|關鍵字： 永續農業；有機農耕；傳統農耕；Sustainable agriculture；organic cultivation；conventional cultivation
|摘要： 近年來國內積極倡導與環境生態協調及節省能源之永續農業生產方式，逐引入有機農耕法替代部分現行農耕法經營理念，希望能永久持續利用本省農業土地，生產清潔、安全、品質優良的農產品，由於有機農業的提倡，農民使用有機質肥料日漸增加，有機質肥料是否對果實品質有正面效果嗎？為瞭解果農實際從事有機農耕法與傳統農耕法農產品品質之差異，本調查的對象包含葡萄、木瓜、番石榴、柑桔、蓮霧及印度棗等六種果品，探討施用有機質肥料下的果品可食部份化學成分含量是否與施用化學肥料者有所差異。以供未來實施有機農業之參考。另外，禽畜糞堆肥中所含有的銅鋅是否會使果實中之銅鋅含量增加亦為本研究調查之目的。 調查試驗結果顯示，土壤部分，有機試區為遷就作物所需氮素的供應，長期施用大量有機質肥料，其他養分亦隨之易大量聚積在土壤中，土壤pH值可提高1至2單位，有機質含量、鉀、鈣、鎂、銅及鋅等元素有累積增加趨勢，其含量因施肥種類、施肥量、土壤質地及作物不同而有不同之表現，土壤中銅鋅增高應是從豬雞牛糞中而來，雖然增加的量不多，但仍須注意，以免在土壤中累積至某一程度，導致作物生長抑制。因此，如何改善各種堆肥所含氮素之肥效及防止其他養分元素之累積，為今後研究有機農業或永續性農業重要課題之一。 食用鮮果化學成分部分，糖、酸度是表現鮮食水果食味品質之指標，而維生素C含量則是顯示水果營養價值之重要因子，果實因種類、品種、成熟度、收穫期、部位等因子，而影響果實化學成分，本研究調查結果顯示，有機試區果品之糖度、酸度、及礦物質含量較高，水分含量較低趨勢，且有顯著性差異，其餘維生素C等化學成分互有高低，惟其含量因作物種類及地區不同而有不同表現。有機試區因大量施用堆肥，致土壤中鋅銅等重金屬含量累積而提高，但並無證據可顯示有機試區中果實中之鋅銅含量比化肥試區者高。Sustainable agriculture management has recently gained very much attention in Taiwan for maintaining environmental ecosystem and saving energy. To keep using the cultivated land and produce clean, safe, and high quality of agricultural products, the concept of organic cultivation was introduced to replace part of the conventional management. Recently, utilization of the organic fertilizer is increasing due to the development of the organic agriculture. To understand the effect of organic fertilizer on the fruit's quality, it is necessary to investigate the quality difference of the products between organic cultivation and conventional cultivation . In this research, we studied six kinds of fruits including grape, papaya, guava, citrus, wax apple, and Indian jujube. This work attempted not only to study the difference of chemical ingredients of fruits between using of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, but also examine the effect of copper and zinc contents in organic fertilizer on the copper and zinc contents of fruits. Experimental results showed that several nutrients were accumulated in the soils due to long time use of a large amount of organic fertilizer for providing the nitrogen to the crops. The pH value of the soil increased by 1 to 2 units, and the content of the organic compounds, potassium, magnesium, copper, and zinc showed an increasing tendency. The concentration depends on the difference of the organic fertilizer, amounts of application, soil texture, and species of the corps. The increase of copper and zinc concentration in the soils came from animal dung such as pig, chicken, and cow. Although their concentration was low in the soil, it should be noted to avoid accumulating to an extent resulting to inhibit the plant growth. Therefore, the research on the organic agriculture or sustainable agriculture in the near future will be focused on the improvement of nitrogen utilization in the compost and the prevention of other nutrients and elements accumulation in the soil. The taste quality of the fresh fruits in terms of chemical compounds was often represented by sweetness and acidity. Whereas, vitamin C contents, is one of the most important factors to evaluate the fruits nutrients value. The chemical compounds of the fruits was affected by species, ripeness, and harvest time etc. In this study the experimental results, shows that the fruits in organic cultivation area containing significantly higher sweetness, acidity, and mineral contents, and lower water content. However, the vitamin C and other chemical contents varied with plant species and cultivation locations. Owing to using a large amounts of compost in the organic farming, the copper and zinc contents in the soil were increased . No direct evidences, however, could be found that the copper and zinc concentrations of the fruits in organic fertilizer area were higher than that of chemical fertilizer area.