溫度及包裝對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響

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論文名稱: 溫度及包裝對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響
研究生姓名: 李錦玲
指導教授姓名: 李堂察;洪進雄
出版年: 2011
學校名稱: 國立嘉義大學
系所名稱: 農藝學系研究所
關鍵字: 溫度;包裝;黃秋葵;貯藏;Temerature;packaging;okra;storage
摘要: 本研究目的在於探討嘉義地區所栽培的‘永福’黃秋葵採收後生理與品質之變化,尋求適當貯藏溫度及包裝及二氧化氯處理,以期延長果實貯藏壽命,調節市場供需。以不同濃度(100ppm、200ppm 及300ppm)二氧化氯處理黃秋葵3 分鐘後於5℃、8℃、10℃貯藏,分別以300ppm 及200ppm 處理者失重率較低。就寒害及腐爛率而言,以不同濃度二氧化氯處理3 分鐘後分別於5℃及8℃溫度下於第6 天及第15 天起果皮明顯產生凹陷之寒害症狀且以100ppm 處理者寒害指數較高,於10℃及25℃貯藏,則以200ppm 處理者能有效降低腐爛率。黃秋葵置於保麗龍淺皿中上覆保鮮膜貯藏,就溫度而言,以25℃貯藏失重率、腐爛率和呼吸率高且快,12℃之失重率顯著低於25℃。8℃和10℃之失重率在貯藏期間均低,隨著貯藏時間增加於8℃貯藏15 天起失重率和腐爛程度及呼吸率明顯高於10℃,而以12℃貯藏腐爛率和呼吸率最低,可有效延長貯藏壽命達21 天。果實外觀顏色隨貯藏期間增加而轉暗,果皮顏色由綠轉為黃色或黃色偏綠,其中以12℃貯藏明度(L 值)及色彩濃度(C值)較高,色相角度變化不大(h 值)。包裝材料方面以未加任何包裝處理之裸果失水最嚴重,於8℃及10℃貯藏重量損失極快均於貯藏第3天起失去商品價值,另外一介淨、保鮮膜、PE ii袋等氣變包裝及保麗龍盒包裝等,均能有效降低貯藏期間之失重率,而有打孔包裝之失重率明顯大於非打孔包裝者,但由於穿孔包裝較非穿孔包裝的通風性佳,允許氣體和水汽的交換,因此腐爛發生率較低。黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下7、14、21和28天後移溫至25℃其失重率均隨櫥架時間增加而快速上升,且以12℃大於10℃和15℃。就腐爛程度而言,貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下7天、14天、21天及28天後移溫至25℃下其腐爛程度分別以12℃及15℃較低,較能維持黃秋葵之外觀。就呼吸率而言,貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下7天後,移溫至25℃下櫥架2天期間以12℃之呼吸率變化最小,而後均隨著櫥架時間延長而快速增加;貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下14天及21天後移溫至25℃下櫥架4天期間以12℃之呼吸率輕微大於15℃之呼吸率,貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下28天後移溫至25℃下12℃之呼吸率已高。綜合上述,黃秋葵置於保麗龍淺皿中上覆保鮮膜包裝,以12℃為最佳貯藏溫度,腐爛率和呼吸率最低,可有效延長貯藏壽命達21天。The present study were examined the physiological change and quality of the cultivar of okra named “Yongfu”after postharvest.Treatment we found that the suitable packaging and temperature,and chlorine dioxide treatment could extend the storage life and keep the quality of products. Okra fruits were treated using different concentrations(100ppm、200ppm and 300ppm) of chlorine dioxide for 3 minutes and than stored at 5℃,8℃,and 10℃, respectively; those treated with 200ppm and 300ppm chlorine dioxide had lower weight loss during the storage. In addition, Okra fruits were treated with different concentrations of chlorine dioxide for 3 minutes and then being stored at 5℃ for 6 days, and 8℃ for 15 days, respectively,showed the chilling injury(CI) symptom such as,skin pitting lesion; especially shown on 100ppm chlorine dioxide treatment.On the other hand, by using 200ppm chlorine dioxide treatment. On the other hand, fruits can reduce the decay rate by using 200ppm chlorine dioxide treat when stored at 10℃ and 25℃. The rates of weight loss, decay incidence, and respiration were higher and rapidly when stored at 25℃ than at 12℃.The weight loss was lower at 8℃ and 10℃ during storage; however there were more weight loss, decay incidence, and respiration when stored at 8℃than at 10℃, since 16th day. Additionally there were a minimum decay incidence and respiration rate when okra fruits were stored at 12℃, which lasting to 21 days. The visual appearance of okra pods discoloration when the period of storage was increased, and skin color changed from green to yellow or greenish yellow. The lightness(L value)and chroma(C value) were higher, and there was a little changes in hue angle(H value) when stored at 12℃。 The higher water loss was seen in unwrapped pods, especially when stored at 8℃ and 10℃ after day 3. The lower weight loss was observed when okra pods were stored in PE bags which include Ag+, saran wrap, PE bags, and polystyrene tray. The pods stored in perforated packaging had more weight loss than in non perforated packaging, because ventilation in perforated packaging is better than non perforated which had a lower decay incidence. There was a rapid increase in weight loss when okra were stored at 10℃、12℃ and 15℃, for 7、14、21 and 28 days, respectively and then transferred to 25℃. The weight loss was higher when stored at 12℃ than at 10℃ and 15℃.In additional, there was a lower decay incidence trend when stored at 12℃ and 15℃. Furthermore, in the same treatments, for the respiration rate, when stored at 10℃,12℃, and 15℃ for 7 days and then transferred to 25℃ for 2 days, there was the lowest respiration rate found when storage at 12℃. When stored at 10℃,12℃ and 15℃ for 14 and 21 days, respectively, and then transferred to 25℃ for 4 days, the respiration rate was higher at 12℃ and than 15℃;however, when stored at 10℃,12℃ and 15℃ for 28 days and then transferred to 25℃, the highest respiration rate was found at 12℃. In this study, we concluded that the best post-harvest treatment combination to keep okra quality was stored at 12℃, the pods in this treatment combination had lower decay and respiration rate, the treatment combination suppressed pod quality deterioration and improved shelf life to 21 days
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