果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─提升番石榴夏果品質、耐逆境生理及採後處理技術改進之研究

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計畫名稱: 果樹育種、生產及採後處理之技術研發─提升番石榴夏果品質、耐逆境生理及採後處理技術改進之研究
計畫主持人: 林慧玲
共同計畫主持人: 陳幼光;張哲嘉;吳俊達;郭純德
計畫編號: 102農科-9.2.2-糧-Z1(3)
計畫主管機構: 行政院農業委員會
計畫執行機構: 中興大學園藝學系(所)
全程計畫年: 2013
關鍵字: 耐熱性;番石榴;耐寒性;電導度;葉綠素螢光;礦物營養;氣變包裝;寒害;基因型;採收成熟度;heat tolerance;guava;chilling tolerance;electron leakage;chlorophyll fluorescence;mineral nutrition;Modified Atmosphere Packaging;Chilling Injury;genotype;harvest maturity
摘要: 一、中興大學(林慧玲) 夏季果實生長快但品質不佳,糖度低,使用不同材質紙袋進行果實套袋,減緩果實 生長速率,並利用環刻處理使葉片蓄積較多之光合產物,以生產高品質番石榴果實 。並評估其貯運品質及壽命。調查不同地區果園冬季和夏季果實、葉片和土壤營養 成分變化顯示氮鈣及鎂濃度有較大之差異,本年度擬利用葉面噴施硫酸鎂期能提升 光合效率。另外為因應全球暖化危機導致的全球氣候異常,建立番石榴耐逆境篩選 指標,調查不同番石榴品種的耐寒性及耐熱性,以做為選育耐熱、耐寒新品種的工 具,穩定生產。 二、台灣大學(吳俊達) 番石榴(PsidiumguajavaL.)屬寒害敏感型熱帶水果,利用低溫貯運技術來維持品質與抑制病害受到大幅限制,無法長程運輸;且低溫檢疫處理後往往誘導寒害發生,嚴重阻礙行銷國際市場。本計畫將以低密度聚乙烯與聚丙烯塑膠袋兩種材質進行被動氣變包裝,以及充填氧氣3、5、7%與二氧化碳2.5、5%完全排列組合之6種大氣成份的主動氣變包裝,比較不同氣變包裝條件對0~1℃低溫貯藏14天檢疫處理‘珍珠拔’番石榴品質的影響。另外,也將探討真空包裝‘珍珠拔’在低溫檢疫期間氣體組成變化,以及擴增真空包裝大小(每批12果置於果盤)對‘珍珠拔’低溫檢疫處理品質的影響,評估實際產業運用的可行性與效果。計畫結果將有助於外銷番石榴低溫長期貯運與低溫檢疫處理問題的解決。 三、中興大學(張哲嘉) 因全球氣候變遷之影響,近年台灣旱涝交替及極端氣候的頻率增加,台灣番石榴的主要產區-中南部降水亦逐年減少、旱季延長,勢將對可週年生產的產業造成衝擊。雖然番石榴已為國際重要經濟果樹,然國、內外有關其水份生理之研究及報告極為缺乏,尤其是乾旱逆境下的反應與調適,亟待建立。一般大型木本果樹之生長量與光合作用生理等對植株水份與土壤水份含量敏感。本研究擬以二年為期,分別以國內主要栽培品種‘珍珠拔’及‘帝王拔’盆株為材料,除進行短期/循環乾旱及復水對植株生長量之影響外,並同時比較其土壤相對含水率與葉片之水勢(waterpotential)、相對水份含量、淨光合作用速率及葉綠素螢光反應速率(chlorophyllinfluorescence;Fv/Fm)等,盼能界定影響番石榴生育之水勢閥值(threshold)、瞭解其於乾旱下的生理反應與指標,並可為日後果園栽培管理及後續生理研究之參考。 四、屏東科技大學(陳幼光) 本計畫主要的目的在於瞭解紅肉番石榴包括更年與非更年番石榴基因型不同採收成熟度對果實品質、抗氧化力及貯藏性的影響。此外,有鑑於番石榴低溫儲藏對於外銷貯運的重要性,本計畫對於不同基因型間果實耐低溫儲藏特性的差異也將進行評估,以探索番石榴基因型在這個特性上的遺傳歧異度。 五、宜蘭大學(郭純德) 本計畫目的,以員山紅肉拔及頭城中山月拔為材料,從貯藏適溫、不同包裝試驗 ,及果實生育著手探究良好採收成熟度,闡明其採後生理特性,並逐步改善採後 處理技術。主要工作如下列:(1)紅肉拔及中山月拔適當貯藏溫度及採後包裝方式 試驗;(2)紅肉拔及中山月拔果實生育調查及採收成熟度之研究。 一、中興大學(林慧玲) The harvested quality of guava fruits is poor in summer, ex. low total soluble solid and texture, due to fast growth rate in high temperature and high soil moisture. Our preliminary test showed that the PE+EPNS bagging could fasten the growth rate of guava fruit, and paper or net bag replaced PE +EPNS bag could slow the growth rate down. Extending growth period made the guava quality increase. In this study, we will advanced evaluate the application of bagging techniques to increase the storage life and quality.Furthemore, we try to use th trunk girdling to increase the sucrose accumulation in the leaves and inhence the fruit quality . The second object is to establish the standard fertilization model in guava orchard through diagnosis by leaf and soil analytical methods and MgSO4 foliar application. In addition, it is important to increase the tolerance of guava to stress from abnormal climate due to global warming. Breeding is a basic and simple method to increase the tolerance to stress. We will screen the method and index for stress tolerance in guava for increasing the efficiency of breeding. 二、台灣大學(吳俊達) Guava ( Psidium guajava L.) is a chilling sensitve tropical fruit; therefore, the utilization of cold storage techique to maintain quality and suppress decay is highly limited. The fact that long term cold transportation and cold quarantine treatment usually render severe chilling injury impedes guava exporting for international marketing. The project will investigate the effect of different conditions of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), including two film properties (low density polyethylene or polypropylene bags) as well as actively filled with oxygen 3, 5, 7% and carbon dioxide 2.5, 5%, on fruit quality of ‘Jen-Ju Bar’ guava after storage of 0℃ for 14 days (low temperature quarantine treatment) plus 20℃ for additional 3 days. Furthermore, this proposal will also assess the gas composition change of ‘Jen-Ju Bar’ treated with vacuum packaging during the quarantine treatment. In order to evaluate the practical feasibility and alleviation effect of chilling injury, scale-up vacuum packaging, 12 fruit on package tray per batch, will be performed. The results of this project will be beneficial for establishment of guava long-term cold transportation and cold quarantine technology, which are the bottle neck of guava fruit exporting process. 三、中興大學(張哲嘉) Drought/flooding stress fluctuates toward the extreme in recent years in 四、屏東科技大學(陳幼光) The main purpose of the current project is to understand the effect of different harvest maturity on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity and storability of climacteric and non- climacteric guava genotypes with red flesh. In view of the importance of low-temperature storage for export and transportation, the genetic variation of tolerance for lowtemperature storage among genotypes will also be evaluated in this project. 五、宜蘭大學(郭純德) The goal of this project is to improve the postharvest technology in climacteric-type guava fruit at yilan county. We will accomplish the following major items: (1) to get moderate storage temperature and package method of 'Red Flesh Bar' and 'JongShan Yuen Bar';(2) to get groth curve and harvestable maturity of ' Red Flesh Bar ' .and ' Jong Shan Yuen Bar' .
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