氣候變遷聚焦情境之農產因應調適

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計畫名稱: 氣候變遷聚焦情境之農產因應調適
計畫主持人: 楊純明
共同計畫主持人: 王維晨;蔡惠文;陳國憲;張庚鵬;蘇俊峰;薛佑光;周國隆;葉文彬;張芳魁;蘇彥碩;蕭巧玲;楊智哲;曾清山;方信秀;戴廷恩;黃家康;張嘉滿;張淑芬;楊采文;林訓仕;宋家瑋;劉啟祥;夏奇鈮;詹庭筑;羅士凱;張勝智;謝鴻業;邱國棟;翁一司;黃基倬;賴瑞聲;李長沛;廖大經;李雅琳;陳柏蓁;劉秋芳;蔡憲宗;張正桓;胡智益
計畫編號: 109農科-21.2.1-子-C1
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 行政院農業委員會農業試驗所作物組
全程計畫年: 2020
關鍵字: 水稻;低溫調適;短期葉菜;氣候變遷;蓮霧;稻米品質;番石榴;高溫;耐旱;高粱;低溫;馬鈴薯;南瓜;小麥;多重逆境;缺水;氣候變遷;逆境;糧食安全;高溫調適;耐旱;韌性農業;品質;覆蓋資材;雨季;花粉活力;水分利用效率;因應;葉面施肥;溫度逆境;氣候變遷;設施平台;生產系統;水稻;釋迦;減災;韌性農業;稻穀產量;果樹作物;水稻;農作物;霪雨;砧木;茶;芒果;蔬菜移植機;低溫;切花;韌性生產;高通量基因型分析;節水栽培;成熟期;氣候變遷;rice;Adapting to low temperature;shot-term leafy vegetable;climate change;waxapple;Rice quality;guava;high temperature;drought tolerance;sorghum;low temperature;potato;pumpkin;wheat;Multiple environmental stress;water deficit;climate change;stress;Food se
摘要: 水稻溫度逆境篩選平台與調適作為 因應氣候變遷,氣溫異常對水稻造成產量減損及米質惡化的影響,本計畫擬建立穩定的高溫及低溫逆境篩選平台及有效率且標準的水稻篩選技術,並透過熱感應影像分析、花粉活力檢測、米質分析等技術,建立水稻在高溫及低溫逆境下的韌性指標,也提供水稻高溫、低溫韌性進一步研究及水稻品種改良選拔之基礎。除基礎篩選技術平台之建立外,也將透過田間的栽培管理技術,灌溉、穗肥的調整來緩解水稻在高溫或低溫下所造成的稻米產量或品質劣變,進而開發選育溫對逆境韌性水稻品系(種),以穩定農民收益、永續稻作產業。  熱帶果樹逆境(缺水、霪雨、高溫、低溫)調適及篩選平台建置  為提高番石榴灌溉水資源的使用效率,降低乾旱所造成的負面影響,擬就低壓微噴灌系統進行改良並搭配智能化自動控制系統,以達到節水、穩定生產、省工之效益。鳳梨釋迦夏期果易裂果,但大目釋迦無論夏期果或是冬期果,皆鮮少有採前或採後裂果情形發生。釋迦與鳳梨釋迦親源性相近,可互相雜交,將夏期果不易裂果特性導入鳳梨釋迦。本計畫著重低裂果率的夏期果選育。將大量高接實生苗,並試產夏期果,以加速評估品系夏期果裂果特性。目標篩選出夏期果不易裂果的品系。本研究計畫擬藉由建立芒果抗逆指標,篩選具抗耐低溫之品種,當作育種及根砧材料;另一方面藉由探討植物生長調節劑、肥培管理技術、根砧、根域水分管理技術等,篩選具耐低溫逆境之芒果根砧、並建立芒果逆境生理調控技術及應用方式,以穩定芒果生產,提升果實品質及農家營收,減少因為逆境造成的鉅大損失。建立蓮霧果園(印尼大果種)簡易網室自動化系統,於低溫期間自動開關,進行低溫防減之效益評估;另評估蓮霧新品種台農3號黑糖芭比於冬果低溫耐受性,作為日後推廣之參考。  果樹作物因應逆境(暖化、颱風、水害、冬季升溫)栽培管理模式之建立         本計畫擬針對柑桔果樹因氣候變遷暖化導致之關鍵問題(如開花及結果異常使果實產量與品質降低),隨氣候變化及生育時期,利用動態及精緻肥培管理技術與病蟲害管理技術,改善柑桔果樹在氣候暖化高溫或水分逆境下之產量品質不佳問題,以生產安全高品質柑桔。酪梨適地適作栽培,以減少因極端天候如強降雨,排水不良,所造成減產或植株死亡的風險,建立密植矮化栽培管理制度,利用修剪技術控制枝梢生長與提高光穿透度、配合藥劑肥培管理,達到強健植株,減少風害造成的損失。梅雨季節與夏季豪雨容易造成香蕉園浸水、排水不良等情況,導致香蕉植株受損,影響果品的採收與產量,需要建立香蕉因應氣候變遷水害逆境栽培管理模式,提升植株存活率,減少災損。冬季升溫會導致甜柿開花減少與延遲、減產與果品降低的現象,開發冬季升溫對甜柿減產之管理調適技術,可減緩冬季升溫對甜柿減產的影響,維持甜柿產業正常生產與經濟收益。  多重逆境篩選設施平台  對於農業生產而言,氣候變遷下所衍伸的極端天氣變化,使得糧食生產環境變得更為挑戰,進而影響糧食供應的不確定性,牽動著國內外糧食供應政策與應變機制。面對一連串快速變化的氣候,往往會加劇病蟲害的嚴重發生,增加農業災害損失。災害發生無法預測,同時災害發生常屬於複合性,多重氣象條件下才引發重大農業損失。防災技術研發及災損評估需要一可模擬多重氣象環境之試驗場域,才能提供精準及可重複之試驗數據。為能瞭解快速的氣候變化對農作物與病蟲害發生的關聯性,本計畫將建置能控制快速變化栽培環境的現代化篩選平台,期能在氣候變遷的環境下瞭解其對作物病蟲害發生的影響,進而提出適當的因應措施,以確保農業生產安全。  因應氣候變遷之糧食韌性生產   早熟性之耐旱耐高溫高粱篩選以因應氣候變遷之適時適地適種  高粱是目前世界五大的穀類作物之一,以耐熱、耐旱聞名,環境適應性很廣,高粱的灌溉量約為玉米的1/5,約為水稻的1/10,尤其TCCIP氣候情境模擬在氣溫上升 1.5°C 臨界值、農業可用水資源短少10% ,所以,推廣高粱能減緩因氣候變遷長期乾旱所造成的糧食短缺和水資源不足之問題。因此,早熟性高粱品系,因生育日數少,栽培使用之農業用水大幅降低,除了增加土地利用性,可與水稻輪作,本研究將與水稻DT3作,水旱田輪作可保留土壤地力,先期在西南部和高鐵沿線和地層下陷農業地區進行高級試驗,推廣適合之品系。 將採取搭配次世代定序的高通量SNP資料進行QTL-seq,獲得與早抽穗的SNP用於分子標誌輔助選育,並以自動化、高通量的分子標誌輔助選育,可提升高粱育種達30%之多。此早熟性糯性高粱V9 (貢獻親) 與美國德州高產優良品種BTx623 (輪迴親) 雜交,於兩年內獲得BC<SUB>3</SUB>F<SUB>2</SUB>,於第三年獲得穩定的品系BC<SUB>3</SUB>F<SUB>5</SUB>,第四年在不同的區域進行高級試驗、評估,此計畫預計選育高粱新品系2-3個。為了達到高粱與水稻之水旱田輪作制度之建立,本研究將以水稻DT3品系與高粱輪作,水稻DT3為材料,透過三種水份管理模式進行節水管理操作,計畫前兩年建立與糯性高粱稔性恢復 R 品系的輪作方式,第三年在嘉義分所溪口農場進行一期作水稻及二期作高粱的大面積 (0.13公頃) 的節水栽培操作測試,第四年則是以耐旱水稻DT3、早熟糯性高粱新品系於臺南縣、嘉義縣及雲林縣等容易發缺水之地區進行一期作水稻及二期作高粱的大面積節水栽培操作示範。