果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發(第4年/全程4年)

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發(第4年/全程4年)
計畫主持人: 李堂察
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 101農科-9.2.2-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會農糧署
計畫執行機構: 嘉義大學
全程計畫年: 2012
關鍵字: 紅龍果;Pitaya Fruit;採後處理技術;Postharvest Handling and Technology;果皮褪綠;Peel Degreening;溫湯處理;Hot Water Immersion;椪柑;'Ponkan' Mandarin;柳橙;'Liucheng' Orange;新引進品種;Newly Introduced Varietiy;果實生長發育;Fruit Growth and Development;果實品質;Fruit Quality;催色;Degreening;益收;Ethrel;2;4地;2,4-D;貯藏;Storage;窯洞貯藏;Cave Storage;留果量;Fruit Loading;梨花穗;Pear Scion;低需冷性梨;Low Chilling Requirement Pear;採收成熟度;Harvest Maturity;果實儲藏;Fruit Storage;鈣;Calcium;貯藏力;Storability;番石榴;Guava;耐寒性;Chilling Tolerance;耐熱性;Heat Tolerance;葉綠素螢光;Chlorophyll Fluorescence;電導度;Electron Leakage;礦物營養;Mineral Nutrition;改變大氣組成;Atmosphere Modification;寒害;Chilling Injury;基因型;Genotype;季節;Season;抗氧化力;Antioxidant Capacity;柿;Persimmon;低溫貯藏;Low Temperature Storage;品質;Quality;全球暖化;Global Warming;逆境;Stress;忍受性;Tolerance;螢光反應;Chlorophyll Fluorescence;離子滲漏;Ion Leakaging;果樹;Fruit Tree;氣候變遷;Climate Change;芒果果園;Mango Ochards;網室栽培;Nethouse Culture;番荔枝;Sugar Apple;鳳梨;Pineapple;套袋;Bagging;裂果;Fruit Cleavag;日燒;Sun Burn;低溫害;Cold Damage;防護;Mitigation;無子葡萄;Seedless Grapes;胚培養;Embryo Culture;誘變;Induced Mutation;荔枝;Litchi;疏花序;Inflorescence Thinning;疏花;Flower Thining;著果;Fruit Set;保鮮;Fresh-keeping;貯運;Storage and Transportation;激勃素;GA3;花序形成;Inflorescence Formation;採前處理;Preharvest Treatment;採後處理;Postharvest Treatment;印度棗;Indian Jujube;採後生理;Postharvest Physiology;熱帶果樹資源開發;Exploitation of Tropical Fruit Trees;熱帶果樹栽培管理;Management of Tropical Fruit Crops;巴西櫻桃;Brazil Cherry;蓮霧;Waxapple;裂果;Fruit Crack;香蕉;Musa Banana;生長與發育;Growth and Development;產能;Yield Potential;水分逆境;Water Stress;組織培養;Tissue Culture;試管篩選;in vitro Selection;黃葉病;Fusarium Wilt;保鮮;Preservation;後熟加工;Postharvest Ripening;1甲基環丙烯;1-MCP;澱粉;Starch
摘要: 本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出13個計畫。這些計畫如下: (一)、外銷紅龍果採後生理與處理技術之研究 白肉種紅龍果(Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose)於花後28天噴施GA3(gibberellin A3)10 μg/L+NAA(naphthalene-1-acetic acid)15 μg/L改善蒸熱檢疫苞片失水萎凋處理所引發的果皮褪綠不良問題,本試驗擬提前噴施處理時間於花後21-28天間及延後採收,兩個改善方法以減輕藥劑施用所造成的轉色障礙,並評估後者發展為疏散紅龍果每一批果實產期集中的調節技術之可行性。此外,延續本計畫去年度證實溫湯處理可延緩紅龍果採後病害發展之結果,本年度將比較白肉種紅龍果貯前溫湯處理之水溫與浸泡時間,探討溫湯處理最適條件,以延長紅龍果內、外銷供果期,採後損耗率,以做為該產品長期儲藏之參考。 (二)、柑桔果實發育及改良採後處理與貯藏技術之研究 本研究包括兩部份。其一為研究新引進柑橘品種之果實發育、品質與貯藏。其二為研發實用而低成本的處理與貯藏方法以增進台灣主要品種柑桔之品質並延長其供銷期間。第二部分本年度進行四項試驗。1. 追蹤使用不同濃度2,4-D保鮮後在貯藏期間之殘留量變化。2. 比較以「益收」(Ethrel) 催色與乙烯催色椪柑之效果及實用性評估。3. 測定椪柑與柳橙樹冠內外採收之果實耐貯藏性及貯藏障礙差異。4. 南部生產之柳橙運往比較冷涼之北部,貯藏在普通通風貯藏庫、窯洞貯藏庫及冷藏庫比較其效果,並評估前者可替代後者之程度。普通貯藏及窯洞貯藏成本低而有節能減碳之特性;研究其實用化是主要目標。 (三)、梨生產改進-著果量對梨穗品質之影響及梨儲藏性改進 本計畫分為以下三部分: 1.著果量對梨穗品質之影響 本計畫在梨山地區,透過雪梨與其他品種梨果之留果量與梨樹腋花芽發育之關係,建立生產高品質梨花穗生產時,合理之晚生梨留果量指標,同時瞭解臺灣高海拔梨樹適宜之採穗時間。 2.低需冷性梨採收成熟度及貯藏力之研究 以採收期、套袋與藥劑處理等適當之果園管理,來建立低需冷量梨適宜之儲藏模式。 3.梨樹果實儲藏性與鈣營養狀況關係之探討 為建立新品種台中二號梨果實不耐儲藏現象與土壤、葉片及肥培管理之關係。持續調查種植台中場新育成低需冷性梨之果園土壤養分、植株葉片與果實營養狀況,同時調查各果園施肥量與時期,並採收果實調查其儲藏性,利用2年之土壤及葉片養分分析資料及貯藏特性,進一步運用迴歸分析建立土壤養分、葉片與果實營養與果實耐儲性間之關係,以供作為今後改進生產之依據。提升新品種梨之推廣發展潛力。 (四)、提升番石榴週年品質、耐逆境指標、改變大氣組成貯運技術之建立及優質番石榴基因型選育 夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率以生產高品質番石榴果實。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化,建立高品質果園最適營養元素含量範圍以及尋求與果實品質下降低之關鑑原因。為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。 番石榴( Psidium guajava L.)屬寒害敏感型熱帶水果,利用低溫貯運技術來維持品質與抑制病害受到大幅限制,無法長程運輸;且低溫檢疫處理後往往誘導寒害發生,嚴重阻礙行銷國際市場。本計畫探討改變大氣成份應用於番石榴採後保鮮的技術。擬進行測試不同氧氣與二氧化碳濃度對0℃貯運14天番石榴品質的影響,以尋求適合番石榴貯運的大氣成份,作為氣變包裝技術選擇包材的參考。並且初步以低密度聚乙烯與聚乙烯塑膠袋進行氣變包裝,充填氧氣3、5、7%與二氧化碳2.5、5%完全排列組合之 6種大氣成份,對低溫貯運番石榴品質的影響。