貯藏溫度及成熟度對數種熱帶水果之抗氧化能力之影響

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論文名稱: 貯藏溫度及成熟度對數種熱帶水果之抗氧化能力之影響
研究生姓名: 吳喜正
指導教授姓名: 柯立祥
出版年: 2007
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 熱帶農業暨國際合作系所
關鍵字: 貯藏溫度;成熟度;抗氧化力;抗氧化物;storage temperatures;maturity;antioxidant activity;antioxidants
摘要: 水果採收後之果實抗氧化力受許多因子之影響,包括:採前因子諸如遺傳特性、田間栽培管理、成熟度和採收方式。採後因子,例如貯藏溫度、貯藏時間和採後處理等,水果在食用前經過一些必要處理過程,例如脫水乾燥、冷凍、醃漬及烹煮等。其生理及化學成分會改變,而影響抗氧化成分的含量與能力。本研究乃針對高屏地區所生產之水果包括‘台農17號(金鑽)‘ 鳳梨、‘珍珠拔’番石榴、‘愛文’芒果、‘白肉種’火龍果、‘寶島蕉’香蕉、‘台農二號’番木瓜、‘优利卡’檸檬及‘粉紅種’蓮霧,探討果實於5℃、15℃及25℃貯藏期間抗氧化力及抗氧化物之變化,另一方面針對不同成熟度‘台農17號(金鑽)鳳梨’、‘珍珠拔’番石榴、‘愛文’芒果、‘台農二號’番木瓜及不同轉色(黃)程度‘寶島蕉’香蕉之果實,探討果實於不同成熟及後熟階段之抗氧化力、抗氧化物及果實理化特性的變化。 結果顯示,‘珍珠拔’番石榴在貯藏於5℃時,其總抗氧化力、DPPH清除能力、總酚類含量及維生素C含量為最低。‘优利卡’檸檬其總抗氧化力,隨貯藏天數的增加而下降,總酚類含量以貯藏於5℃時為最高,維生素C含量,貯藏前之含量較貯藏期間為高,但貯藏於25℃在第12天時維生素C含量高於貯藏前。而DPPH清除能力,均以貯藏第9天之清除力最高。‘粉紅種’蓮霧於25℃貯藏期間,以果實仍具商品價值,其總抗氧化力、總酚類含量及DPPH清除能力,是以貯藏第6天為最高,貯藏於15℃時,貯藏第12天時有最高總抗氧化力及總酚類含量,貯藏於5℃時總抗氧化力及維生素C含量,以貯藏第6天最高,但此時果實已有些微寒害症狀產生。‘台農二號’番木瓜貯藏於25℃時,果實於貯藏第9天後已失去商品價值,所以其總抗氧化力、總酚類含量及維生素C含量變化,以貯藏第12天最低,而貯藏於15℃時,於貯藏第3天後為逐漸減少, DPPH清除能力則於貯藏第3天最高,在5℃時,總抗氧化力及DPPH清除能力,在貯藏第12天最高。白肉種’火龍果於貯藏第6天至第12天,其總抗氧化力,均是隨貯藏天數增加而逐漸增加,而以第12天為最高,但於25℃及15℃貯藏之果實,已於貯藏第9天後已喪失其商品價值。‘寶島蕉’香蕉於貯藏於25℃時,總抗氧化力、總酚類含量、維生素C含量及DPPH清除能力,依果實仍具商品價值來看,是以貯藏第6天為最高,貯藏於5℃及15℃時,總酚類含量及DPPH清除能力則以貯藏第3天最高。‘愛文’芒果的貯藏期間,其總抗氧化力均隨貯藏天數增加而逐漸下降。‘台農17號(金鑽)’鳳梨於5℃及25℃時,其總抗氧化力及總酚類含量均隨貯藏天數的增加而逐漸下降,而在15℃時,總抗氧化力、總酚類含量及維生素C含量變化,係隨貯藏天數的增加而逐漸上升。由以上結果顯示,不同水果之總抗氧化力、DPPH清除能力、總酚類及維生素C含量,在不同貯藏溫度期間之變化並不一致。 而在不同成熟度對果實影響方面,‘珍珠拔’番石榴果實,其DPPH清除能力,總抗氧化力、維生素C含量及總酚類含量皆以九分熟之果實最高,可溶性固形物、果實之糖/酸比(TSS/TA) 則隨著成熟度之提高而呈增加的趨勢。‘台農17號(金鑽)’鳳梨之果實,其DPPH清除能力,總抗氧化力、維生素C含量及總酚類含量皆以全黃之果實最高,果實pH值、果實之糖/酸(TSS/TA),則會隨著成熟度之提高而上升。‘寶島蕉’香蕉果實DPPH清除能力、總抗氧化力、維生素C含量及總酚類含量皆以一級之全綠果實最高。‘台農二號’木瓜之果實,DPPH清除能力、總抗氧化力及維生素C含量,皆以全黃(M-3)之果實最高。愛文’芒果之果實,DPPH清除能力、總抗氧化力及維生素C,是隨著成熟度的提高而增加,而皆以全熟果實為最高。以上結果顯示,除‘寶島蕉’香蕉之DPPH清除能力、總抗氧化力、維生素C及總酚類含量以綠熟未轉黃之果實為最高外,其餘水果,包括‘珍珠拔’番石榴、‘台農17號(金鑽)’鳳梨、‘台農二號’木瓜及愛文’芒果之果實均隨著成熟度之提高,其總抗氧化力、DPPH清除能力、總酚類及維生素C含量亦隨著增加。There are many factors, such as preharvest, postharvest and processing methods, may affect the antioxidant capacity of the fruits. Preharvest factors include genetic characteristic, field cultivation and management, the level of maturity and methods of harvest. The postharvest factors are storage temperature, storage time and processing methods after postharvest. Processing procedures include dehydration, freezing, preservation in pickling liquid and cooking. After these processes, the physical and the chemical composition, level of antioxidant ingredients and their antioxidant abilities of fruit are changed. This study focused on the products in Kaohsiung and Pintung area, include pineapple (Ananas comosus(L.)Merrill; cv.’TN17’), guava(Psidium guajava L. ;’Jen-Ju Bar’), mango(Mangifera indica L. ; cv.’Irwin’), pitaya(Hylocereus undatus(Weber)Britt & Rose; cv. ‘White Pulp’), banana(Musa Cavendish L; cv.’Formosana’), papaya(Carica Cavendish L.; cv.’TN2’), lemon(Citrus limonum; cv. ‘Eureca’)and wax apple(Syzygium samarangenes(Blume) Merrill&L.M. Perry; cv.’Pink’). The research compared the effects of storage temperatures(5℃,15℃ and 25℃) and different maturity