蔬菜育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─大蒜蒜球採收後調理及貯藏技術之改進

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計畫名稱: 蔬菜育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─大蒜蒜球採收後調理及貯藏技術之改進
計畫主持人: 宋妤
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 104農科-9.5.5-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 國立中興大學
全程計畫年: 2015
關鍵字: 南瓜;整枝;果實品質;施肥;低溫貯藏;大蒜;調理;硝酸鹽;葉菜類蔬菜;光環境;設施;有機質肥料;有機氮化合物;胺基酸;迷你種薯;無病毒種薯;霧耕;草莓;中日照;雜交;走莖;育種;設施栽培;草莓設施生產;穴盤;植株生育;低溫貯藏;氣變貯藏;番茄;設施栽培;補光;Winter Squash;pruning;fruit quality;fertilization;low temperature storage;garlic;curing;nitrate content;leafy-vegetables;light environments;protected structure;organic fertilizer;nitrogenous compound;amino acid;minitubers;virus-free tubers;aeroponics;strawberry;neural-day period;cross;runner;breeding;greenhouse;Strawberry facility production;plug tray;plant vigor;cold storage;modified atmosphere storage;tomato;protected culture;supplemental light
摘要: 西洋南瓜栽培技術之研究 研究不同品種之西洋南瓜在露天栽培下的整蔓方式、留葉數以及培肥管理以生產高產量及品質佳之果實,確定適合西洋南瓜露天栽培方法,提高西洋南瓜單位面積產量,生產品質佳之果實,穩定南瓜之生產。 大蒜蒜球採收後條理及貯藏技術之改進 臺灣蒜球主要栽培‘大片黑’品種,採收後之蒜球,一般的室溫通風貯藏,只具6個月貯藏壽命,於秋冬之際溫度降低時,很容易發芽、發根進而引起皺縮、腐爛,其中如何避免發芽,若能將蒜球貯藏至隔年的2-3月銜接新的產期,是目前蒜球貯藏技術上主要研究的方向。目前蒜球採收後以人工熱風進行調理,使其失重20-30%再進行貯藏,但經過人工乾燥的蒜瓣,在貯藏過程中常有褐點或黃辦(俗稱熟辦)的情形發生,推測可能和溫度或處理時間有關,因此,本試驗擬藉由熱風乾燥處理以建立適當的調理條件,並配合低溫真空貯藏技術及低溫變溫貯藏技術之開發,以降低蒜球貯藏之劣變,延長蒜球之貯藏壽命達到周年供應之需求。 提升設施栽培蔬菜生產技術-建立低硝酸鹽高品質蔬菜生產之研究硝酸鹽含量是蔬菜品質的一個重要特性,硝酸鹽本身是相對無毒的,但其代謝物可能會產生一些健康上的風險。許多研究皆指出氮肥施用、光強度與蔬菜採收時機皆是影響蔬菜硝酸鹽累積的關鍵因子,因此本計劃針對易累積硝酸鹽之作物萵苣、青梗白菜、蕹菜與菠菜等,評估栽培於簡易塑膠布溫室與網室等環境下硝酸鹽累積之差異,探討光強度與光週期對蔬菜累積硝酸鹽之模式;長期動態調查與分析北、中、南三大都會區市售蔬菜累積硝酸鹽之情況;以及不同類型氮肥施用對於萵苣、青梗菜與菠菜等生長表現、產量及硝酸鹽累積含量變化的情形,並透過採收後經不同光環境、溫度與時間低溫貯藏,評估採後不同光源光照處理與溫度條件對蔬菜硝酸鹽累積之影響,建立低硝酸鹽之青梗白菜、菠菜與萵苣等設施生產模式,提供設施蔬菜生產時,氮肥施用參考之依據,以做為農民未來生產低硝酸鹽蔬菜之建議。 無病毒馬鈴薯迷你種薯生產技術之建構 本研究計畫設置霧耕裝置生產馬鈴薯迷你種薯,霧耕生長之馬鈴薯植株生長勢正常,霧耕栽培的植株開花較土耕的植株快速。霧耕栽培每株可獲得102個平均結薯量,迷你種薯平均重量為2.9 克(g),平均長度為2.6 公分 (cm),每顆種薯平均有12個芽點。霧耕生產的迷你種薯可以以低溫 (4℃) 貯藏打破休眠性,並可以GA 50 mg/L 處理打破種薯休眠。今年度計畫將測試霧耕生產的迷你種薯田間生長特性,評估迷你種薯應用於馬鈴薯田間栽培的可能性。 選育適合高溫長日設施栽培的中日照型草莓品種和設施周年栽培試驗草莓性喜冷涼氣候,台灣豐香系列品種屬短日品種,只能於冬季短日開花,大部分為露地畦面覆蓋塑膠布栽培,近年來高架設施栽培漸多,但受限於短日基因型限制進入高溫長日其就無法開花,本計畫將引入中日照品種並於設施內試種,該類型品種氣溫介於2-29.5oC之間都可以開花,不受日長影響。由於中日照品種仍被美日國家品種保護而且受環境影響開花,所以無法直接引種須要自行選育品種,本計畫將進行中日照品種子代選拔和回交育種,將中日照開花基因導入一般短日品種。溫帶國家的草莓設施栽培很普遍而且有較高的收益,荷蘭的草莓種植於玻璃溫室內,但德國、英國、以色列和法國等國家大部分用溫室栽培草莓,台灣也有採用高架草莓栽培生長良好。本計畫選育的中日型草莓,期能用水牆降溫設施栽培草莓,建立草莓周年生產體系。 設施草莓苗生產體系建立 草莓(Fragaria Xananasa Duch.)源自北美溫帶地區,性喜冷涼氣候,不耐暑熱;因此,在臺灣低海拔地區,草莓栽培模式限定在中秋至春末。此外,在台灣相對溫暖潮濕的栽培環境下栽培草莓,常致使較嚴重的病蟲害發生,導致化學藥劑使用量過高及果實之農藥殘留之疑慮。因此,若能利用精密調控環境栽培母株,於設施中生產穴盤苗,以利設施中有效隔離病蟲害,生產生產高品質草莓的栽培模式。前2年的試驗結果顯示,可藉由走莖扦插繁殖子株,獲得健康種苗,配合冷藏技術,可以配合產業調節出苗時程,並錯開田間不利環境對苗株的影響並改變農民育苗習慣。本年度計畫目標將調整為改善低溫貯藏條件,延長走莖儲藏壽命,降低農民應用門檻,提高應用率。 設施番茄補光技術之研究(2/3) 番茄是經濟價值高、營養豐富的果菜類園藝作物。番茄之生產需要有充足之光照,光度足夠時,植株生長快而健壯,早期產量也較高。北部地區番茄栽培大多集中在秋冬季,因地理環境因素秋冬季節容易受東北季風影響,以致於光照量與光照時間普遍比中南部地區少,尤其是設施栽培中,此一情形更加明顯,嚴重影響番茄產量與品質。因此本研究之目的,擬探討設施栽培之番茄所需光環境條件,以作為設施栽培補光之依據,可解決日照不足之環境下設施番茄生產之問題,並可提高栽培密度,達到提高產量與品質之目的。 