本研究計畫將培育3個碩士人才,將研究成果發表至期刊論文共3篇,其中含1篇SCI論文。另外,建立高粱栽培技術,與水稻DT3輪作,基此,降低灌溉需水量10%~30%;推廣耐旱、耐高溫早熟性高粱新品系之栽培面積達2公頃;此適於釀製高粱酒的糯性高粱品系可以增加高粱產值及面積,提升高粱進口替代,可以提升糧食自給率。  水稻節水栽培及南瓜砧木耐低溫指標之建立  本計畫針對糧食韌性生產因應調適,扣合<strong>農業可用水資源短少</strong><strong>10%</strong><strong>與</strong><strong>減少災變天候損失之情境,</strong>擬進行水稻節水栽培及南瓜砧木耐低溫指標之建立,其分工為水稻節水栽培管理之建立,以及南瓜砧木耐低溫指標之建立。水稻為主要糧食,在農業可用水減少10%下,本計畫擬進行水稻節水栽培管理之建立,探討減少10-15%灌溉水下維持韌性水稻生產力與降低溫室氣體甲烷排放之環境親合性水分管理模式。南瓜砧木為目前主要瓜類栽培所用之砧木,為強化重要瓜類蔬菜生產調適技術,研究耐低溫生理指標,篩選對自然災害南瓜砧木韌性品系,促進瓜類順應逆境生產恢復力,穩定瓜類種苗生產、植株生長,以增加農民收益,達成強固氣候韌性糧食生產及耐抗逆境能量。  因應氣候變遷之糧食韌性生產運籌管理專案   配合「建構因應氣候變遷之韌性農業體系研究」計畫之推動,協助進行檢視輔導、各團隊之績效指標管考、成果發表與效益推估,並針對韌性農業相關科研能量及產業需求進行檢視,評估相關技術應用於產業之可行性,以協助產業政策發展目標之達成<strong>。</strong> (一)蒐集與整理國內外因應氣候變遷之糧食韌性生產科技和產業資訊。(二)規劃計畫之資訊交流平臺功能機制。(三)整理與分析適用於計畫執行之農業、氣象及產業資源和資訊,定期發布或隨時通告計畫執行團隊,促進可揭露可用資源和資訊之擴散利用和訊息互動溝通。(四)評估氣候變遷對糧食生產與產業發展影響,規劃辦理相關論壇或研討(習)會1場次,提升\計畫執行成效,並強化產官學研之連結。(五)協助計畫科研成果效益評估與績效指標設定,提供計畫執行團隊進行成效考核建議,協助辦理計畫考核工作,並協調計畫統籌機關與各執行機關/單位之間的合作及資訊服務。(六)協助計畫舉辦工作會議、成果分享會或工作坊、審查會議等活動,助益於計畫整合與推動,並提高研發成果的產業推廣利用。(七)提供計畫專案負責人1人和駐點人員至少2人,專責協助計畫之執行及推動,辦理文書作業與相關例行工作,以及處理其他臨時交辦事項等。  氣候變遷情境下文心蘭穩定生產及品質改進技術之研究  調查種苗來源對植株生長勢、產量及開花品質之影響,記錄光度與溫濕度等環境因子數據,以建立基礎管理條件。透過環境監測及生育調查,決定各產區之適合設施及示範點。配合業者,設置示範點,由合作業者提供產量及品質資料。預測文心蘭生長,預估文心蘭切花產量並利用手持式高光譜設備預測品質,整合生產環境資訊進行分析,提供包裝場及貿易商配貨調整參考。分析補光與藥劑試驗對於文心蘭花期之影響。改善採後處理設備與雨季採後處理流程,減少切花採後處理時及貯運後腐爛發霉,穩定文心蘭切花供貨品質。建立不同種苗之最適栽培模式,進而達到切花品質改善與產量提升之效果,穩定全年切花供貨量,提升台灣文心蘭切花外銷的競爭力。產期調節,使文心蘭切花生產避開5-6與9-10兩個高峰期,生產12-4之切花。提高農民收益 10%。減少切花採後處理時及貯運後腐爛發霉損耗率15%,穩定文心蘭切花供貨品質。  調查多樣化農業生產系統及增加農產品供應韌度之研究  臺灣重要經濟農作物因遭受災害天候影響供應穩定度。試驗目的為進行作物耕作系統調查,探討因應氣候變遷合適之生產模式。試驗調查各改良場轄內種要經濟作物耕作系統與生產模式。受高溫影響開花著果之作物,開發噴霧系統或草生栽培系統降低溫度、提高濕度,以降低高溫對著果之影響,進而節省水資源使用。探討誘發鳳梨釋迦落果發生之原因、開發文旦減輕颱風災害導致落果損失、炎熱氣候下茶園最佳敷蓋資材及炎熱乾旱逆境或病蟲害危害之茶菁加工技術,以期達到各項農產品增加供應韌度之效益。開發毛豆寒害及水害等相對應綜合減災技術,並建立防減災農業經營專區100公頃。  提升水稻、小麥水分利用效率之韌性生產調適  本計畫擬透過解明水稻抽穗期基因與生育日數間的關係,發展早熟水稻品種,降低水稻生育用水日數,並增加單位耗水量下之稻穀產量,以提升稻作生產的水分利用效率,降低水資源使用量、調適氣候風險,建置具氣候韌性之早熟水稻優質生產節水栽培體系。本計畫利用來自100個不同國家、地區之水稻種原,進行6個重要抽穗期基因分析,解明臺灣環境下水稻生育日數變化與抽穗期基因間之對應關係。並選定水稻早熟品系NKY1041071為輪迴親本,導入高每穗粒數基因(Gn1a)及千粒重基因(GS3),分別衍生F1種子及BC1F1種子,作為早熟水稻優質生產節水栽培體系之生物材料。109年度預期可解明臺灣環境下,一、二期作水稻生育日數變化與抽穗期基因間之對應關係,為未來水稻不同抽穗期育種提供重要依據,並助益於具氣候韌性之早熟水稻優質生產節水栽培體系的建置。為提升國內小麥栽培產能與減緩氣候變遷對小麥生產造成之影響,本計畫亦將針對不同栽培環境與不同耕作模式,藉由調整播種期程,導入小麥至不同輪作模式中,建立不同栽培模式之小麥節水韌性生產技術,並將之推廣予小麥栽培農戶,預期可較現行栽培節省水資源10%以上,達到韌性農業生產目標,以永續小麥栽培。  建構因應水資源缺乏之茶樹栽培管理模式  茶樹是山茶科山茶屬的多年生經濟作物,這種常綠灌木可以在多種氣候環境下生長,經濟栽培地主要在亞熱帶及熱帶,年雨量少於1500公釐的地區多不適栽茶乾旱會嚴重的影響茶菁的品質及產量,近年氣候變遷迅速,為因應劇烈的變化,維持茶樹生長及生產品質,擬分年度進行因應水資源缺乏的茶園田間管理方式,(1)茶樹乾旱時期之栽培管理模式建立(土壤覆蓋資材)。(2)茶樹抗逆境之輔助資材篩選(葉面噴施巨量、微量元素及蒸散抑制劑)。建立茶樹抗逆境田間栽培管理模式,未來提供各茶區發生旱害時之田間處理依據,期能減少茶樹因旱害的產量及樹勢損失。  建立耐旱馬鈴薯及颱風雨害災後短期葉菜之生產調適管理技術  針對缺水之氣候變遷所造成的影響,建立馬鈴薯耐旱生產模式與低度水需求之耐旱韌性指標與缺水環境模擬設備,建構網室水源供應測量系統,針對作物外觀生育特性、特定成分累積、環境(積溫、日照量)進行指標建構,建立耐旱試驗系統設置與評估方法,提供因應乾旱環境栽培管理方針與模式。篩選低水量需求之抗旱型馬鈴薯品系,對現有已育成高世代品系或營養系馬鈴薯,以用水需求減少10%以上,進行篩選與評估,並建立篩選模式與指標,以提高品種(系)篩選效率,選出具早熟、低水量需求且符合市場需求之產量與品質表現等產出為目標。 應用農業新科技,研發蔬菜穴盤苗自動化高密度定植作業機組系統,完成多軸機械手臂機構設計,開發穴盤苗供苗、取苗系統,機組載台與供電等系統,整合建置穴盤苗高密度定植作業系統與系統雛型機。提升上遊種苗生產銜接下游定植栽培之效率,有效縮短災後復耕時程,降低人力成本支出10~15%,解決現行蔬菜栽培缺乏定植人力不足問題。提升短期葉菜類生產品質,提高穴盤苗移植良率10%。達到及時復耕需求,提高蔬菜產業對災變天候復耕之應變效率,做出最適化因應調適,增強短期葉菜類生產供應韌度。