熱帶蔬果重要病蟲害整合性防疫技術研發(第2年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶蔬果重要病蟲害整合性防疫技術研發(第2年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 曹麗玉
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 99農科-9.2.2-農-C1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 農委會農業試驗所鳳山分所
全程計畫年: 2010
關鍵字: 木瓜;Papaya;疫病;Phytophthroa fruit rot;炭疽病;Anthracnose;蒂腐病;Fruit stem end rot;白粉病;Powdery mildew;整合性管理;Disease management;感染生態;infection ecology;病毒病害;virus disease;綜合防治;integrated disease management;害蟲;pest;甜椒;sweet pepper;網室;screen house;番石榴;Psidium guajava;病害綜合管理;integrated pest and disease management;防治推薦藥劑;recommended pesticides
摘要: (一)、木瓜重要病害發生生態探討與整合性管理技術之研發 木瓜為我國重要果樹之一,可外銷日本與東南亞各國。然而木瓜有許多重要的病蟲害,嚴重威脅木瓜果品品質與櫥架壽命,重要的病害有真菌病害:果實炭疽病、果實疫病(水傷)、果實蒂腐病、幼苗白粉病;細菌病害:黑腐病;病毒病害:輪點病;及根瘤線蟲病害。農民一般以化學農藥防治果實病害,惟木瓜為連續採收之水果,採果前不宜施用化學農藥。田間初步試驗顯示亞磷酸、乳化葵花油等非農藥防治製劑對部份病害有相當抑制效果,可以替代化學合成農藥。此外,發現很多病害問題仍有相當改進的空間,如能詳盡探究原因,尋找合適策略,或可大幅度降低病害發生。因此本計畫擬(1).詳盡探討木瓜果實重要病害-炭疽病、疫病(水傷)、蒂腐病、白粉病之入侵時期與發病生態。(2).擬定重要病害之非農藥防治技術與方法,減少化學農藥使用。及(3).擬定整合性管理技術,以生產安全木瓜果品,解決病害問題。 (二)、南部地區瓜類病毒病害調查及綜合防治體系之建立 調查南部地區瓜類主要栽培品種之病毒病害發生種類及病徵表現差異,田間疑似病毒感染株之病毒種類收集及鑑定,研究瓜類之不同病毒於田間自然複合感染情形,並探討病毒間競爭行為對於植株病徵表現差異及病毒繁殖之影響。探討重要病毒傳播途徑及田間感染生態,建立基本資料,從中找出有效的防治方法及防治時機,而能對此類病毒病害之綜合防治方法的擬定有所依據。 (三)、設施甜椒害蟲管理模式之建立 在設施栽培及露天栽培之甜椒園中,調查其主要害蟲害蟲發生種類及其週年發生消長情形,應用設施網室栽培隔離主要大型害蟲,配合物理防治(黃色黏紙及燈光)、非農藥防治(皂類及油脂類)及化學防治(性費洛蒙及農藥)等綜合防治技術,評估其主要害蟲防治效果與安全生產體系之建立,以供農民使用。 (四)、建立番石榴病蟲害綜合管理體系 番石榴在台灣可周年生產,根據農糧署的統計,至民國97年全台番石榴的生產面積將近7000公頃,為台灣重要的熱帶果樹之ㄧ。根據前人研究指出,台灣番石榴的主要病害包括黑星病、瘡痂病、炭疽病、疫病、立枯病及根瘤線蟲...等。然而,目前已推薦於防治番石榴的藥劑僅有亞托敏、克收欣、賽普護汰寧及克熱淨(烷苯磺酸鹽)等4種,明顯少於其他小漿果類果樹的推薦防治藥劑。此點將導致農民因為推薦用藥過少而濫用其他未推薦藥劑或防治效果不佳的藥劑,造成農藥濫用與環境污染問題。因此,本研究擬著重於:一、評估已推薦於防治小漿果類果樹病害或已訂定殘留安全容許標準的化學藥劑,作為番石榴病害防治推薦藥劑的可行性。二、根據實驗室藥劑篩選結果,針對具防治潛力的藥劑進行番石榴田間病害防治試驗。三、配合栽培管理方法,建立番石榴病、蟲害綜合管理體系,達到番石榴安全生產的目的。(1)、Study on ecology of papaya major diseases and disease management Papaya is one of the major fruit trees in Taiwan which can be exported to Japan and Southeast Asia. However, there are a number of important papaya pests and diseases, which seriously reduced the papaya fruit quality and shelf life. The important fungal diseases include fruit anthracnose, Phytophthora fruit rot, fruit stem-end rot, and seedling powdery mildew. Bacterial black rot disease and root-knot nematodes were also attacked stems and root system of papaya trees in certain orchids. Farmers generally used synthetic chemical pesticides to control fruit diseases. However, papaya is a continuous harvest crop. Chemical spray during picking fruit periods in incorrect and unsuitable. In the preliminary field tests phosphorous acid, emulsified sunflower oil and some other non-chemical control agents showed good efficiency in inhibition of some diseases. Therefore an alternative to chemical pesticides is possible. In addition, many diseases were found to have a considerable degree to be improved if they can be studied in details. The purpose of the project intends to (1). Understand the ecology (especially the invasion periods) and epidemiology of the important papaya fruit disease including anthracnose, Phytophthora fruit rot, fruit stem-end rot and powdery mildew diseases. (2). Search for non-pesticide control measures for replacement of synthetic pesticides, and (3). Develop integrated management techniques to solve disease problems and for farmers to produce high quality and safe papaya fruit. (2)、The occurance of viruses in cucurbits in southern Taiwan and establishment of integrated control management Survey of cucurbit diseases and comparisons of the occurrence and symptoms of virus diseases of commonly grown local cucurbit varieties are investigated in southern Taiwan. Correlate the association and competition of different cucurbit viruses in the major cucurbit production areas with presence of known viruses. Screen of insecticides and other culture control to decrease the occurrence of virus diseases and the population of insect vectors. (3)、Model of pest management on sweet pepper in screen house Survey on the infestin sweet pepper, in screen house and field during through yeat. Randomly sampled from a screen house at experimental farm in Kaohsiung and Pintoung. The number of pests on each plant sampled will be counted and reconrded. The large pests pre isolated by screen house, and to estimate the effects by physical control (yellow paper and lighter), non-pesticide control (soaps and oils), and chemical control (pheromone and pesticides). To establish safety product system on production calendar for farmers essily follwed. (4)、Establishment of integrated guava pest and disease management system Guava fruit can be produced annually in Taiwan with about 7,000 hectares of production areas located in Kaohsiung, Tainan, and Changhua counties. Major diseases of guava fruit and plant includes black spot (Guignardia psidii), scab (Pestalotiopsis psidii), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), guava wilt (Nalanthamala psidii), and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), etc. However, only four fungicides, including azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, switch (cyprodinil + fludioxonil), and iminoctadine tris(albesilate), were recommended for control of guava diseases. Less choices of fungicides made guava farmers to use pesticides which were nither proven for their efficacy on controlling guava diseases nor recommended by the goverment and results in pestidcide abuse and environmental pollution. In this study, we will evaluate the efficacy of fungicides which were recommended on other fruits, such as wax apple and grape, on control of guava pathogens. Secondly, fungicides which are effective on inhibiting the growth of guava pathogens on potato dextrose agar will be tested in the field. Finally, we hope to establish the integrated guava pest and disease management system base on these studies.
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