番石榴自動秤重分級作業之研究

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作者: 邱奕志(Yi-Chich Chiu);徐上為(Shang-Wei Hsu);陳世銘(Su-Ming Chen)
刊名: 農業機械學刊
期刊所屬國別:
出版年: 2012
關鍵字: 荷重元;水果;自動化檢測;出料;Load cell;Fruit;Automatic detection;Discharge
摘要: 本研究目的旨在進行番石榴自動秤重分級系統之研究,以LabVIEW 8.2圖控式程式語言進行控制系統之設計,配合荷重元進行動態秤重及平行出料。秤重分級系統分為輸送、秤重、分級出料等單元,共分為5級。番石榴經由人工置放於承杯中,承杯固結於輸送鏈上,經過秤重區秤重後,系統判定其重量及級數。當承杯移動至出料區其級數出料口時,系統驅動電磁閥,使承杯傾倒,將番石榴排放於出料槽中。使用二組光纖式光電開關分別檢測承杯上的水果,以及承杯的位置,可有效達到水果偵測及承杯定位之功能。設計之秤重分級系統具有秤重自動校正功能,運用顏色感測開關偵測已知顏色之兩個承杯的標準重量,經程式運算,自動迴歸產生秤重檢量線。當系統運轉一段時間後,自動執行秤重校正功能,使秤重準確度有效提升。在秤重作業能量試驗方面,分別以0.61個/秒、1.39個/秒、2.16個/秒等三種分級速度進行秤重試驗,秤重平均誤差低於2.2%,出料準確度則高達100%。發展之番石榴自動化秤系統具有實用化之價值。The objective of this study was to study the automatic weighing and grading operations for guavas. Graphical programming language LabVIEW 8.2 was employed to develop the controlling and monitoring system cooperated with load cell to conduct dynamic weighing and parallel discharging. The weighing and grading system consists of three units: conveying, weighing, and discharging units. In the feeding area, the worker places the guavas into the cups which are fixed in the conveying chain, and then, each cup with guava passes through the weighing area in series. The system captures the weighing signal, calculates the weight, and determines the level of weight for each guava. After the cup moves to the discharging area, and arrives to the assigned slot of the weighing level, the system activates the solenoid to discharge the guava into the chute. Two fiber-photoelectric sensors are installed to detect the guava and cup at the weighing area. If both the detecting signals are received, the system begins to capture the weighing signal from the load cell. The experimental results showed that the fiber-photoelectric sensors can successfully detect the cup and guava. An automatic weighing calibration function has also been developed to promote the weiging stability. For this purpose, two cups with specific weight are installed in the conveying chain, and the color sensor is used to detect these two specific cups at the weighing area. When the calibration mode is set, the load cell acquires the weighing signals of these two specific cups, and the system will calculate and update the calibration line. The experimental results showed that the average weighing errors are under 2.2% at the grading speed of 0.61, 1.39, 2.16 guavas per second. With above experiments, the discharging accuracy reaches 100%. Consequently, the developed guava weighing system has a potential to be commercialized.
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