Study the techniques for winter squash cultivation For the production of high-quality winter squashs in field. This study investigated the factors that may improve winter squash quality and production, including the pruning method, number of leaves, and fertilization. The high quality fruit and yield can be obtained. Improvement of Postharvest Technology and Storage Quality of Garlic Bulb Ta-Pen-Hey” is a major garlic cultivar in Taiwan. After harvesting, garlic is usually stored at room temperature with air circulation. However, the storage life can only last for 6 months. During autumn and winter, low temperature can induce sprouting and rooting results in wrinkled and rotten cloves. The man research goal for autumn and winter storage is therefore to prevent sprouting and rooting and to lengthen the storage life till the following February and March. Currently, garlic bulb after harvest exposed to hot air for a curing process until 20-30% of weight loss is achieved before storage. The hot air treated cloves often show brown or yellow spot (known as ripen cloves) which may be related to temperature and the length of treatment. Thus, the purpose of this study is to set up the curing condition using hot air treatment, to coordinate with vacuum low temperature storage technique and temperature fluctuation to reduce cloves deterioration and prolong its storage life, and to achieve a year round supply of garlic cloves. Improvement of vegetables production under protected structure- Establishment of low nitrate-content cultivating techniques of vegetables The nitrate content in vegetables has become a significant issue in recent years. In order to reduce not only the farming production cost, but also environmental stress, this project aims to establish appropriate fertilization strategies and storage of different light environments for vegetables by conventional farming systems or organic cultivation. Long-term dynamics investigation and analysis the nitrate contents in 1,500 vegetable samples purchased from the metropolitan areas market. It is hoped that the results of this study will promote vegetable production as well as ensure human health and safety, environmental friendliness, and sustainable operation. In this study, Pak-choi, spinach, and lettuce of the Cruciferace family were examined. Establishing growing systems for production of virus free potato minitubers Previous study has established an aeroponic system for production of potato minitubers. Our results showed that potato plants grown on the aeroponic system exhibited normal growth vigor similar to those grown in soil substrate. Time required for flowering is shorter in the plants grown on the aeroponic system than those grown in the soil substrate. The aeroponic grown potato produced average 102 minitubers per plant. The average weight of minitubers was 2.9 g/minituber. The average length of minituber was 2.6 cm. The average bud number for each minituber was 12 per minituber. The bud dormancy of minitubers was broken by storage at 4℃; moreover, GA (GA 50 mg/L) replaced the low temperature effect on dormancy breaking of minituber’s buds. The project’s goal