石化工業區附近空氣中乙烯濃度及其對植物的影響

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作者: 鄭及昉;孫岩章
刊名: 環境保護
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 2003
關鍵字: 乙烯; 空氣污染; 氣相層析儀; 石化工業區; Ethylene; Air pollution; Gas chromatography; Petrochemical industry
摘要: 本研究針對臺灣石化工業區附近空氣中乙烯的濃度做一初步調查,利用HP6890氣相層析儀進行空氣中乙烯濃度的測量,並以連續攪拌熏氣箱(CSTR)進行人工模擬熏氣,以探討是否對植物造成影響。在1998年對苗栗頭份工業區下風處五個採樣點,及四個地區六個下風採樣點進行採樣測量,結果顯示;最高乙烯高濃度達3.6 ppm,最低為0~15 ppb。而在1998年對高雄林園及大社石化工業區各不同地點下風處進行一批次之採樣,發現最高濃度為9.6 ppm。以連續攪拌熏氣箱(CSTR)進行人工模擬熏氣之結果,發現在20 ppm的濃度下,植物會出現葉片黃化、外捲下垂(Epinasty)、花瓣消蕾、果實黃化早熟、落葉、落果等病徵,但大部份的測試植物在短時間熏氣下其葉部病徵正可恢復的。在測試的植物中,以蝴蝶蘭、康乃馨的花器、番石榴、金桔的果實及葉片、萬壽菊、和香蕉對乙烯較為敏感。以上研究證明石化工業區附近大氣中乙烯是一重要污染項目,對於植物已會造成損害。This study is aimed to determine the ambient concentrations of ethylene (C2H4) around petroleum industrial areas in Taiwan and to compare the sensitivity of various plants to ethylene by exposing them in continuously stirred tank reaction (CSTR). A HP6890 gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID) was used for measuring ethylene in the air. Around Tofen Petroleum Industrial Park, 5 sites at down-wind direction and 6 sites around were selected to determine the level of ethylene. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 3 ppm. (v/v) In Linyuang and Tashe Petroleum Industrial Parks of Kaohsiung, the highest level of ethylene was 9 ppm. Plants exposed to 20 ppm ethylene in the CSTR for 5-30min, showed a wide range of symptoms, including chlorosis, epinasty, abscission, flower drop, bud-blasting, fruit ripening, and leaf senescence. The plant symptoms in short-time fumigation were recovered. In general, the flowers and fruits such as those of Phalaenopsis, carnation, guava, citrus, and banana were more sensitive than the leaves and stems. Results expressed that present ambient concentrations of ethylene at some Petroleum Industrial areas in Taiwan are harmful to some species of plants.
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