Development of Screening Platform and Cultivation Techniques for Temperature Stress in Rice In response to climate change and the impact of temperature stress on rice yield loss and rice quality deterioration, this project will establish stable screening platform and efficient standard screening technology for high temperature stress and low temperature stress in rice. Screening techniques of thermal sensing image analysis, pollen viability detection, rice quality analysis of heat tolerance will be also established along with a platform to evaluate rice resilience under high temperature and low temperature stress. It is expected that the results of this study would provide further utilization of research and on rice variety improvement. In addition, methods of rice cultivation and management techniques will be conducted to reduce the yield loss and quality deterioration caused by temperature stress. For example,  night irrigation, and application of fertilizer will be tested during heat or chilling stress period in this study. Furthermore, rice lines with heat or chilling tolerance will be developed to stabilize rice yield for sustainable rice production. Adaptation of tropical fruit trees (water deficit ,continuous rain, high temperature, low temperature) and construction of screening platform In order to improve the water use efficiency during guava cultivation and reduce the negative effects caused by drought, it is proposed to improve the low-pressure micro-sprinkler irrigation system and combined with the Intelligent automatic control system to achieve the goals of water saving, stable production and labor saving. The fruit of Atemoya is easy to split in the summer, but Sugar apple in summer or winter is few cases of pre-harvest or post-harvest spliting. The phylogenetics of Sugar apple and Atemoya is similar, and they can be hybridized, then the characteristic that is not easy to split of the fruit introduce into the Atemoya. This project focuses on the selection of fruit with low fruit split rate in the summer. Numbers of seedlings will be grafted and planted, that will be accelerated the evaluation of the characteristics of the fruit in the summer. The purpose is to screen out the lines that are not easy to split in the summer. In this study, we established a mango stress resistance index to screen varieties with low temperature resistance as breeding and rootstock materials. On the other hand, we explored plant growth regulators, fertilizer management techniques, rootstocks, root zone water management techniques, etc. To screen mango rootstocks with low temperature tolerance and establish mango stress physiological regulation techniques and application methods to stabilize mango production, improve fruit quality and farm income, and reduce major losses caused by adversity. In order to set up simple and automatic net house system during chilling period in wax apple orchard. Therefore evaluated new varieties wax apple (cv. Tainung No.3 Suagar Barbie) of winter fruit was evaluated for