計畫結果將有助於外銷番石榴低溫長期貯運與低溫檢疫處理問題的解決。 本計畫的主要目的在於瞭解番石榴基因型間果實品質及抗氧化活力的變異。先前所培育的雜交、自交與開放授粉實生後代及F2族群將用以進行性狀評估,然後再將優良品系加以繁殖。此外,不同發育階段的果實也將進行抗氧化活性、亞硝酸鹽清除力等的分析以探討果實採收成熟度對這些特性的影響。有鑑於全球暖化對果樹生產可能造成的影響,本計畫對於不同季節間各基因型果實品質及抗氧化活力的變化也將進行調查。 (五)、柿豐產優質及採收後處理技術之研究 甜柿是台灣地區高經濟的果樹之一,單位面積收益頗高,但仍有樹勢因嫁接不親和而提早老化、肥培管理沒有依據準則、疏果標準未確立、生理障礙嚴重及不耐貯運等問題,本計劃擬自篩選適合砧木品種、建立葉片營養標準及結果密度、降低裂萼發生之道及改善處理作業,冀以獲豐產、優質及貯運力佳等經營流程。台灣地區柿餅加工主要分布於苗栗、新竹及嘉義縣等地,而苗栗、新竹地區柿餅加工貨源主要為嘉義縣供給,在不同地區之加工技術雖有部份之差異性,但在柿餅的品質差異化並不明顯。本計畫進行相關之柿餅種原收集,並用嫁接方法篩選及季節成活率之評估,以品種開發柿餅之可行性,對提高柿農柿餅品質之改善為最終目標。並進行柿餅加工技術之改進。 (六)、因應氣候變遷果樹品種改良及栽培技術改進 一般而言,人們欲改變氣候變遷對作物生長的影響,可以改變環境或改變植物對環境的反應,但前者所需成本極高。另外,園藝作物中蔬菜和花卉大都屬短期作物,針對氣候變遷,以改變栽植時期及栽培地區或利用簡易設施即可因應。但果樹為長期作物,自栽植至結果約需5-10年,經濟年限可達30年,所以氣候變遷對果樹產業的影響較嚴重,需提早研發因應對策。氣候變遷及暖化已有報告指出對果樹的影響有栽培地的轉移、果實品質不良(如著色不良、果實肥大、貯藏性下降、不正常後熟等)、休眠不足、開花異常、病蟲害情況改變等,其它如根群發育、果皮障礙等亦易發生。所以短期而言,會因栽培成本的增加及品質的下降,而影響農家收入及水果供應量,長期而言若無妥適的對策,將使整體果樹產業萎縮,進而使食物供應發生不足。而最有可能解決的對策即透過品種以忍受各種逆境。 (七)、無子葡萄選育技術開發 本計畫101年度主要目標包括: 1.三倍體葡萄新品系組培苗繁殖及植株性狀初步調查。 2.改進二倍體貝利A與四倍體巨峰葡萄雜交後代之胚培養條件。 3.改進巨峰葡萄無子變異株之雜交授粉及胚培養條件。 4.尋找秋水仙素誘變二倍體葡萄品種之適當處理條件。 (八)、荔枝開花、結實之調控與採收後保鮮之研究 1. 疏花序對糯米糍(73-S-20)荔枝著果與果實品質之影響 疏花序已被用於改善'玉荷包'荔枝之著果,但其效益不一、機制未明且所費不貲。近年該技術亦被用於中部之'73-S-20'果園,然其成效需科學性之評估。為探討疏花序能否影響該品系之果實生產及釐清其可能原因,本試驗擬連續兩年(民國101年至102年)於彰化縣芬園鄉簡氏之11至12年生果園(行株距5m×5m)選擇供試植株的部份開花枝條為樣品。仿果農之作業方式,在第一波小花綻放前將花序修剪至僅留2-3主枝,調查對著果、葉果比、結實期萌梢率及果實性狀之影響。預期試驗成果可為荔枝結實生理及田間栽培管理之參考,並據以賡續發展保果策略。 2. 荔枝採收後保鮮之研究 荔枝為台灣重要的經濟果樹之一,2009年荔枝外銷總量雖僅1,339公噸,但對於穩定國內市場價格及增加農民收益,貢獻甚大。荔枝採收後之褐變及腐敗為採後處理之主要問題,亦是影響消費者購買之主要因素,此一問題不解決,對於外銷之拓展為一大瓶頸。本研究乃針對荔枝果實保鮮、褐變及果實腐敗之問題及貯運技術進行研究。根據民國99年荔枝採後果皮褐變控制及保鮮技術改進研究計畫結果顯示,荔枝果實採後預冷、使用Chitosan和Na2S2O5等化學藥劑配合酸化處理以及包裝等方式都可以有效延長荔枝果實的貯藏壽命。因此,本計劃延續上述之研究,更近一步確認各處理方式之效果,開發未來荔枝保鮮之新技術。 3. 花序誘導期間處理GA3對'玉荷包'荔枝生育之影響 '玉荷包'荔枝(Litchi chinensis Sonn.)生產過程中疏晚梢與疏花需耗費大量人力。本試驗欲探討不同時間處理GA3與人工疏花對'玉荷包'荔枝結果之影響,將'玉荷包'荔枝花序誘導過程,分成六個不同時間,每次對不同組植株葉面噴施100 mg/L GA3,對照組不以GA3處理,開花後對所有植株部份之條行人工修剪花序。試驗結果顯示,經處理GA3後無需人工疏花處理,即可提升'玉荷包'荔枝產量,特定時間處理GA3更可使結果數大於僅以人工修剪之一般生產方式。 (九)、鳳梨品質改進技術之研究 本計畫主要在於採收前與採收後技術,以提昇鳳梨品質。本年度有 2 個工作項目: 1. 研究套袋對提昇冬果鳳梨品質效果之研究。 2. 研發採後熱處理以提昇冬果鳳梨品質之方法。 (十)、印度棗採後保鮮及貯運技術之開發 印度棗為台灣南部地區重要的經濟果樹之一,自民國95年起農政單位已經印度棗正式列為外銷供果園輔導項目之一,並積極輔導拓展外銷市場。唯蔬果外銷最重要的工作就是要有良好的採後處理及貯運技術。本研究之主要目的為開發印度棗採後保鮮與貯運技術,提供優良之外銷果品。根據民國99年印度棗採後保鮮與貯運技術計畫之研究結果,本年度將針對不同的包裝方式、1-MCP對印度棗低溫耐受性影響和檢疫處理後之品質影響進一步分析研究。 (十一)、熱帶果樹資源之開發及利用 熱帶果樹為台灣園藝之特色,也是發展重點。近年來因地球暖化造成氣候異常,短期暴雨已成常態,使台灣果樹栽培經歷數度風雨災害。品種為農業最重要的關鍵,由以往經驗證明,品種的開發對產業有最重要的影響。台灣原生果樹種類有限,現有重要水果多為早年分別自中國、東南亞國家及中南美國家直接或間接引進,經多年及眾人的努力,對經濟民生均有重要貢獻。本研究期能經由熱帶果樹種類之開發及選育,配合果樹品種多元化之推行,增加果樹種類,降低栽培成本,減少環境污染及水果產品之農藥毒害,克服氣候異常對水果產業之損害。本計畫包括熱帶果樹之引進及選育,並以現有保存400多品種,加以選種及探討栽培管理技術,尤其以巴西櫻桃、黃皮、星蘋果、白柿、山荔枝及黃晶果為主要研究重點,進行引進果樹實生品系之選育,建立適當之栽培制度及繁殖方法,以提高農民收益。 (十二)、改善蓮霧品質及裂果栽培技術之研究 蓮霧為台灣重要經濟果樹,具有外銷潛力水果之一,但果實品質及裂果率因品種、季節、氣候及栽培管理等之影響而不同,近年來受氣候變遷之影響,不穩定氣候頻率增加,造成品質下降,裂果率增加,逐漸成為產業之問題,使面積逐漸減少,損害農民收益。 本研究經由調查品種、季節及栽培管理對蓮霧品質及裂果之影響,了解四主要栽培產區品種間、季節間及不同栽培管理間蓮霧品質及裂果之差異。以田間覆蓋及水分管理,藉由地表覆蓋減少外在水分的干擾,維持土壤水分環境的穩定性,配合3種控制給水的方式,以求降低裂果率,調查對果實品質之影響。並經由肥培管理,自蓮霧可見花苞後進行控制,減少氮肥施用(50%),提高磷、鉀肥施用量(50%),期望控制果實生育,提高果實對環境水分變化的耐受性,進而減少裂果,提升果實品質。 (十三)、抗耐水分逆境及香蕉黃葉病之台蕉品種選育、生育特性及外銷大陸香蕉保鮮、包裝和外銷集運青蕉黃化檢定技術之開發 1. 香蕉抗旱逆境及黃葉病品種改良快速篩選技術之建立 建立試管篩選程序(in vitro selection),大量繁殖白色球狀芽團為材料,篩選具抗水分逆境及抗黃葉病之體細胞變異株系。探討利用華蕉屬及芭蕉類品種之胚性癒合組織,大量繁殖供試管篩選後,直接育成小植株之效率,評估胚性癒合組織應用在抗水分逆境及黃葉病品種改良之效用。 2. 水分逆境對台蕉主要栽培品種生長及發育之影響 藉由台蕉主要栽培品種在湛水及乾旱逆境下之研究,可了解各品種生長潛能,進而作為品種還育及推廣策略之參考。建立台蕉主要栽培品種在水分逆境下之基本資料,對我國在國際上及時因應氣候變遷、制定台蕉產業合適之發展策略及研發能量上具有提昇國際形象的明顯助益。 3. 外銷中國大陸之台蕉保鮮及包裝技術開發 藉由本研究之執行開發台蕉保鮮技術,建構一套合適外銷中國大陸台蕉的包裝方式及有效提升台蕉年外銷數量,避免產銷失衡,增進蕉農收益。 4.外銷集運青蕉黃化檢定技術之開發 由於避免香蕉黃化測試技術的開發,農民將落實香蕉抽穗色帶管理,將能增加秋冬外銷數量2000頓。The objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competition power of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 13 projects of current year. There are: (1)、Studies on the Postharvest Physiology and Handling Technology in Export Pitaya Fruit Stay-green appearance of white-flesh pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose) is a side effect of GA3(gibberellin A3)10 μg/L+NAA(naphthalene-1-acetic acid)15 μg/L treatment for alleviating water loss and wilting of bract after vapor heat quarantine process. The current project proposes to reduce the defect by advancing spray treatment during 21-28 days after anthesis as well as by postponing harvest time. The possibility of harvest dispersion of each pitaya fruit batch by using the latter strategy will be also evaluated. In addition, the results of this project in 2011 have shown that postharvest pathological breakdown of white-flesh pitaya was suppressed and delayed via treatment of presotrage hot water immersion. The project will investigate the effects of different water temperatures and dipping durations of hot water immersion on the decay and establish the techniques of hot water immersion for pitaya fruit. The results of this research will be beneficial for establishment of optimum conditions for storage and transportation in pitaya fruits. (2)、Studies on the Fruit Development and Improved Postharvest Handling and Storage Technologies for Citrus Fruits This research project has two distinct parts. Part one studies the growth and development, quality and proper storage methods for the fruit of a newly introduced citrus variety. Part two targets at developing practical low-input technologies for handling and storage of major citrus fruits to improve the quality while extending the market period of the fruits. There are 4 experiments in part two. 1. Monitoring 2,4-D residues in ‘Ponkan’ mandarins and ‘Liucheng’ oranges after the chemical being applied at various concentrations and the fruits being stored for various periods. 2. Degreening ‘Ponkan’ with Ethrel in comparsion with ethylene. 3. Differences in the storability and storage disorders of ‘Ponkan’ and ‘Liucheng’ fruits harvested from inside vs. outside of tree canopies. 4. Storing southern grown ‘Liucheng’ in common ventilated storage, cave storage and cold storage located in the cooler northern area. The major goal is to test the practicality of low imput and low energy-demand common storage and cave storage for Taiwan citrus. (3)、Improvement of Pear Production - 1.Effect of Fruit Loading on Flower Bud Quality, 2. Storage Ability Improvement This project divided into three sub-title: 1.Effect of Fruit Loading on Flower Bud Quality: This project study the relationship between fruit loading and axillary flower bud quality, to establish the reasonable fruit loading of axillary flower bud production pear tree and the optimun axillary flower bud harvest season. 2.Storage ability improvement and harvest maturity of low chilling requirement pear: Establish the optimum storage model of low chilling requirement pear by appropriate orchard management, such as harvest season, bagging and chemical treatment. 