果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─改進外銷日本椪柑之品質及貯運技術

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─改進外銷日本椪柑之品質及貯運技術
計畫主持人: 李堂察
共同計畫主持人:
計畫編號: 104農科-9.4.3-糧-Z1(Z)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 國立嘉義大學
全程計畫年: 2015
關鍵字: 紅肉種紅龍果;溫湯處理;幾丁聚糖;貯藏壽命;柿;低溫貯藏;品質;預冷;貯運;耐熱性;葉綠素螢光;椪柑;檢疫;荔枝;嫁接更新品種;砧木效應;嫁接親和力;樹勢;果實品質;焦核;裂果;無子葡萄;多倍體;育種;柑橘;植物生長調節劑;鈣;水楊酸;生理障礙;品質;熱處理;楊桃;採後處理;包裝處理;香蕉;種原庫;組織培養;白色球狀芽團;誘變劑;逆境;催熟;採後品質;國產水果;進口水果;營養成份;機能性成分;Red-fleshed Pitaya;Hot water immersion treatment;Chitosan;Storage Life;persimmon;low temperature storage;quality;precolling;storage;heat tolerance;chlorophyll fluorescence;Pokon;quarantine;Litchi;top-working;roorstock effect;graft compatibility;tree vigor;fruit quality;shriveled seed;cracking;seedless grapes;polyploid;breeding;citrus;plant regulator;calcium;salisalic acid;physiological disorder;Quality;heat treatment;Carambola;postharvest handling;packaging;banana;germplasm bank;tissue culture;multiple bud clumps;mutagen;stress;ripening;post-harvest quality;Domestically produced fruits;Imported fruits;Nutrient composition;Functional constituents
摘要: 本計畫主要目標在於整合近年來新研發之技術,以生產品質優良的水果,因應氣候變遷果樹栽培技術改進,並繼續研究更佳的栽培管理和採後處理技術,使品質更為提升,藉以增強內外銷市場之競爭力。本年度由果樹生理、栽培、遺傳育種和採後處理專家共提出11個計畫。這些計畫如下: 1.紅肉種紅龍果採後生理與處理技術之研究 開發貯前處理技術降低紅肉種紅龍果貯運期果腐率。 2.柿豐產優質及採收後處理技術之研究 A.牛心柿商業規模真空脫澀條件之建立 B.市田柿及蜂屋之柿乾製作條件建立 C.甜柿生理落果之時期及原因探討與防治方法 3.提升番石榴週年品質貯運保鮮技術及番石榴耐逆境指標建立 A.建立夏季外銷供果園生產模式及貯運流程。 B.建立台灣番石榴外銷荷蘭空運及海運貯運流程。 C.選育抗逆境雜交後代之番石榴植株 4.改進外銷日本椪柑之品質及貯運技術 A.改進外銷椪柑之果皮著色問題 B.以次氯酸處理法降低外銷椪柑之果腐問題 C.延長外銷椪柑之供應期 5.砧木對‘糯米糍(73-S-20)’荔枝嫁接親合性、成活率及果實品質的影響 確認不同穗/砧組合與砧木型態(老幹、徒長枝)對‘糯米糍(73-S-20)’荔枝嫁接親和性、樹勢及果實品質的影響。 6.多倍體無子葡萄選育 A.三倍體葡萄新品系BK3N-01植株、花果性狀及果實貯藏性調查。 B.新的雜交三倍體葡萄植株性狀調查。 C.新的雜交四倍體葡萄繁殖及健化。 7.減少柑橘裂果與乾米之研究 A. 研發減少茂谷柑裂果之方法。 B. 研發減少椪柑果實乾米之方法。 8.採前和採後處理減少鳳梨果實腐損之研究 A.採前處理減少鳳梨生理劣變。 B.採後處理減少果肉黑心、果柄發霉和果皮及冠芽黃化。 9.楊桃外銷貯運技術改進計畫 整合1-MCP和包裝處理技術,改進現行楊桃採後貯運技術 10.香蕉黃葉病抗/耐病品種選育及後熟技術之改進 A.香蕉優良新品種選育: a.將不同基因型之香蕉品種進行白色球狀芽團之誘導與化學誘變劑之處理。 b.經第一次試管抗/耐香蕉黃葉病逆境篩選系統所存活的培植體,進行第二次的試管篩選。將經二次試管篩選後的培植體透過植株再生與繁苗,於盆缽中接種黃葉病菌孢子進行網室抗病篩選。 B.‘台蕉7號’第一代宿根蕉果後熟品質改進之催熟技術研究: 探討不同催熟條件對'台蕉7號'季節蕉後熟品質之影響,並建立可促進不同熟度'台蕉7號'季節蕉後熟品質之最適加工溫度模式,以提升消費市場之接受度。 11.國產水果與進口水果營養價值分析比較與鑑別指標建立 分析國產重要水果與主要進口水果之營養與機能性成份並作比較,提出國產水果在營養及機能性成份的優異性,供作行銷推廣之依據,以鼓勵國人多選購國產水果,推廣地產地消。 The objectives of this study project are to test integrated new technologies in the production of top quality fruits, and to improvement production techniques of fruit tree for climate change, and to conduct further research for advanced technologies to upgraded the quality and enhance competition power of Taiwan fruits in the domestic as well as foreign markets. The specialist in fruit physiology, culture, breeding and postharvest handling propose 11 projects of current year. There are: 1.Studies on the Postharvest Physiology and Handling Technology in Red-fleshed Pitaya Fruit Red-fleshed pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus and H. costaricensis ) has recently become a new export fruit product in Taiwan for the markets of China, Hong Kong, and Canada. When compared with white-fleshed spices (H. undatus), massively produced in South Asia, red-fleshed pitaya is characterized with longer period of fruit availability, higher total soluble solids in the pulp, betalains-containing flesh, and better antioxidant activities. It is expected that red-fleshed pitaya possesses a better commercial potential than white-fleshed one in either domestic or international market. However, the researches for harvest maturity, tolerance capacity of vapor heat treatment, basic postharvest physiology, and optimum conditions of storage and transportation for red-fleshed pitaya fruit are barely found. In order to make availability of this commodity to domestic and international markets, it is urgently needed to build up the information about postharvest biology and technology of red-fleshed pitaya fruit. Therefore, the third year research of this proposal is planning to compare hot water immersion, chitosan coating, and Benomyl fungicide treatment on bract wilting and pathological decay. The results of this investigation is expected to be beneficial for prolonging the postharvest life as well as for exporting to long distant market, such as Canada. 