future industry using. Establishment of cultivation management model for fruit crop in response to adversity (climate warming, typhoon, water damage, and winter warming )         The plan aims to address key problems caused by climatic warming of citrus fruit trees due to climate change (such as reduced fruit yield and quality due to abnormal flowering and fruiting). Dynamic and sophisticated fertilizer management techniques and pest management techniques will be used with climate change and growth periods improve the quality and quality of citrus fruit trees under the high temperature or water stress to produce safe and high quality citrus fruit. Avocado species are suitable for cultivation in place to reduce the risk of reduced yield or plant death due to extreme weather such as heavy rainfall and poor drainage. Establish a dense planting dwarf cultivation management system use pruning technology to control the growth of shoot tips and increase light penetration, and cooperate with chemical fertilizer management to achieve strong plants and reduce losses caused by wind damage. The rainy season and summer heavy rainfall are likely to cause banana plantations flooding, poor drainage, etc., resulting in banana plants damaged, affecting fruit quality and yield. The need to establish banana cultivation management model in response to water stress damage of climate change and to enhance plant survival reduces disaster loss. Winter warming will cause persimmon reduced flowering, flowering delay, reduced fruit yield and quality . Development of adaptive cultivation techniques for sweet persimmon in response to winter warming to slow down the impact on the low yield  and maintain the profit of sweet persimmon industry.   Multiple environmental stress screening facility platform Global climate change is a very complex issue which in turn would exert profound influences on crop production. In response to climate change may require a simulate meteorological environment site. Faced with rapidly changing in climates, it will often aggravate the serious occurrence of crop pests and diseases resulting in the increasing loss of agriculture. In order to understand the relationship between rapid climate change and the occurrence of crop pests and diseases, this project will establish a screening platform that can control the environmental factors. And then it will be used to study the impact on crop pests and diseases in the climate change environment. Further appropriate countermeasures are proposed to ensure the safety of agricultural production. Resilient food production to cope with climate change Breeding of Drought- and Heat- Tolerant Sorghum with Early Maturity for Cultivation in Suitable Seasons and Areas Encountering Climate Change Sorghum, one of the major 5 cereal crops in the world, is known for its heat and drought tolerance and adaptation to diverse environments. The irrigation water for sorghum is about 1/5 for maize and 1/10 for rice. The promotion of sorghum can mitigate food shortage and insufficient water