3. Relationship between pear fruit storage and calcium Establish the relationship between low chilling pear fruit physiological disorder and nutrient condition: Investigate orchard soil available nutrients content, leaf and fruit nutrient condition, fruit storage ability, fertilization dosage and seasons, and analyze their relationship. The results can be utilized as the cultivation guide line of low chilling requirement pear. (4)、Studies on Improving Fruit Quality and Electing Indices for Stress and Atmosphere Modification Technology of postharvest and Breeding and Selection of Elite Genotypes with Quality Stability in Guava The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperature and high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques. The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods. In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. Guava ( Psidium guajava L.) is a chilling sensitve tropical fruit; therefore, the utilization of cold storage techique to maintain quality and suppress decay is highly limited. The fact that long term cold transportation and cold quarantine treatment usually render severe chilling injury impede exporting for international marketing. The project will investigate the effect of atmosphere modification technology on postharvest handling of guava fruit. Guava samples will be treated with different concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide at 0℃ for 14 days to observe the change of shelf life. Moreover, guava pack with DLPE and PE plastic bag and filled with oxygen 3, 5, 7% and carbon dioxide 2.5, 5% also evaluated for fruit quality change at 0℃ for 14 days. The results of this project will be beneficial for establishment of guava long-term cold transportation and cold quarantine technology, which are the bottle neck of guava fruit exporting process. The main purpose of the current project is to understand the variation among guava genotypes in terms of fruit quality and antioxidant activity assessment. Previously established F2 populations as well as the progeny produced by crossing, selfing, or open pollination will be employed in trait evaluation, and the elite lines selected will be propagated. Furthermore, fruits at different developmental stages will be used for analyses of antioxidant activity and nitrite scavenging ability. In view of the probable effect of global warming on fruit production, the changes in fruit quality and antioxidant capacity among genotypes in different seasons will also be evaluated in this project. (5)、Studies on high productivity and improvement of postharvest techniques of persimmon Sweet persimmon is the most important commercial fruit crop of Taiwan according to high return. The development potential for sweet persimmon in Taiwan is limited due to their incompatibility with rootstock, lacking in leaf nutrient standard, no information about crop load, serious physiological disorder, and high perishability. Our objective is to make appropriate selection from different lines for rootstock, to establish optimum leaf nutrient status and levels of crop loading, to decrease hysiological disorder in fruit by cultivation practices, and to improve postharvest handling technology. Furthermore, the management program for stable yield, high quality and storability is obtained. Taiwan's dried persimmon processing which is mainly distributed in Miaoli, Hsinchu and Chiayi region, but Chiayi has the best source of dried persimmon processing compare to Miaoli and Hsinchu , Although there is slight different in processing technology in different county, there is no obvious difference in the quality of the dried persimmon. The collection of the dried persimmon is currently and in progress, and the grafts. appraisal screening method, the seasonal survival rate, and the feasibility of the cultivars for development of dried persimmon, to enhance the quality of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon is our ultimate objective.improvement