臺灣地區空氣中乙烯濃度及其對植物的影響

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論文名稱: 臺灣地區空氣中乙烯濃度及其對植物的影響
研究生姓名: 鄭及昉
指導教授姓名: 孫岩章
出版年: 1999
學校名稱: 國立臺灣大學
系所名稱: 植物病理學研究所
關鍵字: 乙烯;濃度;連續攪拌式熏氣箱;氣相層析儀;ethylene;concentrations;Continuously Stirred Tank Reaction(CSTR);gas chromatography;epinasty
摘要: 本論文的目的,在對台灣地區空氣中乙烯的濃度做一初步調查,並利用連續攪拌熏氣箱(CSTR)進行人工模擬薰氣。利用HP6890氣相層析儀進行空氣中乙烯濃度的測量。結果顯示:都會區大氣中乙烯的最高濃度為730ppb。濃度高低與採樣地點有關,且在交通尖峰期有最高濃度。另對機動車輛進行排氣檢測,乙烯濃度最高為二行程機車的8688ppb,最低的公車為0~15ppb,一般汽車為5707ppb,四行程機車為608ppb。在頭份工業區下風處選擇五個採樣點,並在四周地區另選六個採樣點採樣測量,最高濃度達3ppm,最低為0~15ppb。而在高雄林園及中油石化工業區各不同地點下風處進行採樣,發現最高濃度為9ppm。以連續攪拌熏氣箱(CSTR)進行人工模擬薰氣之結果發現,在20ppm的濃度下,植物會出現葉片黃化,外捲(epinasty),支幹下垂、花瓣消蕾、果實黃化早熟、落葉落果等病徵。但大部份的測試植物在較短時間的熏氣下其病徵是可恢復的(revisable)。花卉和果樹類,如蝴蝶蘭、康乃馨、番石榴、金桔和香蕉對乙烯似乎較為敏感。研究結果顯示,大氣中乙烯是一重要污染項目,對於植物尤其有害。The purposes of the paper were to determine the concentrations of atmospheric ethylene(C2H4) in Taiwan and compare the sensitivity of various plants to ethylene by using the Continuously Stirred Tank Reaction(CSTR) For the measurements of ethylene in air, the HP6890 gas chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector(FID) was used. It shows that: the peak concentration of urban ethylene was 730ppb and was found at rush hour time. Sampling the gases from automobiles shows that the two-cycle motorcycle were the most serious sources of ethylene pollution.Its ethylene concentration were about 8688ppb.The gases from buses have hardlly no ethylene. In Tofen petroleum industrial area, there were 5 locations of down-wind direction and 6 sites arrounding were sampled to determine the level of ethylene. The level of ethylene was from 0 to 3ppmIn Linjuang and Cungjo petroleum industrial areaes of Kaohsiung, the highest level of ethylene was 9ppm. By using the Continuously Stirred Tank Reaction(CSTR), we exposed plants to 20 ppm ethylene. The level of ethylene can produce a wide range of symptoms of plants : yellowing, epinasty, abscission, flower fading and blasting, fruit ripening, leaf senescence. The most plants in short-time fumigation were revisable. In gernal, the floral and fruit plants were more sensitive to ethylene. For examples, moth orchid, carnation, guava, citrus, and banana were more sensitive. The results shows that the amount of ethylene in the air will injury the plants.
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