花卉、水果採收後處理改進

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單位商業會員附件下載:
計畫名稱: 花卉、水果採收後處理改進
計畫主持人: 沈再木
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 92農科-1.1.2-糧-Z5(Z)
計畫主管機構:
計畫執行機構: 國立嘉義大學
全程計畫年: 2003
關鍵字:
摘要: 1. 蝴蝶蘭植株黑暗貯運和產後處理對貯運後的生長及開花品質之影響:本年度首先探討蝴蝶蘭抽梗後於不同花序發育階段(花序長5 cm至花已開2-3朵)進行黑暗模擬貯運天數(5-15天不等)及溫度(14與20 ℃)、不同品系對乙烯和黑暗的敏感度及乙烯作用抑制劑1-MCP進行前處理,探討其到貨花梗品質、開花與櫥架壽命之影響,提供合理產後貯運技術及耐貯運品系選育之參考.參試品種以現今外銷主力業者為取樣重點,希在半年內能對業者的貯運技術有所貢獻. 2. 蝴蝶蘭貯運前處理對出瓶苗品質之影響:建立蝴蝶蘭瓶苗出瓶後貯運前處理技術及最適貯運因子,提升出瓶苗品質,降低運輸成本,提升產業該競爭力. 3. 建立銀柳採收後處理流程:深入瞭解銀柳內外銷作業流程,進行銀柳採收後保鮮及包裝儲運試驗. 4. 鳳梨釋迦採後處理與外銷可行性之探討:鳳梨釋迦採後處理技術及外銷可行性探討. 5. 鮮食鳳梨採後處理流程改進之研究:改進我國鳳梨內外銷採後處理作業流程,並建立作業流程各關鍵點控制指標. 6. 蝴蝶蘭苗株及盆花產品處理及後續栽培生育與開花品質作業流程改進之研究: (1) 針對裸根苗株及帶水苔介質苗株貯運流程條件及時間下,探討到貨品質活力表現與貯運苗株之生育活力指標,包括根端狀況、苗齡、植株老化程度及植株內部狀況. (2) 貯運處理流程作業中,前處理藥劑對逆境因子及應可行性試驗,包括活力劑、維生素、碳水化合物處理如糖醛酸glucoside、蘋果酸malate及其他張力劑、生長調節劑、抗老劑、抗乙烯劑之使用,探討貯運逆境下之苗株園藝性狀表現. (3) 貯運處理流程建立與到貨栽培品質評估.由主要協辦之種苗公司提供種苗實際運作. (4) 以抗乙烯藥劑處理,模擬國內貯運盆花處理包裝,評估盆花到貨品質. 7. 木瓜及芒果外銷貯運技術商業應用可行性評估:建立木瓜及芒果水果外銷處理流程及評估其效益. 8. 外銷花卉水果併櫃裝運問題之研究:完成併櫃裝運技術手冊,調查國內花果外銷所面臨之併櫃問題. 9. 建立金花石蒜採收後處理作業流程:切花預措技術及貯運條件研究. 1-1 調查現今較大的蝴蝶蘭出口業者,取樣參試,並調查植物的營養狀況(無機養分和碳水化合物含量),並協助其外銷貯運技術. 1-2 瞭解蝴蝶蘭植株於不同花序發育階段下黑暗模擬貯運天數與溫度對其貯運後抽梗與開花品質之影響. 1-3 調查蝴蝶蘭各品系間對乙烯和黑暗貯運的敏感度,瞭解我方品種之優勢. 1-4 施用乙烯作用抑制劑1-MCP,進行黑暗模擬貯運後調查抽梗與開花品質,瞭解1-MCP之效益. 2-1 建立貯運前處理之各項有利因子與技術,提升出瓶貯運後生長品質. 2-2 建立商業化出瓶苗最佳貯運模式,降低運輸成本提升產業競爭力. 3-1 藉由銀柳採收後保鮮處理及包裝儲運試驗以建立最佳之採收後處理作業流程,可有效降低花苞脫落,增加瓶插壽命,提升產品品質、價格及外銷競爭力,增加農民收益.經由對內外銷作業流程調查可深入瞭解運銷作業流程之問題及瓶頸,以做為採收後處理作業流程之改善參考. 4-1 經由對鳳梨釋迦後熟生理之了解,探求適當的保鮮貯藏技術,期能延長果品的貯放時間,並配合外銷試運,以開拓外銷市場,提升產業的競爭力. 5-1 改進本省鳳梨內外銷採後處理作業流程,並建立作業流程各關鍵點控制指標. 6-1 探討蝴蝶蘭裸根苗及帶水苔苗在貯運逆境中造成園藝性狀品質劣變症狀及原因,並尋求種苗品質指標(index). 6-2 貯運處理作業流程中,前處理活力劑及處理條件改善到貨園藝表現性狀及生育活力及後續栽培園藝性狀評估. 6-3 探討貯運前處理及改善處理條件,對盆花到貨之園藝表性狀評估. 7-1 減低芒果及木瓜外銷之損耗,增加外銷數量,提昇收益. 8-1 完成併櫃問題之技術手冊,供業者參考. 8-2 對國內重要外銷花果產品,就可以併櫃之產品種類及配合條件提出報告,供業者參考. 9-1 建立外銷切花及種球採收後處理流程及貯運技術,以開發金花石蒜鱗莖及切花的外銷市場,提高市場競爭力及產業的永續發展。1. Growth and flowering quality of Phalaenopsis plants after dark transport and postproduction treatments: The purpose of this research is to study the effects of days and temperature during dark storage on the different scales of Palaenopsis plants without stalks for export and with stalks at different flower developmental stages. Furthermore, to investigate the sensitivity for ethylene between different strains, and to discuss the effect of ethylene inhibitor 1-MCP on the stalk emergencing quality, flowering quality, and cupboard longevity of Phalaenopsis plants for export. Therefore we can suggest the reasonable treatments for postproduction and select some Phalaenopsis strains that can endure more ethylene during dark storage. 2. Effect of Pretreatment on Quality of ex vitro Plantlets for Phalaenopsis hybrids: The objective of this project was to summarize the effects of pretreatments on the performance of phalaenopsis seedling quality after de-flask ex vitro, and to investigate those optimize factors post de-flasks under different condition. Furthermore, establishment of save capital techniques and increased the competitiveness of phalaenopsis seedling production among international. 3. Establishment of Cat-tail Willow Post-harvest Procedure: Cat-tail willow is a special agricultural product in I-Lan area. The major trading of cat-tail willow was for export market, which was one of the most competitive flower industry in Taiwan. This project is going to investigate the processing procedure for domestic and export market, and to determine the optimum conditions for cat-tail willow post-harvest processing procedure. This will improve the quality of cut flower, and increase the capability of competition and the farmers' profits. Based on the investigation of processing procedures for the domestic and export markets, we can figure out the real problems of trading process. Therefore, this information can be used as a reference to improve the cat-tail willow post-harvest processes. 4. Postharvest technology and Exporting Possibility of Atemoya: The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal storage temperature and handling techniques of atemoya, and the possibility of using this technique to export atemoya fruits to China and Southeast Asia area. The details of this study indude the following items: (1) optimal storage and transportation temperature, (2) The possibility of low temperature (0 ℃ and 5 ℃) pre-cooling and the duration of chilling injury occurred at this low temperature, (3) Effect of 1-MCP treatment to the ripening, softening and fruit quality of atemoya. 