桶柑採收成熟度及貯藏能力之研究

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論文名稱: 桶柑採收成熟度及貯藏能力之研究
研究生姓名: 王紹嬣
指導教授姓名: 郭純德
出版年: 2008
學校名稱: 國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系碩士班
關鍵字: 桶柑;採收成熟度;果實品質;貯藏能力;Citrus tankan Hayata;harvest maturity;fruit quality;storability
摘要: 本論文研究目的在調查桶柑最適採收成熟度及增加貯藏能力,並探討桶柑延遲採收之可能性,及採收前不同處理方法及採收後處理技術對桶柑品質及貯藏能力之影響,提高果實外觀和果實貯藏品質,創造更高產值。 果實在不同採收日期,隨著採收成熟度增加,果皮L值由高變低,果皮明亮度由亮變暗。延遲採收,果皮a值由低變高,果皮顏色由綠轉紅。而採收成熟度增加,果皮b值由高變低,果皮顏色由黃變橘黃。過晚採收者,果皮厚度會增加,可溶性固形物含量和糖酸比會增加,可滴定酸則由高變低。 採收後的果實,經由噴施3%氯化鈣和浸泡53℃3分鐘的溫湯處理後,貯藏5℃和15℃下,以15℃腐爛率最嚴重,經12週,溫湯和氯化鈣處理的果實全部腐爛。而5℃者,經12週其腐爛率以溫湯處理最低,氯化鈣次之,未處理的果實再次之。貯藏15℃者,各處理間失重率、果皮顏色、果肉硬度、果汁率無明顯差異。但經過5和15℃貯藏的果實,可溶性固形物含量會隨著貯藏時間增加而升高,可滴定酸則是降低的,糖酸比隨貯藏時間而增加,各處理都有相同的情形。 採前田間噴施1.5及3%氯化鈣,果皮顏色較明亮。噴施1.5%氯化鈣,其果汁率較高。採前田間噴施氯化鈣處理,並不會影響果實的大小、果皮厚度、可溶性固形物含量、可滴定酸和糖酸比。不論於何時進行採前田間套袋,其果皮外觀L、a、b值比裸果還要高,表示有套袋的果實顏色較明亮偏紅黃色。早期套袋可提高果實鮮重,而晚期套袋不但不增加甚至減少。各紙袋間其果汁率介於45.6∼50.5%,差明顯差異。套袋處理之果皮厚度較對照組厚,有明顯差異。套袋會減低桶柑之可溶固形物含量,愈早套袋則酸度越低,而使糖酸比愈高。The goal of this experiment is to investigate the most suitable harvest maturity, increase storability and discuss the possibility of delaying harvest and the influence of different pre- and post -harvest processing method to the tankan quality and storability. Increase fruit appearance and fruit storage quality to create higher output value. The fruit of different harvest date, with the harvest maturity increase, the peel L value lower, the peel getting darker. The peel color a value rise, peel color from green to red with the harvest date delay. With the harvest maturity increase, the peel b value decrease, peel color from yellow to orange. The excessively late harvest one can increase the fruit peel thickness; the TSS and TSS/TA can increase, but titrate acid getting lower. Fruit after harvest which spray by 3% calcium chloride and dips in 53 ℃ hot water for 3 minutes, then separate stores it at 5 ℃ and 15 ℃, the 15 ℃ group have highest decay rates. 12 weeks later, both heat treatment and calcium chloride processing group are completely rotten. But after 12 weeks, 5 ℃ group’s heat treatment have lowest decay rate, the calcium chloride is next, untreated fruit have highest decay rate. There’s no difference in weight loss rate, the peel color, fruit pulp degree of hardness and the fruit juice percentage when stores in 15 ℃ no matter what treatment have been done. But fruit of every treatment after storage in 5 and 15 ℃, the TSS and TSS/TA are both getting higher with the time pass, but the TA is going opposite way. Compare 1.5 and 3% pre-harvest calcium chloride treatment,1.5% treatment group has brightest peel color and highest fruit juice percentage. All three treatment have no affect in fruit size, peel thickness, the TSS, TA, and TSS/TA. No matter when doing the pre-harvest bagging, always have higher peel color L, a and b value then unbagging fruit. It means bagging fruit are brighter and more orange. Early bagging can raise fresh weight, but late bagging shows otherwise. The juice percentage between different bags are between 45.6-50.5%, no specific difference between them. The peel thickness is higher after bagging compare to control group, there’s obvious differences. Generally bagging will lower the TSS of the fruit, the earlier the TA lower, and earlier the TSS/TA higher.
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