果實成熟度、電解次氯酸水處理及貯藏溫度對‘台農一號’百香果果實貯藏壽命及品質之影響

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論文名稱: 果實成熟度、電解次氯酸水處理及貯藏溫度對‘台農一號’百香果果實貯藏壽命及品質之影響
研究生姓名: 黃昭銘
指導教授姓名: 林慧玲
出版年: 2016
學校名稱: 國立中興大學
系所名稱: 園藝學系所
關鍵字: 百香果;貯藏壽命;貯藏品質;清洗;糖酸比;可售果實比率;Passionfruit;Storage life;Storage quality;Washing;TSS/ TA ratio;Marketable fruits percentage
摘要: 本試驗目的為建立百香果長期貯藏條件,包含貯藏溫度、果實成熟度對於‘台農一號’百香果果實貯藏壽命與品質之影響,同時測試近年興起之電解次氯酸水清洗技術對於降低果實腐敗率的效果。期能找出最適的貯藏溫度及果實成熟度,以供未來進一步利用貯藏技術調節果實供應期或外銷貯運技術開發之參考。 商業成熟度之‘台農一號’百香果果實,貯藏於12℃以上,有較多果實腐敗,可售果實比率於20天內降至50%以下;9℃以下貯藏則果實腐敗較少,但6℃以下有果實軟化、褐化等寒害症狀發生。以9℃貯藏30天的果實移至25℃貯藏3天後仍維持最佳品質,且保有最高可售果實比率達76.6%。不同成熟度之‘台農一號’百香果果實於9℃貯藏30天並移至25℃貯藏3天後,各果實果汁中糖酸比介於11.16-14.68,差異不顯著。但以果皮顏色介於綠色退去底色轉為粉紫紅色階段(約花後56-63天)採收,並於27℃後熟3天之果實,貯藏後維持較良好的外觀顏色及最高可售果實比率達84.2%。‘台農一號’百香果以有效氯濃度約15 mg/ L之電解次氯酸水漂洗後於9℃貯藏30天後,可維持較高可售果實比率達93.3%,但移至25℃貯藏3天後則無明顯效果。 果皮顏色介於綠色退去底色轉為粉紫紅色階段(約花後56-63天)採收,並於27℃後熟3天之果實,經有效氯濃度約15 mg/ L之電解次氯酸水清洗後大量包裝,以9℃貯藏30天並移至25℃貯藏3天後,品評結果獲得較高的喜好分數。大量包裝之果實於9℃貯藏30天後可售果實比率為82.7%,移至25℃回溫貯藏後可售比率僅剩52%。 綜合上述,‘台農一號’百香果,最適貯藏溫度為9℃,具30天貯藏壽命,成熟度選擇果皮顏色介於綠色退去底色轉為粉紫紅色階段(約花後56-63天)採收,並於27℃後熟3天之果實。配合有效氯濃度約15 mg/ L之電解次氯酸水清洗後進行貯藏,可保有最佳貯藏品質及維持較高可售果實比率。The objective of this study is to establish long-term storage condition for passionfruit cv. Tainung No. 1. Effects of storage temperatures and fruit maturities on storage life and quality were investigated. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of electrolyzed hypochlorous water washing technique in reducing the fruit decay was also evaluted. Reseach efforts were focused on finding out the most suitable degree of fruit maturity and temperature for passionfruit storage, prolonging fruit supply period and developing export techniques. Passionfruits cv. ‘Tainung No. 1’ were harvested at commercial maturity showed higher decay percentage when stored at 12℃or above, and the marketable fruits percentage decreased to less than 50%. Fruits stored below 9℃displayed lower decay percentage, but chilling injury, including fruit shell softening or browning, occurred when the storage temperature was lower than 6℃. The fruit stored at 9℃ for 30 days and then moved to 25℃ for another 3 days displayed the best fruit quality and the highest marketable fruits percentage with a value of 76.6%. The TSS/ TA ratio of fruits at different maturity stages was not significantly different from each other when stored at 9℃ for 30 days and then moved to 25℃ for 3 days. The fruits were harvested when skin color was between pale green and purplish pink, which was about fruits 56-63 days after anthesis, and then were ripened at 27℃ for 3 days before storage, maintained better appearance quality and a higher marketable fruits percentage of 84.2% after stored at 9℃ for 30 days and then moved to 25℃ for 3 days. Passionfruit cv. ‘Tainung No. 1’ washed by electrolyzed hypochlorous water containing 15 mg/ L free available chlorine (FAC) showed higher marketable fruits percentage after stored at 9℃ for 30 days, however the difference was not significant after the fruits were moved to 25℃ and stored for 3 days. The fruits were harvested when skin color was between pale green and purplish pink, which was about 56-63 days after anthesis, and then ripened at 27℃ for 3 days and washed by electrolyzed hypochlorous water containing 15 mg/ L FAC. After these treatments, fruits were packaged in large amount and stored at 9℃ for 30 days and then moved to 25℃ for 3 days. After storing, these fruits overall showed better result in sensory evaluation tests. The fruits packaged in large amount maintained a 82.7% marketable fruits percentage after stored at 9℃ for 30 days, but dropped to 52% after moved to 25℃ and stored for 3 days. Taken together, the most suitable storage temperature is 9℃ with a storage life of about 30 days, and the fruit should be harvested when skin color was between pale green and purplish pink, which was about 56-63 days after anthesis, then ripened at 27℃ for 3 days before storage. In combination with the washing treatment by using the electrolyzed hypochlorous water containing 15 mg/ L FAC, the fruit may have better storage quality and higher marketable fruits percentage.
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