萬壽菊混合農業廢棄物粒肥對番石榴根瘤線蟲防治效果及萬壽菊品種間噻吩濃度之變異

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論文名稱: 萬壽菊混合農業廢棄物粒肥對番石榴根瘤線蟲防治效果及萬壽菊品種間噻吩濃度之變異
研究生姓名: 謝季燁
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2019
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 萬壽菊;番石榴;根瘤線蟲;有機粒肥;噻吩;Marigold;Psidium guajava;Meloidogyne;granular fertilizer;thiophene
摘要: 台灣番石榴栽培受根瘤線蟲 (Meloidogyne spp.) 危害嚴重,但現今無有效的 防治方法。目前已發現萬壽菊屬 (Tagetes sp.)、蓖麻粕、蝦蟹殼粉、肉桂醛等有 機土壤添加物,有抑制根瘤線蟲危害之潛力,在前人研究中施用於番石榴植株, 皆有減少根瘤線蟲族群及減少根部根瘤之效果,此實驗遂以混合以上有機物製為 有機粒肥施用於番茄盆栽進行試驗,在番茄中施用 2.5% (w/v) 混合粒肥顯著降 低根瘤指數、減少根瘤數,而 0.8% 混合粒肥則顯著減少根瘤數。 而番石榴盆栽,試驗一施用 2.5% (w/v) 混合粒肥 2 次,栽種 6 個月後進行 調查。結果顯示對照組有 80 % 植株受線蟲危害,處理組則為 20 %。試驗二比 較處理 0.8%混合粒肥 2 次及每週施用 1000 倍肉桂醛之效果,9 個月後兩種處理 無顯著降低根瘤線蟲危害。2.5% 施用量有效提高葉片氮、鉀、鈣、鎂、錳及土 壤中氮、磷、鈣、鉀、鎂、鐵、銅之含量,並增加主枝、亞主枝及植株重,但處 理組土壤 EC 值較對照組高,而酸鹼度顯著低於對照組。0.8% (w/v) 施用量則增 加介質氮、磷、鎂含量,肉桂醛對養分影響則較不顯著。 實驗另外以氣相層析質譜儀檢測混合粒肥與 11 種萬壽菊屬殺線蟲的有效成 分:噻吩類物質,並在混合粒肥檢測到 5-(4-acetoxy-1-butynyl)-2,2-bithienyl (BBTOAc) , 部 分 萬 壽 菊 則 含 有 BBTOAc 、 α-terthiophene 及 5-(4-hydroxy-1-butynyl)-2,2-bithienyl (BBTOH) 。 並 測 定 11 種 萬 壽 菊 的 α-terthiophene 含量,以及其水萃液的線蟲致死能力。統計後發現 α-terthiophene 含量與線蟲致死能力呈現正相關,相關係數為 0.58,顯示可藉由檢測萬壽菊 α-terthiophene 含量來選擇線蟲防治能力較好之品種。 Guava (Psidium guajava) cultivation in Taiwan is seriously endangered by Meloidogyne spp. However, there is no effective control method. At previous studies, marigold (Tagetes spp.), castor bean cake, shrimp and crab shell powder, cinnamaldehyde and other organic soil amendment were found to have the potential to inhibit the damage caused by root-knot nematodes in guava plants. They had the function to reduce the number of root-knot nematodes and root galls. In this study, a granular fertilizer made from the mixture of marigold, castor bean cake, shrimp and crab shell powder was applied to tomato, our results indicated that application of 2.5% (w/v) granular fertilizer significantly reduced the root gall index and reduced the number of galls in tomato, while 0.8% granular fertilizer significantly reduced the number of galls. In the first guava potting experiment, 2.5% granular fertilizer was applied twice; and the plant was investigated 6 months after planting. Our results showed that 80% of the plants in the control group were harmed by nematodes, whereas only 20% in the treatment group. In the second test, the effect of treating 0.8% granular fertilizer twice and applying 1000x of cinnamaldehyde per week was compared. Nine months after treatment, the root-knot nematode damage was not significantly reduced for both treatments. The application of 2.5% granular fertilizer increased the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, manganese in the leaf; the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron and copper in the soil; and the number of main branch, sub branch and plant weight. However, the EC value of potting media in the treatment group was higher than the control group, and the pH was significantly lower than the control group. The application of 0.8% granular fertilizer increased the nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium contents in the potting medium, and the effect of cinnamaldehyde on nutrients was not significant. The nematicidal compounds in the granular fertilizer and 11 species of Tagetes were investigated in this study. BBTOAc was detected in thegranular fertilizer; and some Tagetes contained BBTOAc, α-terthiophene and BBTOH. The concentration of α-terthiophene in 11 species of Tagetes and the nematicidal ability of their aqueous extracts were determined. The concentration of α-terthiophene was positively correlated with the nematicidal ability, with a correlation coefficient of 0.58. These results suggested that the variety of Tagetes spp. with better nematode control ability may be selected by detecting the concentration of α-terthiophene in Tagetes spp.
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