of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon quality as the ultimate objective. Additionally, we try to improve the processing thchniques for dry fruit. (6)、Breeding and improvement of production techniques of fruit tree for climate change and variablity Recently, the impact and influence of global warming on crop production has been received a great deal of attention. In general, change of growth environmental factors and increase of plant tolerance to stress are two efficient methods for reducing the effect from global warming. It is expensive to change the environment for fruit tree production. The large size and long growing duration of fruit trees have making them difficult to change plant area or to produce under the shelter. Many reports showed that fruit quality, chilling requirement, flowering, disease and pest are affected by global warming. In the all, global warming maybe make the production decrease and the cost increase, and the fruit industry will disappear in the future. In this study, we evaluate and screen methods for stress tolerance in fruit tree in Taiwan. (7)、Development of techniques for seedless grape breeding The major objectives of this project in the 101 fiscal year include: 1.Micro-propagation of new lines of triploid grapevines and evaluation of plant characteristics. 2.Improvement of embryo culture condition for crossing progeny between Muscat Bailey A (2X) and Kyoho (4X) grapevines. 3.Improvement of pollination and embryo culture condition for crossing progeny between the seedless mutant and Kyoho grapevine. 4.Searching for a suitable colchicine mutation induction treatment for diploid seedless grapevines. (8)、Manipulation of flowering, fruiting and postharvest handling techniques in litchi 1. Effects of inflorescence thinning on yield and fruit quality in '73-S-20' litchi Inflorescence thinning has been reported as a novel technique to remarkably improve fruit production in “Yu Her Pau” litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in Taiwan. However, the results were inconsistent, the mechanism is unclear and the labor cost is high. To investigate this effect on fruit production in 73-S-20 litchi, an elite branch of No Mai Tsz found by Yen et al (1984), selected inflorescences of 11 to 12 year old field trees grown in Changwa were hand thinned by removing most branches of each inflorescence right before the beginning of the first flowering wave in two consecutive years. Fruit retention, leaf to fruit ratio and emergence of new flush per cluster were calculated during fruit developing period. Fruit yield per cluster and their characteristics were examined at harvest. From the data we will obtain a source/sink relationship during fruit growth in litchi, and thus a potential orchard management strategy to reduce fruit drop and enhance yield can be developed as well. 2. Studies on post-havest handling of litchi in Taiwan Litchi is one of the important economic fruit in Taiwan. The amount of exported fruit in 2009 was 1,339 MT. The litchi exportation was stabilize domestic price and increase the revenues benefit. The browning and decay were main problems during litchi postharvest chain, therefore, the development of exported market was limited. The research focus on the problems during litchi postharvest and develop new postharvest techniques. Depend on the results of program (postharvest pericarp browning control and improvement of fresh-keeping techniques on Litchi fruits) in 2010, the procooling, different chemicals (chitosan and Na2S2O5) and package way were significantly prolong storage life of litchi. Therefore, the research is going to continue to following the research last year and confirm the results by these treatment. It expected to develop new postharvest techniques for litchi industry. 