果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─提升番石榴週年品質,貯運保鮮技術,耐逆境指標及基因組草圖之建立

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─提升番石榴週年品質,貯運保鮮技術,耐逆境指標及基因組草圖之建立
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
共同計畫主持人: 郭純德;陳幼光;張哲嘉
計畫編號: 103農科-9.2.3-糧-Z1(3)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 國立中興大學
全程計畫年: 2014
關鍵字: 耐熱性;葉綠素螢光;礦物營養;預冷;套袋;更年型;採收後處理技術;採收成熟度;貯藏性;果實品質;紅肉番石榴;基因組草圖;次世代定序;番石榴;乾旱;生理指標;光合作用;營養生長;Heat Tolerance;Chlorophyll Fluorescence;Mineral Nutrition;Precolling;Bagging;Climacteric-type;Postharvest Technology;Harvest Maturity;Storability;Fruit Quality;Red-flesh Guava;Draft Genome;Next Generation Sequencing;Guava;Drought;Physiological Index;Photosynthesis;Vegetative Growth
摘要: 一、中興大學林慧玲(提升週年品質貯運保鮮及耐逆境指標) 夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同材質紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率,並利用環刻處理使葉片蓄積較多之光合產物,以生產高品質番石榴果實。並評估其貯運品質及壽命。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化顯示氮鈣及鎂濃度有較大之差異,本年度擬利用葉面噴施硫酸鎂及不同型式之鈣源期能提升光合效率及果實品質。另外為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境篩選指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。 二、宜蘭大學郭純德(更年型番石榴果實採後處理技術) 夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同材質紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實生長速率,並利用環刻處理使葉片蓄積較多之光合產物,以生產高品質番石榴果實。並評估其貯運品質及壽命。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養成分變化顯示氮鈣及鎂濃度有較大之差異,本年度擬利用葉面噴施硫酸鎂期能提升光合效率。另外為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境篩選指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工具,穩定生產。 三、屏東科技大學陳幼光(紅肉番石榴果實品質和貯藏性) 本計畫主要的目的在於瞭解不同採收成熟度對於紅肉番石榴‘西瓜拔’果實品質、抗氧化力及貯藏性的影響。果實的採收成熟度將依果皮顏色分成深綠色、淺綠色和黃綠色三個階段參考開花日期進行測試。另冬季和夏季所採收果實的品質也將加以比較,以瞭解季節對果實品質的影響。本研究的結果將有助於建立紅肉番石榴最佳採收成熟度判斷標準及穩定其果實品質。 四、屏東科技大學陳幼光(建構番石榴基因組草圖) 番石榴為桃金孃科重要熱帶經濟果樹。除果實可供鮮食及加工外,其葉片和其他部位也具有醫藥的價值。本計畫主要的目的在於利用次世代定序技術以建構一個番石榴的基因組草圖。首先先建置全基因組短序列基因庫和成對配對基因庫二種基因庫,然後用對讀定序方法加以定序。除基因組的組裝外,也將利用生物資訊學工具進行基因秘碼序列的預測和基因功能註解等分析。 五、中興大學張哲嘉(乾旱逆境生理指標) 因全球氣候變遷之影響,近年台灣旱涝交替及極端氣候的頻率增加,台灣番石榴的主要產區-中南部降水亦逐年減少、旱季延長,勢將對可週年生產的產業造成衝擊。雖然番石榴已為國際重要經濟果樹,然國、內外有關其水份生理之研究及報告極為 缺乏,尤其是乾旱逆境下的反應與調適,亟待建立。一般大型木本果樹之生長量與光合作用生理等對植株水份與土壤水份含量敏感。本研究擬以二年為期,分別以國內主要栽培品種‘帝王拔’(第一年,102年)及‘珍珠拔’ (第二年,103年)盆株為 材料,除進行短期/循環乾旱及復水對植株生長量之影響外,並同時比較其土壤相對含水率(土壤張力)與葉片之水勢(water potential ) 、相對水份含量、淨光合作用速率及葉綠素螢光反應速率(chlorophyll influorescence;Fv/Fm)等,盼能界定 影響番石榴生育之水勢閥值(threshold)、瞭解其於乾旱下的生理反應與指標,並可為日後果園栽培管理及後續生理研究之參考。一、The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperatureand high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use th trunk girdling and MgSO4 and Calcium foliar application to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality . The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods . In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. 二、The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperatureand high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use th trunk girdling to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality . The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods and MgSO4 foliar application. In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. 三、The main purpose of the current project is to investigate the effect of different harvest maturity on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and storability of red-flesh ‘Watermelon’guava. The harvest maturity of fruits, as judged by skin color, will be divided into deep green, light green and yellow-green stages using flowering date as a reference. Furthermore, the quality of fruits harvested in winter and summer will also be compared to understand seasonal effects. The results obtained from this study will be helpful for establishing the standard of optimal harvest maturity and stabilizing fruit quality of red-flesh guava. 四、Guava, which belongs to the family of Myrtaceae, is an economically important tropical fruit tree. Aside from the consumption of fresh fruits, the leaves and other plant parts of guava are also valuable for their medical usage. The main purpose of the current project is to establish a draft genome sequence for guava using next generation sequencing technology. Both whole genome library and Mate pair 2K library will be constructed first and then paired-end sequencing protocol will be used in this sequencing project. In addition to genome assembly, bioinformatics tools will be employed to predict the coding sequences and annotate the gene function. 五、Drought/flooding stress fluctuates toward the extreme in recent years in Taiwan, especially southern regions where the main guava production zone due to global climate changing. So far, little is known on drought stress and tree growth and fruit production as well in guava. Although guava has been reported to be drought tolerant; however, adequate irrigation is needed for economical cultivation from field experience. In general, vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting are sensitive to water status of plant and soil moisture in most fruit trees. Besides, photosynthesis including CO2 exchange rate and chlorophyll fluorescence has been indicated to have a rapid decline with decreasing plant water potential, thus could serve as the physiological index when plants are under drought. The purposes of this research are to document the effects of drought on tree growth and accessing its physiological index in guava. Potted trees of two main cultivars will be treated with two cycles of water withholding and recovery. Comparison of vegetative growth, CO2 exchange rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf water potential, relative leaf water and soil content and chlorophyll content were conducted between control and treatment. From the data we obtain, the transit and permanent wilt point of plant water potential in guava could be acquired. In addition, a rapid and convenient physiological indices for guava when plants are under various drought stress are also available.
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