紅龍果產期調節與貯藏之研究

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論文名稱: 紅龍果產期調節與貯藏之研究
研究生姓名: 范忠宇
指導教授姓名: 顏昌瑞
出版年: 2010
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱: 農園生產系所
關鍵字: 紅龍果;產期調節;貯藏;藥劑及肥料;光質;修剪;pitaya;forcing culture;storage;chemicals and fertilizer;light quality;pruning
摘要: 本研究主要於紅龍果正常產期結束後,利用化學及物理方法,如藥劑及肥料、夜間燈照、夜間燈照與塑膠布覆蓋及修剪等處理,藉以抑制肉質莖營養生長,達到誘導花芽分化的目的,以提高紅龍果經濟價值。另外針對夏季紅龍果(Hylocereus spp.)品種(系)及採前處理之‘越南白肉種’紅龍果(Hylocereus undatus)果實採後貯藏壽命及品質差異之研究,以了解夏季紅龍果品種(系)間之貯藏性及採前處理對‘越南白肉種’紅龍果延長貯藏壽命的效果。 在藥劑處理方面,氯酸鉀(KClO3)200x、巴拉刈(Paraquat)30萬倍及電石(CaC2)澆灌50 g、100 g及500 g等處理,皆顯著較對照組提早萌生花苞。雖無法將產期提早至2或3月份,但或許將處理日期再提前,亦或調整藥劑及肥料施用倍數,可以達到調節或提早產期之效果。不同光質對‘越南白肉種’紅龍果枝條生長長度的影響,各處理隨著測量天數增加,枝條生長長度皆明顯有生長快速的趨勢。處理間以鎢絲燈處理枝條生長最為快速,且顯著高於黃、白色省電燈泡及對照組。本試驗結果顯示,鎢絲燈處理組在整個產期開花數皆顯著優於對照組和其他處理,以致於有平均果重下降、產量及著果率高的情形發生。光質及塑膠布覆蓋試驗之結果顯示,鎢絲燈處理組在整個產期開花數皆顯著優於對照組和其他處理。97年1月行光質及塑膠布覆蓋試驗,可將產期提前至4月份。而97年10月所作試驗則可將產季延後至12月份,並將產期提前至4月份。無論是97/1/22~4/28或97/11/1~98/3/28,兩次試驗之塑膠布內平均最高溫度皆較塑膠布外高,試驗結果顯示,加蓋塑膠布確實可以達到白天加溫夜晚保溫,進而使積溫增加的目的,但其催花效果卻沒有較單獨照光者顯著。97/2/1行 10%輕度短截處理可促使花芽提早萌生,且效果顯著優於對照組及96/12/25疏刪處理。且4、6和7月份花苞消蕾率顯著較其他兩處理高。而在果肉率和可溶性固形物方面,處理間未達顯著差異。 經採前處理之越南白肉種’紅龍果果實在貯藏期間對可溶性固形物(TSS)之影響,並無一定之規律。在25 ℃下貯藏之‘越南白肉種’紅龍果果實其TSS略高於貯藏在15℃環境中,且普遍隨著貯藏時間的增加,TSS變化呈遞減趨勢。‘越南白肉種’紅龍果貯藏在15 ℃下,利用尿素處理之果肉硬度顯著較對照組高,並達顯著差異。而在25 ℃下貯藏第6天,除尿素、氯化鈣及高磷鉀外,其餘處理皆與對照組達顯著差異。失重皆會隨貯藏天數的增加而增加,不論是在15或25 ℃下貯藏,各處理之貯藏壽命皆會隨著貯藏溫度的增加而呈現縮短的趨勢。貯藏溫度對夏季紅龍果品種(系)間果實貯藏期間品質之變化,TSS含量、果肉硬度在貯藏過程中會隨著貯藏時間增加而呈現降低的趨勢。果實的失重會隨著貯藏天數的增加而呈現升高的趨勢。貯藏壽命則隨著貯藏溫度的增加而降低。The purpose of this study was to compare storage and fruit quality of summer ‘Viet Nam’ pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) by pre-harvest and postharvest treatments. On the other hand, chemical and physical methods, such as chemicals and fertilizers, lights, plastic covers, pruning and other treatment to inhibit the vegetative growth and induce flower differentiation were conducted to regulate season and enhance the economic value of pitaya. The chemicals treatments, potassium chlorate (KClO3 200x), Paraquat (300000 x) and calcium carbide solution (50 g、100 g and 500 g), forced earlier flowers significantly than the control. Although the effects was not large enough to 2 or 3 months, it did force flowers weeks in advance. More chemicals and fertilizer application might extend the effects in later study. Lighting treatments increased shoot length of ‘Viet Nam’ pitaya. Tungsten filament lamp treatments showed best in shoot length, and significantly higher than the yellow, white energy saving light bulbs and CK. These results showed that production of flower number by Tungsten filament lamp treatment were significantly better than those of CK and other treatments. On the contrary, higher fruit number decreased the average fruit weight and yield. Lighting covered with plastic sheeting also showed Tungsten filament lamp significantly increased flower number than CK and other treatments. 97 years by Lighting covered with plastic sheeting in January in 2008 could promote season earlier to April. The same treatment in December 2008 could extend the season to April. However, the plastic sheeting raised temperature inside the cover and did not increased the effects of forcing flowers. Light pruning (10% heading-back) on February 1, 2008, promoted more and earlier flowers than control and thinning out of branches on December 25, 2007. However, the flower abortion in April、June and July were significantly higher than the other two treatments. Aril percent and total soluble solids were not significant different among treatments. Effects of pre-harvest on total soluble solids in storage of ‘Viet Nam’ pitaya fruit were varied. TSS of fruits at 25℃ was higher than at 15℃ and decreased with storage for both treatments. Flesh firmness by urea treatment at 15 ℃ was significantly higher than CK. Except urea, calcium chloride and high phosphorus and potassium, the other treatment were significant different from CK when stored at 25℃ for 6 days. Weight loss increased with longer storage. Storage life decreased with higher temperature in summer.
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