3. Effect of GA3 treatment on growth and development of ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi during flower induction Late vegetative flush and inflorescence thinning during the cultivation of ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn) is highly laborintensive. Applying GA3 at certain intervals has been proven effective in reducing flowering intensity in mango and avocado trees. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of GA3 application timing and hand inflorescence thinning on ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi fruiting. In this study, ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi trees were separated into seven separate groups. Six groups of trees received 100 mg/L GA3 foliar sprays at different times during inflorescence induction and one control group did not receive any application of GA3. Afterwards, all trees in the study were hand-thinned to selectively reduce the number of flowers on each inflorescence. The results of this study showed that ‘Yu Her Pau’ litchi trees receiving application of GA3 did not require hand inflorescence thinning and produced a greater litchi yield. Additionally, the application of GA3 at specific times were shown to produce a yield much greater than trees cultivated using traditional methods of hand inflorescence thinning. (9)、Studies on reducing acidity of winter pineapple fruit by pre-harvest and postharvest treatment This research project is aimed to improve the winter pineapple fruits quality by pre-harvest and postharvest for the production and marketing of high quality pineapple fruits. There are 2 experiment scheduled for this year.There are 1. Effect of bagging treatment before harvest on the fruit quality of winter pineapple. 2. Effect of heat treatment on the reducing acidity of winter pineapple. (10)、Postharvest fresh-keeping and storage techniques of Indian jujube Indian jujube is one of important economic fruits in Taiwan. The crop is included one of a items of good quality fruit orchards for export in 2006 by Agriculture and Food Agency, Council of Agriculture. However, the most important item for fruit export, need a good postharvest handling and storage techniques, is established. The aim of research is going to develop new postharvest fresh-keeping and storage techniques of Indian jujube for providing good quality fruit to exported. Depend on the results of program (Postharvest fresh-keeping and storage techniques of Indian jujube) in 2010, the research focus on different type of package, 1-MCP treatment for chilling injury and quarantine for exportation. (11)、Exploitation and utilization of tropical fruit resources Tropical fruit is the most important characteristics and industry among horticultural crops in Taiwan. However, the impact of climatic disaster due to global warming on fruit crops became more serious than before. The improvement of tropical crops is one capable method to decrease the damage and avoid climatic disaster. Meanwhile, introduction and exploitation of new fruit crops have significantly contributed and promoted to fruit industry in Taiwan. The research is also to increase new fruit crops for farmers and to decrease cost, environmental pollution and pesticide residues in fruit production through evaluation and promotion of new potential fruit