田間套袋及貯藏對葡萄柚顏色和品質之影響

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論文名稱: 田間套袋及貯藏對葡萄柚顏色和品質之影響
研究生姓名: 賴幸宜
指導教授姓名: 呂明雄
出版年: 2004
學校名稱: 國立嘉義大學
系所名稱: 農學研究所
關鍵字: 貯藏;茄紅素;套袋;storage;lycopene;bagging
摘要: 本試驗目的在研究台灣葡萄柚套袋栽培對果實發育與品質之影響。以雲林縣古坑鄉賴姓果農所管理之葡萄柚為材料,調查紅寶石葡萄柚(Citrus paradise Masfad cv. ‘Ruby’)和星紅寶石葡萄柚(C. paradise Masfad cv. ‘Star Ruby’)果實生長曲線、形質變化、不同套袋時期、不同材質套袋及採後貯藏溫度處理對果實品質之影響。葡萄柚果實生長發育由鮮重、體積、縱橫徑調查結果發現,葡萄柚果實生長曲線可能為單S型曲線,果實初期發育以果皮為主,後期果球快速發育。成熟期‘Ruby’果實可溶性固形物為8.8∼9.4˚Brix;而‘Star Ruby’果實之可溶性固形物為11.3∼11.9˚Brix,可滴定酸隨果實發育週數增加呈現持續下降的趨勢。葡萄柚果皮的外觀色澤變化,‘Ruby’和‘Star Ruby’果實a值為負值,而b值為正值,隨果實發育則呈現增加之情形;果肉的色澤變化,‘Ruby’和‘Star Ruby’果實L值於發育期間呈現逐漸下降的趨勢,a值逐漸增加,b值則無明顯差異。果皮葉綠素含量於發育期間逐漸下降之現象,而茄紅素含量於花後21∼25週茄紅素含量則迅速增加,之後呈現緩慢的增加,‘Star Ruby’果實果皮和果汁之茄紅素較‘Ruby’果實高。 ‘Ruby’果實以不同套袋材質套袋,可提高鮮重,以黑色紙袋的效果較佳,而愈晚套袋,果實鮮重之增加則無明顯變化。套袋對果汁率並無影響,愈晚進行套袋處理則可溶性固形物愈高,可滴定酸在不同袋套材質處理亦無明顯差異。果皮的外觀色澤上, a值和b值以黑色紙袋和牛皮紙袋較高,且愈早套袋果實果皮a值愈高,且套袋可使果肉顏色提高,但不同紙袋間無明顯差異。果皮葉綠素含量以套袋處理者較未套袋處理者低,其中以黑色紙袋和牛皮紙袋低於白色紙袋,而花後12週套黑色紙套茄紅素含量較高;果汁茄紅素含量則以套黑色和牛皮紙袋效果高。因此,由果實內部品質和外觀顏色顯示,葡萄柚果實以黑色和牛皮紙袋處理效果較佳。 ‘Ruby’葡萄柚果實貯藏10週後果汁率和可溶性固形物,以20℃、25℃及30℃處理的較高;可滴定酸以套袋果實明顯低於未套袋果實,20℃和25℃未套袋果實較高。果皮和果肉顏色分別貯藏於15℃和20℃,10℃和15℃為佳。‘Star Ruby’葡萄柚以25℃未套袋可溶性固形物含量較高,而可滴定酸和果汁率無明顯變化,果實果皮和果肉顏色以15℃較佳。貯藏期間‘Ruby’和‘Star Ruby’各處理間果皮葉綠素均相同下降的趨勢;而茄紅素含量於貯藏15℃下會隨時間緩慢增加。The effects of bagging on the fruit development and quality of grapefruit (C. paradise Masfad cv. ‘Ruby’ and ‘Star Ruby’) were investigated in this study. The fruit growth of grapefruit based on fresh weight, fruit volume and diameter showed single sigmoid curve pattern. In the early growth stage the peel grew fast and the pulp grew at later stage. The results showed that the total soluble solids of mature ‘Ruby’ fruit got 8.8 to 9.4 °Brix, while ‘Star Ruby’ was 11.3~11.9°Brix. The titrated acidity of juice decreased during the later fruit growth stage. The color changes of fruit peel or pulp were associated with pigments analysis. Chlorophyll content of peel declined gradually during fruit development, lycopene content increased at 21~25 weeks after anthesis. The lycopene content of peel and juices of ‘Star Ruby’ fruit were higher than that of ‘Ruby’ fruit. ‘Ruby’ fruit bagged with different bagging material could increase fruit weight, the black bag more effective than kraft or white bags. There were no different befween bagging dates and fruit weight, and fruit bagging could effect on the juice percentage, and acidity. The later fruit bagging the more total soluble solid content increased. The color changes of peel, black and kraft bags had higher a and b value of peel and earlier bagging fruit, the higher a value. Fruit bagging could increase color of the pulp and it was no difference in the pulp color by bagging materials. The chlorophyll contents of bagged fruit were higher than unbagged fruit. The chlorophyll contents of white bagged fruits were higher than black and kraft bagged fruits. It was higher lycopene contents in black bagged fruit after 12 weeks of anthesis. It was better effect on the lycopene contents of fruit juice in black and kraft bagged fruit. The results suggested that black and kraft bags had good effects on the coloration and fruit quality of grapefruit fruits. It had higher juice percentage and total soluble solids of ‘Ruby’ grapefruits stored at 20℃, 25℃ or 30℃ for 10 weeks. The unbagged ‘Ruby’ fruits had higher titrable acidity than bagged fruits. These fruits stored at 20℃ or 25℃also had higher acidity. The peel color of ‘Ruby’ fruit were good which stored at 15℃ and 20℃, but pulp color were better at 10℃ and 15℃. The unbagged ‘Star Ruby’ fruits had higher total soluble solids stored at 25℃, and they were no difference in acidity and fruit jucie percentage. It were good peel and pulp color of ‘Star Ruby’ which stored at 15℃. The peel chlorophyll content of both ‘Ruby’ and ‘Star Ruby’ fruits were declined during storage period. The lycopene content of fruits were showly increased during storage at 15℃.
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