熱帶果樹研究團隊-建構優質安全熱帶及亞熱帶果樹生產體系(第4年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 熱帶果樹研究團隊-建構優質安全熱帶及亞熱帶果樹生產體系(第4年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 謝鴻業
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 101農科-9.2.2-農-C5(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所鳳山熱帶園藝試驗分所
全程計畫年: 2012
關鍵字: 芒果;mango;不時花;off-season flowering;產期調節;forcing culture;採後處理;postharvest;乳汁圬斑;sapburn;生物防治;biocontrol;檢疫;quarantine;預冷;precooling;外銷;exporting;品質;quality;番石榴;guava;育種;breeding;番石榴;Psidium guajava;荔枝;Litchi fruit;採收後處理;Postharvest handling treatment;果實品質;Fruit quality
摘要: (一)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-優質芒果栽培技術改進 為穩定果實品質與供貨以利外銷市場的開拓,本計畫擬從收集之優良品種(系)中進行評估,評估具纖維量少,果實不易劣變,高產量及耐貯運等不時花品種。另外,擬利用卓安南品種的不時花特性,配合修剪、肥培管理及其他處理方式來調節芒果產期,以達週年生產。 將卓安南芒果以修剪配合高磷鉀處理,使得開花期調節集中於9-11月,並評估以設施栽培用於產期調節的可能性。如此藉由芒果品種及延長產期技術之提昇,達到穩定果實品質與供貨,以利外銷市場的開拓。 (二)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-熱帶果樹貯運與良質果品生產技術研究(委辦) 本計畫在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。計畫目標分述如下: 1. 鳳梨為台灣現今最重要的鮮食與外銷水果,品質不佳和缺乏良好的採後處理技術,成為產業一大問題,其改善方法仍闕如。本研究目的為研究台農20號鳳梨長期貯運技術和分析台灣主要鳳梨品種之品質和耐貯能力和建立採後安全貯運體系。 2. 台灣愛文芒果外銷日本,很受日本市場歡迎,外銷數量僅次於香蕉。台灣芒果在日本市場無法大幅成長的原因,主要是櫥架壽命短,此乃由炭疽病,果實異常軟化及擦壓傷嚴重所造成,本計畫目的在改善外銷作業流程,如預冷方法、檢疫方法、貯運溫度及包裝技術等,經改進後期能使愛文芒果品質能提升,進而確保台灣愛文芒果在日本的長期優勢。 3. 番石榴是台灣重要經濟果樹之一,且有產期長及營養價值高的特性,極具外銷潛力,但番石榴在外銷上仍有檢疫問題、預冷問題、貯運溫度問題及包裝問題,所以為了降低外銷損耗、維持果實品質,以提高番石榴的競爭力,本計劃目的即針對品種耐寒力、預冷方法、包裝方式及檢疫技術進行調查及評估,進而建力外銷作業流程,使台灣番石榴能成功外銷。 4. 香蕉抽穗後,葉片數的多寡會影響果實發育的速率,改變採收期的判定,進而影響香蕉果實貯運特性的改變。本研究主要針對白皮春蕉及花龍蕉抽穗後,植株保留不同葉片數(人為割葉處理),在抽穗時及採收時具不同葉片數之果實,探討具不同葉片之植株對果實生長發育、產量及採後貯藏壽命與品質之影響,以作為香蕉葉片數管理之依據,以及外銷貯運香蕉果品的選別根據。 (三)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-優質番石榴品種選育 本年度持續調查初選及複選的少籽番石榴品系的果實品質及穩定性,並調查引進及蒐集的石榴品種特性。 (四)、熱帶果樹研究團隊-荔枝處理、包裝、預冷、貯運一貫作業產業應用技術之開發 熱帶果樹研究團隊-荔枝處理、包裝、預冷、貯運一貫作業產業應用技術之開發: 本計畫擬建立台灣荔枝外銷中國大陸及新加坡等國的保鮮貯運技術。試驗內容主要以‘黑葉' 或‘桂味'荔枝進行不同組合的外銷處理與流程測試,包括採收時段、預冷、包裝、裝箱堆疊、裝櫃出口、到貨與內陸貯運以及櫥架販售等多種細部的處理技術組合,以供作產業應用,拓展台灣荔枝產業,舒緩國內荔枝盛產期的銷貨壓力,穩定國內供銷市場。(1)、Team of Tropical fruit trees research -Study on the improvement of excellent quality mango cultivation technique The purpose of this program is improving the mango of off-season flowering varieties. It will expect to estimate the strains with good quality, high yield, without fruit disorder and fine storage capabilities. We also compare the effects on different trimming and other treats for flowering time and numbers of Chok-anan . Using KH2PO4 and pruning treatment to make Chok-anan’s florescence concentrate on in September - November, and to assess the possibility of net-house culture. Therefore, in order to develop export market, we work on finding off-season mango cultivars and extending production period to achieve stable fruit quality and supply.(2)、Team of Tropical Fruits Tree Research- Study on Post-harvest Technology and Quality Fruit Production of Tropical Fruits. This study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competition power of Taiwan tropical fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The purposes of this experiment are listed as following: 1. Pineapple is currently the most widely planted for fresh consumption and export in Taiwan. Poor fruit quality and lacking good postharvest handling practices has been reported as the major production constraint; however, the practical trial for improvement this problem is still unavailable. Our objections are to development of technique for long-term storage of ‘TN20’pineapple and analyze the fruits quality and storage ability of main varity pineapple produced in Taiwan. 2. The Taiwan mango is considered one of the choicest fruits of the Japan market, because of its attractive red color, delicious taste and excellent nutritional properties. But the growth of exporting quantity is limited due to short shelf-life caused by anthracnose disease, rapid softening and mechanical injury during handling. The objections of this project are to improve the postharvest technology of mango for exporting. We will select the suitable precooling method, quarantine treatment, optimum transportation temperature and usable packaging material. After improving of technology, we hope the quality of Irwin mango is better and the competitive vigor can hold in Japan market permanently. 3. Guava fruit is the most important commercial fruit crop in Taiwan according to high production and return. The fruit is an excellent source of vitamin C and fiber. The development potential for exporting of guava fruit in Taiwan is limited due to lacking of quarantine treatment, suitable precooling method, packaging material, and storage temperature. Our objections are to make appropriate temperature selection for transportation, to select suitable precooling method for guava fruit, to use packaging material to reduce water loss, and to establish an optimum quarantine technology, at all, to make a good procedure for exporting. 4. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ‘Bai-Pi-Chun-Chiao’ and ‘Hun- Long-Chiao’ banana leaf numbers on fruit growth and different leaf numbers of shooting and fruit harvest, to confer that the effect of different banana leaf numbers on growth quantity, storage life, quality after harvest and control banana fruit procreation. (3)、Guava Breeding In 2012, we will continue to investigate the fruit quality and stability of selected seedless guava lines. We also investigate the fruit quality of guava variety introduce from Philippine or local market . (4)、Development of Integrated Postharvest Technologies for Handling Litchi for Export Market. This research project involves integration and development of existing and new technologies for handling, packaging and transportation of litchi for export markets such as China and Singapore. Major export varieties such as ‘He-yeh’and ‘Gui-wei’ will be chosen. Postharvest technologies include harvesting maturity, harvesting time, grading, precooling, packaging, stacking, containerization, transportation conditions, and distribution and retailing in foreign markets. The integrated technologies are necessary for preserving the fresh appearance and quality of litchi all the way to the hands of consumers.
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