crops. The research will emphasize on conserved collections of tropical fruit trees at campus orchard of the university. Selection, cultural management and propagation of Brazil cherry, star apple, wampee, white sapote, pulasan and abiu will be conducted. (12)、Technical Improvement of Fruit Quality and Crack in Waxapple Wax apple is one of important and potential export fruit in Taiwan. However, The fruit quality and fruit crack are affected by variety, season, climate and management. Climate change and more unstable weathers had decreased the quality and increased fruit crack. This has hampered the industry and decreased the production area and growers’ income in Taiwan in past decades. The project is to study the variation and effects of variety, season, and management on wax apple fruit quality and crack among 4 main production area. Mulching and water control will be applied to maintain the soil stability and fruit quality. Three irrigation treatments are applied in the orchard. Lower nitrogen (50% less) and higher phosphorous and potassium (50% more) are applied to promote fruit quality and decrease fruit crack. (13)、Selection and growth characteristics of banana cultivars with resistance or tolerance to water stress and Fusarium wilt , and technology development on preservation and packing of Taiwan bananas for export to Mainland China 1. Establishment of in vitro selection technique for the improvement of banana cultivar with resistance to drought and Fusarium wilt. The objective of the present study is to establish the in vitro selection system for the selection of somaclonal variants of banana cultivars for abiotic and biotic stress tolerance (draught and fusarium wilt tolerance). To mass produce cauliflower-like bud clumps of commercial banana cultivars for the in vitro selection of somaclonal variants tolerant to drought (applying PEG as the selecting agent) and fusarium wilt (applying fusarial toxin). To evaluate the most effective method in the induction of callus culture of important commercial cultivars. The goal is to explore the feasibility of inducing embryogenic callus in triploid Cavendish cultivars and to attain plantlet regeneration without going through the suspension culture stage. The production of a large amount of embryogenic cells through callus culture for in vitro selection will be a break through in the selection and improvement of banana cultivars through biotechnology. 2. Effect of water stress on the growth and development of major banana varieties in Taiwan. Banana is one of the most important fruit crops in Taiwan. The current economic growing acreage of banana is up to 11,500 Ha, the annual production is 200,000 metric tons, and about 10,000 households related to banana farming is estimated. ‘Pei-Chiao’, Cavendish AAA, is the dominant banana variety, followed by ‘Formosana’ and ‘Tai-Chiao No.5’ which are two somaclonal variants selected from ‘Pei-Chiao’ andcharacterized by their moderate resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense, tropical race 4. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of water stresses, water logging and drought, on the growth and yield potential of three major cultivars of banana. Three water treatments, including excess, optimun, and deficiency of water supply based on field capacity and water tension of soil will be applied to plants derived from tissueculture seedling, sucker and ratooning of three different Cavendish banana varieties studied. By conducting this study, information about responses of different cultivated Cavendish varieties to water stress will be collected. The establishment of water stress database related to global climate change will be useful for advancing breeding efficiency of Taiwan bananas. 