of this year is to examine the field growth response of generated from minitubers produced from the aeroponic system. Our results can evaluate the applicability of minitubers in the potato field production. Developing day-neutral type strawberry and used in greenhouse cultivation under warm climate Strawberry is temperate crop and only grown in winter in Taiwan now, really there have neutral-day period (ND) of strawberry developed in US and Japan which may flower under 2-29.5oC and do not affected by the day-period. In research project the ND type of strawberry will introduced into Taiwan, the supeior lines of ND type will be developed by selecting plants from progreny of ND plants and will cross of ND type with SD type, then back cross with SD type. The developing superior line will be cultured in greenhouse for producing summer season strawberry. Due to the ND plants of strawberry produce less runner, so theses plants will be treated with high N fertilzer and Long-day for inducing runners. The establishment of facility runner production 1. Strawberry (Fragaria Xananasa Duch.) originated from North America and favors cool temperature, the production of strawberry is restricted in mid-autumn to late spring in low land of Taiwan. Moreover, the relative warm and humid growing environment makes strawberry much vulnerable to pathogen, and which results in over application of chemicals. Therefore, we intend to establish a facility production system for plug-grown strawberry plants. The result of previous 2 years, we developed a protocol for producing plug-grown strawberry plants. In addition, by introducing cold storage, we are able to avoid detrimental environment for cuttage production. The objective of this year is to improve the cold storage technique to lengthen the storage duration and lower the application threshold. Study on the Supplymental Light Technique of Tomato Production under Protected Culture (2/3) In the past centuries, tomato had become one of the worldwide popular fruits due to its high nutritional value, low in calories, tolerance to storage and transportation, diverse cooking methods, etc. In tomato production, high quality plants is one of the most important factors in obtaining good yields. The good yield and quality tomatoes are usually produced from greenhouse or protected culture. Light is one of the main factors limiting the yield of tomato plants grown under greenhouse. Limited amount of available natural sunlight and diminished light intensity in winter reduces the growth and yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Supplementation of artificial lights in greenhouse is a better approach to alleviate this drawback. The objective of this project is to evaluate the suitable light environment and culture system to product tomato and to investigate the effects of light quality, interlighting regimes to extend photoperiod and to increase light intensity on the growth and yield of greenhouse-grown tomatoes.
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