2.Studies on high productivity and improvement of postharvest techniques of persimon Sweet persimmon is the most important commercial fruit crop of Taiwan according to high return. The development potential for sweet persimmon in Taiwan is limited due to their incompatibility with rootstock, lacking in leaf nutrient standard, no information about crop load, serious physiological disorder, and high perishability. Our objective is to make appropriate selection from different lines for rootstock, to establish optimum leaf nutrient status and levels of crop loading, to decrease hysiological disorder in fruit by cultivation practices, and to improve postharvest handling technology. Furthermore, the management program for stable yield, high quality and storability is obtained. Taiwan's dried persimmon processing which is mainly distributed in Miaoli, Hsinchu and Chiayi region, but Chiayi has the best source of dried persimmon processing compare to Miaoli and Hsinchu , Although there is slight different in processing technology in different county, there is no obvious difference in the quality of the dried persimmon. The collection of the dried persimmon is currently and in progress, and the grafts appraisal screening method, the seasonal survival rate, and the feasibility of the cultivars for development of dried persimmon, to enhance the quality of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon is our ultimate objective.improvement of the persimmon orchardist dried persimmon quality as the ultimate objective. Additionally, we try to improve the processing thchniques for dry fruit. 3.Studies on Improving Fruit Quality, Electing Indices for Stress and Constructing a Draft of Genome in Guava The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperatureand high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper bag+EPNS replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down and increase the fruit quality. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use the calcium foliar application to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality . The second object is to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. Finally, we try to hybride between the stress tolerance variety and main cultivar(pearl), that will be selected the new stress tolerance cultivar in the future. 4.Improvement of Postharvest Technology and quality of ‘Ponkan’ Fruit for Exporting Japan. Citrus ‘Pokon’ is one of the major fruit exports to Japan. Because the exports should meet the market demand and cold quarantine treatment, citrus have to be harvested early. The results of early harvest are poor color, poor quality, and decay. For the problem of poor color, this study uses S-ABA and different material bags at pre-harvest. 5.Rootstock effect of scion/stock union on compatibility, rate of success and fruit quality in ‘No Mai Tsz (73-S-20)’litchi for top-working production system To solve the short-season constraint caused by extensive mono-cultivar ‘Haak Yip’ of litchi industry in Taiwan, the policy of the ‘Appropriate cultivar with excellent fruit quality at appropriate region’ has been implemented through top-working i.e. changing the cultivar of the mature tree. Top-working of ’73-S-20’ litchi, a branch of ‘No Mai Tsz’, is encouraged to gradually replace ‘Haak Yip’ or ‘Yu Her Pau’ in Central Taiwan because of its superior fruit quality, high proportion of edible part, late-maturing and high-price. However, the rate of success of grafting in ‘73-S-20’ is often poor, probably owing to scion/stock incompatibility i.e. rootstock effect. In addition, no attention has been paid to the idea of using rootstocks for tree manipulation such as size, vigor, yield, fruit quality and physiological disorders. The purpose of this study is thereby to document the rootstock effect of scion/stock union on compatibility, rate of success and fruit quality in ‘No Mai Tsz (73-S-20)’ litchi for top-working production system. Top-working through bark-grafting ‘73-S-20’ onto trunks or sprout of mature trees in ‘Haak Yip’, ‘Yu Her Pau’ or ‘Yu Her Pau’/‘Haak Yip’ (‘Yu Her Pau’ as an interstock) would be conducted in early March in 2014 on an orchard with various cultivars in Miaoli, Central Taiwan. Graft compatibility, rate of success, tree vigor and fruit quality including the rate of shrivelled seed and cracking among various scion/stock unions grafted at trunks or sprouts would be examined. From the results, we will obtain a best scion/stock union without/reducing changing fruit quality for ‘73-S-20’ litchi, and thus a potential orchard production system to renew the current cultivar using top-working can be developed as well. 6.Breeding for polyploid seedless grapevines The major objectives of this project in the 104 fiscal year include: 1. Examination of shoots, leaves, flowers and fruits of the new triploid grapevine line BK3N-01. 2. Examination of new triploid grapevine lines. 3. Propagation and harding of new tetraploid grapevine lines. 7.Studies on reduction splitting and granulation of citrus fruit This research project is aim to improve the splitting of ‘Murcott’ tangor fruit and granulation of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin fruit for the production and marketing of high quality citrus fruits. There are 2 experiment scheduled for this year. There are 1. The degree of granulation of ‘Ponkan’ mandarin fruir were evaluated by spraying different treatment including calcium and plant regulator. 2. Studies on reduction splitting of ‘Murcott’ tangor fruit by plant regulator treatment. 