caused by prone climate change, specific in temperature increasing to threshold of 1.5°C and 10% reduction of water for agriculture. Thus, selecting and breeding new sorghum lines of short-growth period and high-yield can improve land utilization and crop rotation with drought-tolerant rice, DT3 line, leading to preserve soil fertility. We will adopt a next-generation sequence technology to obtain high throughput SNP genotypes by genotype-by-sequencing (GBS). The SNPs will be applied to QTL-seq to map QTLs conferring maturity, and those SNPs closely linked to early maturity will applied to marker-assisted selection to breed new sorghum lines of high yield and waxy endosperm. The platform of sorghum marker-assisted backcross breeding will increase 30% of selection efficiency more than traditional phenotypic selection. V9, the donor parent contributing early maturity and waxy endosperm, will be crossed to BTx623, the recurrent parent which is the elite variety introduced from Texas, USA. We expect to obtain BC<SUB>3</SUB>F<SUB>2 </SUB>individuals possessing waxy endosperm and early maturity in the second year and stable BC<SUB>3</SUB>F<SUB>5</SUB> lines in the third year. In the forth year, the stable sorghum lines will be tested in several areas to field experiments and evaluated for registering new sorghum varieties, which 2-3 new sorghum lines will be expected . The rice DT3 will be used for establishing crop rotation system. In the first two years, three different levels of water-saving cultivation practice will be applied to DT3 and sorghum R line with waxy endosperm. In the third year, the system will be implemented as cultivating rice at the first crop season and sorghum at the second season for 0.13 hectare at the Xikuo Farm, Chiayi Agricultural Experimental Branch. In the fourth year, crop rotation practice of DT3 with new waxy sorghum lines with early mature will be extended to Tainan, Chiayi, and Yulin areas with irrigation deficiency.      The achievements of this project are expected: 3 master students, 3 scientific articles including 1 SCI paper, 1 sorghum cultivation practice protocol for sorghum industry, and 1 rotation practice protocol of rice-sorghum as well. It is anticipated that promotion of crop rotation of DT3 with the new sorghum lines of heat tolerance, drought tolerance, early maturity and waxy will reduce10~30% of irrigation water and increase cultivation areas up to 2 hectares, leading to increase sorghum cultivation areas and production and alternation of imported sorghum.    Establishment of Rice Water-saving Irrigated Cultivation and Pumpkin Rootstock's Low Temperature Tolerance Index  The research aimed on adaptation the resilient of food production under deducting 10% of the agriculture available water and the loss of climate risks. Here, we plan to establish water-saving cultivation of rice, and cold-resistance of pumpkin rootstock. Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. Under the 10-15% reduction of the irrigation, we plan to study the potential of the rice yield and reducing of methane emission. Pumpkin as the grafted rootstock mainly used for the cultivation of the cucurbit. Study the physiological index of low temperature resistance for screening the pumpkin rootstock lines. The production of tolerant low temperature of pumpkin rootstock can promote cucurbit plant restoration after stress, stabilize cucurbit seedling production and plant growing. The advantage will increase farmer income, stable food production and the energy of tolerant stress.  Resilient food production to cope with climate change  The collaborative project is operating the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change with aim to evaluate the team performance, published result, and prediction of efficiency. It is also focused on evaluating the resilient agriculture research within the academy and industry and availability of applied technologies to assist with policy development in agricultural industry.  1. Collected and organized the relevant industry information toward resilience of agricultural production system at home and abroad to provide corresponding government offices to construct frameworks and policies. 2. Build up an information exchange platform for the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change. 3. Collating and analyzing data of agriculture, meteorology and industry information to inform updated information to the project teams and improve the data utilization and communication efficiency. 4. Evaluated the impact of climate change on food production and industrial development. Organized one relevant conference or seminar to reinforce the relationships between government, industry and research institute and improved the efficiency of project execution. 5. Assisted with evaluating the scientific research results and set up the performance indicators for the project “the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change” to provide the suggestion to executive project team and coordinate the cooperation work and information services between government offices. 6. Assisted in organizing the activities such as work meeting, experiences shared session, workshop and review meeting of the project the study of resilience of agricultural production system to climate change “which are helpful to integrate and promote the project results to industry. 7. Provided one project manager and at least two station staffs for the assistance of project execution, including document work and temporary assignment. The research on the stable production and quality improvement technology of oncidium cut flowers in climate change Investigate the effects of seedling sources on plant growth potential, yield, and flowering quality, and record environmental factors such as light, temperature, and humidity to establish basic management practices. Through environmental monitoring and growth investigation to determine suitable facilities and demonstration sites in each production area. Cooperate with the growers to set up demonstration sites, and the partners will provide amount