栽培管理及採收後處理對桑果實品質之影響

字體大小:A- A A+

單位商業會員附件下載:
論文名稱: 栽培管理及採收後處理對桑果實品質之影響
研究生姓名: 張雅玲
指導教授姓名: 謝慶昌
出版年: 2012
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 修剪;整枝;繁殖;預冷;包裝;Pruning;Training;Propagation;Precooling;Packaging
摘要: 本研究針對桑(Morus spp.)營養生長期及果實採收後進行不同處理,藉以了解對於桑生長及果實品質特性的影響。營養生長期以修剪、整枝、嫁接及施肥等栽培管理方式處理,果實採收後進行產地、採收期、果實成熟度、預冷及包裝等處理,討論對於果實外觀品質如果實長度、寬度、重量、硬度及色澤,果實內部品質如可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、總酚及總花青素含量的影響。 桑枝條於7月進行修剪者,可產生最長的枝條長度、最多的節間數及最佳的果實外觀,10月修剪者則有最佳的果實內部品質。水平棚架整枝所產生的果實,有較低的可溶性固形物(7.7oBrix),對於其他品質的影響並不顯著。長果桑(Morus leavigata)嫁接於圓果桑(Morus atropurpurea)具有提升品質的效果。嫁接處理組的果實長度及果實重量顯著高於高壓苗(9.1 mm及8.4 mm、4.3 g及3.3 g),兩種處理組的果實可溶性固形物及花青素含量無顯著差異,嫁接處理組的酸度(0.48%)及硬度(2.1N)較高壓苗低(分別為0.56%及2.4N)。三種不同肥料處理,一次有機肥料,加一次有機肥料或化學肥料會影響果實外觀,但對於果實內部品質的影響則較小。 嘉義地區果實成熟期較早。苗栗及嘉義地區果實品質差異主要為內部品質,外觀特性則在於果實寬度、果柄長度及果皮色澤。在果實採收期中,早期採收的果實具有較大的外觀,而內部品質則和採收時的外在條件有較大關聯性。 不同成熟度果實中,完熟果實具有最佳的果實外觀及品質特性,但由於桑椹耐貯藏性不佳,果實採收後快速腐壞,限制果實販售時間及利用性,因此改採收硬度較高的近完熟果,可增加果實的貯藏能力。果實可溶性固形物及花青素含量於下午達到最高,品質佳,但果實在高溫下採收,呼吸率上升,因此桑椹採收後,須儘速進行預冷及貯藏。桑果實採收後以碎冰進行預冷,可維持果實品質及果皮色澤,有效減少果實重量的損失。由於桑表皮脆弱易腐,處理後的果實表皮水分需稍待蒸散後再進行貯藏,避免果皮高水分含量造成腐爛。果實在透氣高之包裝材料中,具有高可溶性固形物、低硬度及腐爛率的優點,但也具有高失重率及高可滴定酸,因此桑貯藏時應避免緊閉的包裝方式,適度維持透氣性有助於果實提高品質,並降低果實腐爛的發生率。The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cultivation practices and postharvest treatment on the growth and quality of mulberry (Morus spp.) fruit. Therefore, several aspects of postharvest mulberry quality will be discussed, including training, pruning, grafting, fertilization with cultivation practices, locations of production, timing and maturity of harvest as well as the methods of precooling and packaging. In pruning experiments, mulberry were heavily pruned during the period between June and November. Result showed that the treatment of heavy pruning in July increased growth and internode number superiorly. In addition, plants pruned in October had the best internal fruit quality. Plants which were horizontal trained after pruning had lower total soluble solids (7.7 oBrix) but other qualities (such as acidity and total phenol) were not significantly different. Morus leavigata grafted on Morus atropurpurea rootstock improved the fruit quality. Specifically, the grafted plants had higher length fruit (9.1 mm), and weight (4.3 g) than the air-laying plants. The total soluble solids and total anthocyanin of fruit were not affected by the grafting; however, the titratable acidity (0.48%) and firmness (2.1N) of grafted plants was lower than air-laying plants. Three fertilizer treatments were conducted in the growing period:A. organic fertilizer once, B. organic fertilizer twice, C. organic fertilizer once, then chemical fertilizer. The results indicated that the application of B and C fertilizer treatments had fruits with better appearance of quality than that of A. As to the fruit quality differences, the fruit characteristics in southern producing areas are earlier harvest. In the timing of harvest experiment, fruit was harvest from trees at three different times (early, middle, and late harvest). The largest sizes fruit was picked from the early harvest period. Fully ripened fruit the best appearance and quality. Nevertheless, due to the poor storage capacity of mulberry, it rapidly spoils after harvest, reducing fruit selling and utilization time. Accordingly, harvesting nearly matured fruit, instead of fully matured ones, can perhaps enhance the storage capacity of the fruit. The fruit, harvested in the afternoon, has higher total soluble solids and total anthocyanin than that harvested in the morning. However, harvesting at high temperatures also leads to increased respiration rate. As a result, rapid precooling and correct packaging is crucial to maintain fruit quality after harvest. Utilizing packing materials with high breathability has numerous advantages, such as high soluble solids, advanced hardness, lower decay rate as well as high degree of weight loss and acidity. Thus, mulberry should not be packaging in air tight materials during storage thereby improving fruit quality and reducing the incidence of fruit rot.
資源連結: 前往查看