8.Studies on reduction decay by pre- and postharvest treatment of pineapple fruit This research project is aimed to development of techniques for reducing decay and physiological disorder of pineapple.There are 2 experiment scheduled for this year.There are 1. Effect of camical treatment before harvest on the phsiological disorder of pineapple. 2. The storage life and disorder of pineapple fruit were evaluated by spraying different treatments including 1-MCP, glycine betanie and salicylic acid . 9.Improvement postharvest technology of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) fruit for storage and exportation Carambola fruit(Averrhoa carambola L.) is one of important export fruits in Taiwan. It is sixth largest export fruit, mainly exported to Hong Kong, Canada, the United States, China, Singapore. Its export potential cannot be ignored. The main purpose of this project is to improve current carambola fruit postharvest handling techniques to extend storage life, maintain fruit quality and expand export market. The project investigates the change of physiology, quality and storage life in different cultivars and seasons. It invents optimal storage conditions and suitable for export packaging processing and examines the effect of 1-MCP for carambola fruit quality. Finally, it establishes the postharvest handling processing technology of carambola fruit. 10.Improvement of techniques on Fusarium wilt-resistant cultivar selection and post-harvest ripening of banana 1. Selection of banana cultivars (1)Recurrent selection Fusarium wilting resistance clones from GCTCV-1089, TC1-2010, TC5-2111 of improved clones, respectively with FOC TR4 resistance and salt tolerance. (2)Selection of Fusarium wilt and salt stress resistant clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced from P4T and improve tissue culture technology. (3)Selection of Fusarium wilt resistant clones from cauliflower-like bud clumps induced from P4T and Sodium azide (NaN3) mutagen. (4)Selection Fusarium wilt resistant clones from diversified germplasm, such as ‘Grande Naine (AAA)’, ‘Williams (AAA)’, ‘Kluai Khai (AA)’, ‘Senorita (AA)’, ‘Xiem (ABB)’, ‘Saba (ABB)’, ‘Namwa (ABB)’ and ‘Layu banana (AAB)’ with extension potential. (5)Estimation the clones or cultivars selected from stage (1) to (4) in net house and field, respectively for Fusarium wilt resistance expression. 2. Study on the ripening techniques for the improvement of post-harvest quality of ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’ The objective of this project is to apply different temperature modes to ‘Tai-Chiao No. of three maturities harvested in each season of the year for post-harvest ripening to build up the optimum ripening mode which could result in the premium quality of the variety. The premium post-harvest quality of ‘Tai-Chiao No.7’in the markets would promote extension and acceptance of the cultivar. 11.Comparison of the nutrient facts between the domestic and the imported fruits to establish the target distinguishing index. Currently our government has subsequently signed up the Agreement of Local Free Trade Deal with the some nations around Taiwan, such as Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). Facing the competitions arising from the low custom import tax and the free open markets, our domestic fruit industries indeed are facing severe and terrible threaten and impact. In the very near future, we definitely will face the overwhelming pressure from the imported fruits from the contracted counterparts. Without pushing the recognition of the superiority of our locally produced fruits, we definitely are going to face a fast decline of competitive capability, which in turn certainly will hinder and suppress our peer power of our fruit agriculture and related industries. Recognizing these threatens, we have proposed this project which figures out several steps to reinforce such a strategy execution. By proposal, we are going to select first the most valuable fruits like apples, bananas, Pitahaya (Dragon Fruit), mangos, tomatoes, orange, pearls and grapes, and compare the nutrient compositions with those imported from some TPP contracted countries, like Kiwi fruits, apples, and cherries. The items of analyses are not limited to the contents of proteins, celluloses, and minerals, in addition, we are going to examine the functional compositions like polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins….etc. Form our work, a systematic and updated information can be set up very soon. By referring the data obtained, the quality specification will be rapidly accessed online, by doing this, the characteristics of our local fruits will have a quaranteed label, either for export or for domestic uses. As a consequence, we will be confidently to march in the internationally competitive fruit markets by flagging with the characteristics of our local fruits.
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