and quality data of cut flowers. Forecast the growth of Oncidium, estimate the harvest amount of cut flowers and use handheld hyperspectral equipment to predict the quality, integrate the production environment information for analysis, and provide a reference for packing yards and traders to adjust the distribution. The effects of supplemental light and chemical tests on the period of cut flowers were analyzed. Improve the post-harvest processing equipment and the post-harvest processing process in the rainy season, reduce the decay and mold during the post-harvest treatment, storage and transportation to stabilize the quality of oncidium cut flowers. To establish the optimal cultivation practices for different seedlings, and to stabilize the supply of cut flowers throughout the year, and improve the competitiveness of Taiwan ’s Oncidium cut flowers for export. The practices of regulation of the production period can adjust the major production period of the cut flower from two peak periods in May, Jun and in Sep, Oct, to Dec. to next year Apr. Increase farmers' income by 10%. Decrease the decay rate of cut flowers by 15% during post-harvest treatment, storage and transportation, and stabilize the quality of Oncidium cut flowers. Study on Diverse Agricultural Production Systems and to Increase the Resilience of Agricultural Products Due to disasters that Taiwan's important economic crops supply are unstable. The purpose of this study was to conduct a crop cultivation system survey to explore a suitable production model for climate change. The study to investigate the cropping system and production mode of the economic crops in each improved field. Crops those are affected by high temperature during bloom and fruit set, to develop spray system or by grass cultivation system to reduce temperature and increase humidity to reduce the effect of high temperature on the fruit set, and on the other hand, to save water use. To explore the reasons for the occurrence of the fruit drop of the pineapple, and to develop the technology to reduce the loss of fruit loss caused by the typhoon disaster, in order to achieve the benefits of increasing the supply toughness of various agricultural products. To develop comprehensive mitigation techniques such as chilling damage and water damage of edamame, and establish disaster reduction professional area by 100 hectares. The adaptive production for improving water use efficiency of rice and wheat crops Heading date is an important agronomic traits in rice. Early maturity rice variety have shorter heading date and shorter growing period, increase the yield of early maturity rice can improve water use efficiency. Many heading date related genes have been identified, including HD1, EHD1, HD6, DTH8 and RFT1, how did this gene effect the heading date under Taiwan’s climate is still unclear. In this study, 100 accessions collected from different geographical origins in Asia will be investigated in two crop seasons under natural field. High grain number gene(Gn1a) and grain size gene(GS3) will