‘Yilan Red’ guava;fruit ripening;storage temperature;packaging;1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP);fruit quality;storage life
摘要: 本試驗的番石榴以宜蘭縣頭城鎮的‘中山月拔’與員山鄉的‘宜蘭紅肉拔’綠熟果實為材料,研究兩種番石榴果實後熟期間呼吸速率及乙烯生成速率與果皮色澤之變化、貯藏溫度與採後不同包裝以及採後1-甲基環丙烯(1-MCP)處理對番石榴果實品質及貯藏壽命之影響。 ‘中山月拔’番石榴經貯藏2.5天呼吸速率逐漸上升,於貯藏6.5天,其呼吸速率達最高峰值113ml CO2/kg/hr,約為更年前期65 ml CO2/kg/hr之2倍。貯藏溫度試驗,以舒果網包裝‘中山月拔’番石榴分別貯藏在5、10、15及20℃下,隨著貯藏溫度提升及貯藏期間的增長,腐爛率及失重率皆明顯的增加;貯藏於5℃下其貯藏壽命最長約8天,其腐爛率為8%、失重率為4%。‘中山月拔’以舒果網外加PE袋、PE袋、舒果網及裸果等4種不同包裝方式貯藏於5℃下,以PE袋包裝,其貯藏壽命最長,約12天,其腐爛率為8%以下、失重率為1%以下。‘中山月拔’番石榴採收後,在20℃下以濃度0和600 nl/l 1-MCP處理12小時,腐爛率和失重率隨著貯藏期間的增長而上升;果肉硬度隨著貯藏期間的增加,而下降。以濃度600 nl/l 1-MCP處理明顯延緩失重率之上升及果肉硬度之下降。 ‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴呼吸速率在貯藏4天、乙烯生成速率在貯藏3.5天開始迅速上升,呼吸高峰之呼吸速率約84 ml CO2/kg/hr,較更年前期增加3倍左右。其呼吸速率和乙烯生成速率幾乎同時開始上升,峰值上升後其果實亦開始後熟,果實外觀轉色、變軟甚至開始腐爛等。貯藏溫度試驗,‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴以舒果網包裝貯藏於0、5、10及20°C下,貯藏於5℃下其貯藏壽命最長約12天,其腐爛率為33%、失重率為5%。‘宜蘭紅肉拔’以舒果網外加PE袋貯藏於5℃下其貯藏壽命最長約12天,其腐爛率為17%、失重率為0.4%。‘宜蘭紅肉拔’番石榴採收後在20℃下,以濃度300和600 nl/l 1-MCP處理12小時,腐爛率、失重率隨著貯藏期間的增長,而逐漸上升;果肉硬度隨著貯藏期間的增長,而下降;果皮色澤隨貯藏時間增加而明顯由綠轉黃,a*值逐漸上升。以濃度300、600 nl/l 1-MCP處理者,明顯延緩失重率之上升及果肉硬度之下降。The study aims to find out the impact of respiration pattern, storage temperature and packaging and the use of 1-MCP on the postharvest quality and storage life of guava by using ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ of Toucheng Township and ‘Yilan Red’ of Yuanshan Village from Yilan County as experimental materials. The respiration rate of ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ guava rapidly increased after 2.5 day storage. Ethylene production of ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’ rapidly increased after 6.5 day storage. Climacteric rise of respiration rate was about 112.9 ml CO2/kg/hr. It was 2 times as much as that of pre-climacteric minimum was about 65 ml CO2/kg/hr. Regarding storage temperature, the decay rate and weight loss rate of ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar,’ that was packaged with polystyrene net sleeve (PNS) and stored at 5, 10, 15 and 20℃ respectively, has significantly risen as temperature went up and time went on. The best storage temperature was 5℃ because its storage life was the longest 8 days. The decay rate was 8% and weight loss rate was 4%. The result of ‘Jong-Shan Yueh Bar’, that was stored at 5℃ in four different packaging ways: PE bag and polystyrene net sleeve (PNS), PE bag only, PNS only, and unpackage, showed that PE bag and PNS was the best packaging materials, because its storage life was about 12 days. The decay rate was 8 % and weight loss rate was 0.7%. Postharvest the guava fruit, it was stored at 20°C and treatment with the 1-MCP at the concentration of 0 and 600 nl/l for 12 hours. The preliminary results show that the decay rate and weight loss rate increased with the storage duration, thus the upward trend; the flesh firmness decreased with the storage duration. The fruit was treatment with 1-MCP at the concentration of 600nl/l, increases in weight loss and decreases in flesh firmness were significantly delayed. The respiration rate of ‘Yilan Red’ rapidly increased after significantly rose 4 day storage. Ethylene production of ‘Yilan Red’rapidly increased after 3.5 day storage. Climacteric rise of respiration rate was about 81.8 ml CO2/kg/hr. It was 2.7 times as much as that of pre-climacteric minimum. Their respiration rate and ethylene production almost rose simultaneously. After the peak value rose, the fruit started ripening: color of the peel changed, it became soft and even began to rot, etc. For ‘Yilan Red’, when it was packaged with polystyrene net sleeve (PNS) and stored at 0, 5, 10 and 20℃ respectively, the best storage temperature was also 5℃ because its storage life was the longest 12 days. The decay rate was 33 % and weight loss rate was 5 %. The ‘Yilan Red’, that was stored at 5℃ and packaged with PE bag and PNS had the longest storage life: about 12 days. The decay rate was 17% and weight loss rate was 0.4%. After picking the guava fruit, it was stored at 20 ℃ and treated with 1-MCP at concentrations of 0, 300, and 600 nl/l for 12 hours. The decay rate and weight loss rate gradually increased with storage period; the flesh firmness decreased with the storage time; the peel color significantly turned from green to yellow with storage time, and the a* value gradually increased. The fruit treated with 1-MCP at concentrations of 300 and 600 nl/l, increases in weight loss and decreases in flesh firmness were significantly delayed.
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