番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用

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計畫名稱: 番石榴外銷核心技術整合及加值運用
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
計畫編號: 105農科-4.2.1-科-a1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 國立中興大學
全程計畫年: 2016
關鍵字: 包裝;貯運溫度;番石榴;氣變包裝;寒害;光合作用;環境因子;生理因子;葉綠素螢光;遺傳連鎖圖;簡單重複序列;分子標記輔助選種;果實貯藏性;package;storage temperature;guava;modified atmosphere packaging;chilling injury;photosynthesis;environment factor;physiological factor;chlorophyll fluorescence;genetic linkage map;simple
摘要: 番石榴可週年生產,是為深具外銷潛力之果品,且其營養價值豐富,富含維他命C及礦物質,亞硝酸清除能力、抗氧化物質及抗氧化能力高,為保健水果,未來可躍升及行銷國際市場。針對部分國家需外銷檢疫處理如美國,本年度擬建立低溫檢疫技術及外銷貯運保鮮包裝技術並進行大量試驗,以達外銷不同目標國之需求。同時利用氣變包裝技術,降低寒害腐損率及維持品質,以‘珍珠’番石榴裝櫃後海運至加拿大,並以現行番石榴外銷包裝為對照,調查產品運抵加拿大市場到貨品質與櫥架壽命之差異。採前品質對採後貯運保鮮影響甚鉅,如夏季高溫盛產期,果實品質不佳,不易貯運保鮮;秋冬季果實品質佳,但產量及供貨不穩。本計畫欲解決上述產業問題,擬訂改善策略,建立‘珍珠’番石榴植株光合作用之基礎生理資料,繼而發展提高葉片光合效能之栽培管理策略,如整枝、修剪、留梢以增加樹冠光截取等,配合肥培及控梢、套袋技術,俾穩定週年生產與提高果實品質。為提升新品種選育效率而達品種多樣化之外銷品項,以F2分離族群的性狀調查、分子標記的應用及優良選系果實貯藏性的評估,有助於番石榴果實相關性狀遺傳的瞭解及分子標記輔助選種的發展,也將有利於新品種研發推廣及應用。綜合上述關鍵技術,結合採前改善果實品質之栽培方法及優質品種多樣化選育,配合採收後保鮮貯運技術,改進整合及加值運用,可成功將臺灣番石榴行銷國際市場。Guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruits can be produced all year around and are rich in vitamin C and mineral elements. Its ability of removing nitrite and antioxidant capacity are high, so guava fruits can be exported to international markets. Guava need to be quarantined in some countries, such as America. In this year, we plan to set up the quarantine procrdure, export process and preservation postharvest technology and to establish the technique of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) applyied to maintain the exporting quality of Taiwan produced guava fruits during postharvest period. The optimum conditions obtained from previous results as well as current exporting package of export guava will be applied to ‘Jan-Ju’ guava before transporting to Canada by marine containers. There is a significant effect of preharvest quality on postharvest storage and preservation, for example, poor fruit quality in summer season and high quality but unstable yield in winter season have been reported as the major production constraints; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear and the practical practice to improve this problem is still unavailable. The project aims to solve these problems and to set up the practical strategies. PS II efficiency will be examined to further clarify the characteristics of light reaction under all procedure mentioned above. Based on optimization of leaf photosynthesis, a potential orchard cultivation strategy for producing superior fruit quality and stabilizing yearly yield could be developed in Taiwan. The strategies include purning, controlling new shoots and bagging technique to obtain stable yield and to improve the fruits quality at summer season. Molecular markers in genotype fingerprinting and SSR markers published and/or newly developed will be used for cultivar identification and relationship analysis . The trait characterization of a F2 population, application of molecular markers, and storability evaluation will be preformed to select new genotypes in guava. This study will not only help to understand of the genetics of fruit-related traits and to develop marker-assisted selection in guava, but also contribute to the promotion and application of the new cultivars. In addition, diversified, genotypes will first selected be propagated and then cultivated with improvement of fruit quality before harvest and integration of preservation and postharvest technology. International markets for Taiwan’s guava will be successfully opened.
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