be introduce to NKY1041071 line, an early maturity line, to improve water use efficiency. In order to increase the cultivation of wheat in Taiwan, and mitigate the impact of climate change on wheat production. This project will establish water saving technologies under different rotation cropping system by regulating sowing date of wheat for the different cultivation environment and cropping system. By promoting this cropping system to farmer, It is expected to save more than 10% of water resources compared to current cultivation and achieve the goal of resilient agricultural production and sustainably cultivate of wheat. Constructing tea cultivation and management techniques in response to lack of water resources Tea tree is a perennial economic crop of the Camellia genus Camellia. This evergreen shrub can grow in a variety of climates. The economically cultivated land is mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions. The area with annual rainfall less than 1500 mm is not suitable for planting tea. The drought will be severe. Affects the quality and yield of tea cyanide. In recent years, the climate has changed rapidly. In order to maintain the growth and production quality of tea trees in response to drastic changes, it is planned to conduct a tea garden field management method in response to the lack of water resources. Establishment (soil cover materials). (2) Screening of adversity-resistant materials for tea trees (foliar spraying of huge amounts, trace elements, and evapotranspiration inhibitors). Establish a tea tree stress-resistant field cultivation management model, and provide a field treatment basis in the event of drought in each tea area in the future, in order to reduce tea tree yield and tree loss due to drought.     Establishment of resilience cultivation practices by increase drought-tolerant of potato and ensure the production of leafy vegetables after typhoon destructed and rain disaster In view of the impact of water shortage due to climate change, the drought tolerance production model and low water demand drought tolerance index and water shortage environment simulation equipment will established in the facility. And water supply measurement system will constructed, index construction depending by the crop growth characteristics and specific components, cumulative, environmental (accumulated temperature, sunshine quantity). Establishment of potato drought tolerance test system and assessment methods which will provide cultivation method to face to drought environment.Application of new agricultural technology, research and development of high-density transplanting system and prototype machine for leafy vegetable seedlings, could improve the efficiency of vegetable seedling production, transplanting and cultivation. Effectively shorten the time of recultivation after typhoon destructed and rain disaster, and reduce labor costs by 10-15% to solve the lack of labor for vegetable transplanting in vegetable cultivation.
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