砧木、套袋和成熟度對茂谷柑果實品質與貯藏之影響

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論文名稱: 砧木、套袋和成熟度對茂谷柑果實品質與貯藏之影響
研究生姓名: 邱信智
指導教授姓名: 郭純德
出版年: 2010
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: 茂谷柑;砧木;成熟度;低溫貯藏;周徑大小;套袋;Murcott tangor;Rootstock;Maturity;Cold storage;Fruit size;Bagging;after
摘要: 本論文針對宜蘭地區茂谷柑不同成熟度、貯藏溫度、砧木(酸桔、廣東檸檬)、周徑大小及套袋對果實品質之影響進行探究。冀望對宜蘭地區柑桔產業之研究與推廣有所助益。以宜蘭三星鄉栽培之茂谷柑(Murcott tangor;Citrus reticulata ×Citrus sinensis)為試驗材料進行試驗。茂谷柑果實發育期間,均低於1,表示果實於發育期間均為扁圓形。果實整個生長模式呈現單S型曲線。4月~6月為第一次落果期,最高達每週8.7%。10月亦出現明顯落果,為第二次落果期,達每週5.0%。裂果主要發生於9至10月間,達每週2.6%。估算果實生理成熟度之理論值,果實於盛花後293天時停止生長。宜蘭地區茂谷柑於國曆二月上旬後採收,總可溶性固形物含量達12.0°Brix,酸度可降低至0.9%,而果皮色相角低於60,應為適當的採收日期 (採收成熟度)。茂谷柑以酸桔為砧木,其果皮厚度顯著低於廣東檸檬。貯藏於 1℃能有效降低腐爛率與失重率,延長茂谷柑貯藏壽命達三個月,而砧木對貯藏壽命無明顯影響。果皮厚度與糖酸比會隨周徑增加而提高,但果汁率、果肉硬度、可滴定酸含量、明度與彩度則相反。果實較大者其糖酸比較高,且可滴定酸含量較低,風味較佳。茂谷柑果實套袋會提高果皮率、明度、彩度與色相角,且降低果汁率、總可溶性固形物、可滴定酸含量與糖酸比。採前拆除白色蠟紙袋,會降低色相角,且提高果皮率、彩度與總可溶性固形物含量(仍低於對照組),而採前拆除銀黑紙袋可降低果皮率、果皮厚度、明度與色相角,且提高總可溶性固形物(仍低於對照組)。因套袋會降低果實品質(低總可溶性固形物、低糖酸比以及高色相角)故不適用於茂谷柑。In this thesis, explore effect of different harvest maturity, storage temperature, rootstock types (Sunki, Rangpur lime), fruit size and field bagging on fruit quality of the Yilan Murcott tangor. Aspirations of the Yilan research and extension citrus industry helpful Murcott (Murcott tangor; Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) was cultivated in Yilan Sanshing township and used in the following experiments. Fruit shape index was always less than 1 during development, as oblate sphere. The cumulative growth curves of the fruit were both single sigmoid growth curve. Fruit drops occurred by the late April to early June, up to 8.7% per week, while significant fruit drops also occurred at October, reaching 5.0% per week. Fruit cracking occurred mainly between September to October, up to 2.6% per week. Fruit maturity date was 293 days after anthesis, as estimated by absolute growth rate study. Yilan Murcott tangor harvest after early February total soluble solids content is up to 12 ° Brix, and hue angle is smaller than 60(orange peel), would be the appropriate harvest date (harvest maturity). The peel thickness of fruit on Sunki rootstock was significantly lower than on Rangpur lime, and no significant differences between the two. Effectively reduce the decay rate and weight loss at 1℃, to extend the storage life of Murcott tangor to three months, while the rootstocks no significantly impact on the storage life.Peel thickness and TSS/TA ratio varies with fruit size of increases to improve, but the juice percentage, flesh firmness, titratable acid content, lightness and chroma decreased with the fruit size decreasing, The greater fruit of Murcott tangor its TSS/TA is relatively high, lower titratable acid content and flavor better. Bagging Murcott will increase the peel percentage, lightness, chroma and hue angle, and reduce the juice percentage, total soluble solids, titratable acid content and TSS/TA ratio, but the fresh weight, peel thickness and flesh firmness did not affect.Early set of white paper with red wax will cause higher flesh firmness, bagging of the morning and evening periods of little influence on the rest fruit quality and no consistency.Removal of white wax paper bags, will reduce the hue angle, and improve the peel percentage, chroma and total soluble solids content (still lower than the control group), while the removal of silver black bag can reduce the peel percentage, peel thickness, lightness and hue angle, and increase the total soluble solids (still lower than the control group). Overall, Bagging does not apply to Murcott because it reduces fruit quality (low total soluble solids, low TSS/TA, and high hue angle)
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