熱帶水果分級指標與方法建立研究

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計畫名稱: 熱帶水果分級指標與方法建立研究
計畫主持人: 游景昌
共同計畫主持人: 謝清祿
計畫編號: 91農科-1.1.1-高-K9(7)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會高雄區農業改良場
全程計畫年: 2002
關鍵字: 分級指標;印度棗;番石榴 ;Grading Index;Indian Jujube;Guavas
摘要: 本研究選定印度棗、番石榴等熱帶品牌水果進行品質分級指標建立研究,並研發水果內、外部品質檢測技術,進而開發國產線上型檢測精密分級機推廣應用為目標.本研究進行番石榴、印度棗及鳳梨不同品種果實外型尺寸、重量、滾動角度、糖度分佈及比重等分級物性指標量測建立;並利用近紅外線光譜分析儀量測水果吸收光譜特性,建立光譜與內部品質糖度之相關性,以100個印度棗樣品供測試,其糖度平均為13.712°Brix%,範圍9.3-17.5°Brix%,選取5個特徵波段進行統計分析,印度棗近紅外光譜與內部糖度檢量線初步結果R2 = 0.855, SEC = 0.686,番石榴則顯示R2值可達0.9左右.利用影像技術偵測水果品質分級研究,已完成設計組裝影像品質檢測試驗裝置乙套,主要元件包含數位影像檢測器(CCD)、光源、影像擷取卡、輸送裝置及相關控制等設備,並已進行初步試用階段.試製乙部重量式鳳梨分級機,採人工輔助供料,一次可分六級,已測試建立初步功能,可提供本機未來研發參考。Indian jujube, guavas and pineapples were selected on this research to establish the criteria and indices for quality grading. It has found the technique for detecting internal and external quality and will be applicable to develop an on-line sorting machine of fruits for quality.

The physical properties relative to grading has established for Indian jujube, guavas and pineapples, these properties include size of shape, weight, rotary angle, sugar distribution and specific gravity. The NIR technique was utilized to evaluate the sugar content of the fruit; it was found that the absorbance and sugar content have a high correlation. On 100 Indian jujube samples, the average sugar content is 13.7 Brix% and its range is 9.3~17.5 Brix%. The spectrum measurement results show the r2 and SEC value of 5 specific bands are 0.855 and 0.686 respectively. For guavas, the r2 value also get a good result, there is over 0.9. On the part of imaging process that used to detect external quality of fruits, including digital CCD, detecting light, vision acquisition card, conveyer and control system, these equipments have been install and completed its primary test. There are also developed a weight grading machine for pineapples, the feed work was done by hand and grading to six kinds of pineapples. The primary test were employed, the result could become the reference to the future design.
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