on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant compositions and physical changes in fruit. The results showed guava had the lowest total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content in 5℃ storage as compared with 15℃ and 25℃. The total antioxidant capacity of lemon decreased with storage. The vitamin C content in storage was lower than control. However, vitamin C content in 25℃ on the 12th day appeared higher than control. The ability to scavenge DPPH radicals of lemon on 9th day storage in 5℃,15℃ and 25℃ had the highest level. Total antioxidant capacity of wax apple in 25℃ increased with storage days. The total phenol content and the ability to scavenge DPPH radicals reached the highest level on 9th day. The total antioxidant capacity and the total phenol content had the highest level in 15℃ on 12th storage day. In 5℃, the total antioxidant capacity and the vitamin C content had the highest level on 6th day. The total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content of papaya had the lowest level on 12th storage day. In 15℃ after 3rd day, the total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content decreased with storage. The ability to scavenge DPPH radicals had the highest level on 3rd storage day in 15℃. In 5℃, the total antioxidant capacity and ability to scavenge DPPH radicals had the highest level on 12th day. Total antioxidant capacity of pitaya increased with storage in all temperature treatments and reached the highest level on 12th day. The total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content of banana increased with storage days. In 5℃ and 15℃, the total antioxidant capacity and ability to scavenge DPPH radicals had the highest level on 3rd storage day. In 5℃, 15℃ and 25℃, the total antioxidant capacity decreased with storage. In 5℃ and 25℃, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenol content of pineapple decreased with storage days. However, in 15℃, the total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content and vitamin C content increased. From these results, they showed the changes of the total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content were not related with storage temperatures. When different maturity of guava were compared, total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content had the highest level when the fruit reached to 90% of the maturity. However, the total soluble solid and the TTS/TA increased with storage days. The total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content in banana had the highest level when the fruits still green. The papaya M-3 had the highest total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content level. The total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content in mango increased with maturity. The results showed that total antioxidant capacity, ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, total phenol content and vitamin C content of pineapple, papaya and mango, increased with maturity. On the other hand, those characteristics of guava fruit decreased.
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