3. Development of the technology for freshness maintenance and package of Taiwan banana exported to mainland China. Banana is one of the four most important staple food crops in the world, and its annual yield production is up to 80 million tons, only behind that of rice, wheat and corn, respectively. Currently, banana is cultivated over 130 countires even though it is mainly produced from 10 major countries including India, Brazil, China, Philippines, Ecuador, Indonesia and etc, sharing 75% of total annual tonnage produced worldwide. Taiwan banana, featured by cultivation areas located at subtropical zone, is well-known for its good eating-quality such as high sugar content, excellent aroma and taste. Despite of the fact that 200,000 tons of Taiwan banana is available yearly, at present, only less than 10,000 tons of banana can be shifted to Japan and very limitedly to Mainland China. Since Taiwan has completed a memorandom, Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA), with China in 2010, hopefully China will become a promising new export market forTaiwan banana. Due to the facts that present packing standards for banana exported is established for Japan’s market only and a suitbale packing method for shipping Taiwan banana to China is not available now, initiation of a study about the development of an appropriate packing technology for China’s market is essential.In this study, two ethylene absorbents, one derived from Potasium permanganate and the other one called Monocyte Chemotatic Protein-1 (1-MCP), will be applied to see how effective they are to preserve the freshness of banana under different concentration treatments when banana samples are kept under shipping simulation temperature for China. Also, comparison of the effects of perforated and non-perforated polyethylene (PE) bags on storage time and fruit freshness will be conducted. Through this study, a proper ethylene absorbant to keep good freshness of Taiwan banana and the ideal packingapproach for China’s market will be developed. 4.Development of pre-ripening index technology for green banana for export Banana is the dominant fruit crop for export in Tawan. To assure the high quality of banana harvested and assembled for export, many newly emerged exporters, who are associated with change of Taiwan banana export policy from only one unit only to free trade since 2005, depend on renting sugarcane lands from sugar company and supply banana for foreign markets. On the other hand, source of banana provided by various small-scale banana growers to the packing station for export was oftenly related to the pre-ripening problem especially for those harvested in autumn season. Therefore, how to differentiate the pre-ripened defected banana from normal green-intact banana is the main theme for this project. In this study, factors which are associated with pre-ripening of banana, approaches to early detect the degreening of peel, physiological change of pulp starch and slouble sugar content of pulp in packed pre-ripened green banana, will be analyzed and developed, respectively. By developing the effective pre-ripening diagnosis tool for green banana in the packing station, can then the pre-ripened banana be rejected and more volume of fine-quality Taiwan banana can be shifted to foreign markets in autumn season.
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