5. Studies on the postharvest handling systems for fresh market pineapple: In order to upgrade the competifiveness of the Taiwan pineapple industry. Total quality management (TQM) is usea to improve the postharvest handling system for fresh market pineapple. The standards for the key contolling points in the handling flow will be set up. 6. Studies on the handling improvement of phalaenopsis nursery plantlets and pot plants for growth and development and flowering quality druing continuous cultivation: The quality of exportation and local demand on phalaenopsis nursery plants has being increased rapidly. Phalaenopsis nursery plants mostly exported to Europe, USA and Japan. The phalaenopsis industry is developed very fast. However, no matter the bare root plantlets including small, medium size, and mature plants suffered quality deterioration upon the arrival. The lower position leaves presented yellow, and less vigorous after transplant. The flower initiation and flowering quality were unexpected to delay and less quality. Nursery plant shipping with moss medium will be allowed through quarantine regulation permission. However, the report showed that plants with moss to ship still had less vigorous and slow growth. Consequently, phalaenopsis plants handling for transportation, and continuous cultivation must be studied to establish optimum handling method and technique. The enforcement of industry competition will base on the quality maintenance. The research items of this project will be described ad follow. (1) To pursue the vigorous index including bare root and moss medium together package plants under dark transportation resulted in characteristics changes upon arrival and cultivation. (2) To pursue preharvest chemical application including vital reagent, plant growth regulator, and carbohydrate component treatment, anti-ethylene chemicals to improve growth and development vigorous and plant horticultural characteristics. (3) Test establishment of postharvest handling working system and evaluation of quality after transportation. (4) Study on anti-ethylene treatment for pot flowering plants to improve the quality after transportation. 7. Evaluation of applicable handling technology for exporting papaya and mango fruit: The fresh tropical fruits most commonly found in the temperate zone markets-mango, guava, papaya, and wax apple-are more recent arrivals. These fruits cultivated in Taiwan promise a high potential to export because of optimum climate, good variety, and cultivation technology. But these fruits are perishable and losses in quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption during exporting. It is necessary to improve the postharvest handling technology for exporting. The objective of this study is toevaluted the applicable technology for exporting papaya and mango fruit to the temperate zone markets through postharvest operations in sea transportation. 8. Feasibility of mixed-loading containers during the export of fruits and ornamentals: The purpose of this project is to help local grower's organization that are engaged in the export of flowers and fruits to understand the basic principles of mixed loading transportation; and to study the feasibility of mixed loading during their export operation. The first step will be collecting and organizing related information from both domestic and foreign resources with the goal of publishing a technical bulletin for distribution. The second step will be to investigate the mixed loading problems that our exporters had encountered and try to find out feasible ways of solving the problem. 9. Establishing postharvest handling procedures for Lycoris aurea for export: This project studies the postharvest handling techniques for both the cut flower and the bulb of Golden spider lily (Lycoris aurea Herb.) destined for export. Items to be investigated will include the following: For cut flower, pulsing treatment, 1-MCP treatment, optimum storage temperature and components of flower preservative; For bulb, curing condition, packaging and storage temperature. It is expected that the result of this study will improve the quality of Lycoris aurea for export.
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